%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R ] /Count 3 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141022122541+01'00') /ModDate (D:20141022122541+01'00') /Title (Russian Messianism: Third Rome, Revolution, Communism and After) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3941 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Russian Messianism: Third Rome, Revolution, Communism and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(After)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book aims to explore manifestations of messianic ideas in Russian intellectual thought and to consider )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their impact on state policies and their popular resonance. Peter Duncan defines messianism as 'the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proposition or belief that a given group is in some way chosen for a purpose. Closely linked to this is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(view that the great suffering endured by the group will lead somehow to the redemption of the group itself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and possibly of all humanity.' \(p. 1\). Analysing different trends in Russian messianism, the author )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinguishes one that focuses on state power from another variation, which emphasises land and people. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the author's view, the first trend corresponds to the 'nationalist' view of messianism as Russian rule over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others and is rooted in the concept 'Moscow, the Third Rome,' while the second trend is related to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('universalist' idea of redemption through suffering and is reflected in the popular myth of Holy Rus.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book starts by putting Russian messianism in a comparative perspective, as it discusses Jewish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(messianism, messianic movements in medieval Europe and messianic tendencies in nationalist movements )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in modern Europe. It then looks at the origins of Russian messianism in the monk Filofei's letter of 1511 to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Moscow Prince Vasily III, which developed the idea of Moscow as the Third Rome, and the sixteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(241)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 January, 2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter J.S. Duncan)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780415152051)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(80.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(256pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Routledge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.routledge.com/books/Russian-Messianism-isbn9780415152051)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vera Tolz)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7254 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and seventeenth century myth of 'Holy Rus' as the land of the ever suffering Russian people. The latter myth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has been constantly reinforced by various invasions and other catastrophes and has thus acquired a broad )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular resonance. Duncan's account of the early history of Russian messianism shows that messianic ideas, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in particular the concept of 'Moscow, the Third Rome,' rarely informed the foreign policy of Russian rulers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which was usually driven by more pragmatic considerations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book then adopts a chronological approach, aiming to identify manifestations of messianism in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(works and pronouncements of intellectuals and, to a lesser extent, politicians from the reign of Nicholas I, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which began in 1825, to the present. The main focus is on the Brezhnev period, when many of the major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectual currents of today first started to take shape and when attempts were first made to find a Russian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identity distinctive from the Soviet one.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In conclusion, the author argues that, whereas messianic tendencies could be identified in nationalist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movements of other European peoples post-1789, in the Russian case, the emphasis in messianic thought has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been on the idea of redemption through suffering - a hardly surprising trend given the turbulent nature of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russian history. At the same time, the fact that Russia has been a major world power and that geographically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it has been located at the border of Europe and Asia, gave Russian messianism further impetus. Thus the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(view was formulated that Russia 'protected humanity against threats emanating from both [Europe and Asia]' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and paid 'a huge price in the process'. \(p. 147\). Popular in the 1970s as well as among present day Russian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalists, this idea is also to be found in the works of the founding fathers of Russian nationalism in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early nineteenth century, in particular Alexander Pushkin. The mixture of what the author defines as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('persecution complex' and 'the delusion of grandeur' has given rise to the paranoid streak in Russian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalist thought. At the same time, in conclusion, the author once again forcefully reinforces the view that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there is insufficient evidence to assume that Russian messianism has ever exercised a predominant influence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the formation and execution of state policies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In my opinion, the book has two major weaknesses. First, the author tries to assess the positions of too many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectual figures. This leads to the fact that the majority of them are treated in a very schematic and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(therefore uninformative way. Thus, Pushkin and Nikolai Gogol are allocated one paragraph each, Alexander )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Herzen, the founding father of 'Russian socialism,' receives two. The philosopher, Nikolai Berdiaev, whose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pamphlet, The Russian Idea, Duncan mentions in the introduction as a forerunner of his own book, gets just )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a few very brief references. Each major intellectual movement or trend is usually discussed in a short )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(section, often not longer than a page. The result is that in a relatively short book such a cataloguing approach )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leaves no space for analysis, but only for a mere record of facts. Moreover, it becomes difficult for a reader )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to draw his/her own conclusions on the fluctuations of Russian messianic thought in different periods of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russian history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second flaw is that the author fails to clearly distinguish between messianism defined 'as a belief that a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(given group is in some way chosen for a purpose' \(p. 1\) and a cornerstone of romantic nationalism that a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nation can be defined by a particular mission. From the nineteenth century onwards, Russian nationalism has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been predominantly romantic, the concept of a civic \(political\) nation is only currently beginning to take root )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Russia. So, it is not surprising that the majority of Russian nationalists have pounded over what kind of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mission\(s\) the Russians are destined to fulfil. The book records such pronouncements, and, as a result, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often reads as an account of Russian nationalism, rather than a specific study of Russian messianism. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author states that 'there has been some very good academic work on contemporary Russian nationalism in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recent years. This study is different in that it seeks specifically to describe and account for Russian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(messianism.' \(p. 4\). Many parts of the book do not corroborate this statement. This is particularly true of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion of the period since the 1970s, in which a rather conventional description of Russian nationalist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debates includes just occasional references to ideas that can conceivably be seen as messianic.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Having said that, it should be stressed that the book is based on a very large and comprehensive selection of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primary sources and is, by and large, accurate in detail. It can therefore serve as a good reference work on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different currents in Russian nationalism. Its broad historical approach helps to put the current debate on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what Russia is/should be into historical perspective, thus allowing readers to judge to what extent current )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 18 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 916 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political and economic conditions helped \(or failed to help\) stimulate the formation of a new Russian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 736.975 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 719.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 719.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/241)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 717.801 m 322.316 717.801 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 692.824 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 678.424 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1956)] TJ ET BT 34.016 664.024 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 718.1155 322.3157 729.9955 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/241) >> endobj xref 0 20 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000335 00000 n 0000000372 00000 n 0000000559 00000 n 0000000641 00000 n 0000004634 00000 n 0000004743 00000 n 0000004853 00000 n 0000004962 00000 n 0000008523 00000 n 0000008651 00000 n 0000008735 00000 n 0000008800 00000 n 0000016107 00000 n 0000016191 00000 n 0000017159 00000 n 0000017287 00000 n trailer << /Size 20 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 17382 %%EOF