%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140728113755+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140728113755+01'00') /Title (Victorian Babylon. People, Streets and Images in Nineteenth-Century London) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4125 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Victorian Babylon. People, Streets and Images in Nineteenth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Century London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This volume seeks to display mid-nineteenth century views on modernity as well as to investigate aspects of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modernisation in Victorian London. Observers then and now could not and cannot help but note the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(piecemeal re-development of London in this period, compared, for instance, with Paris. British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporaries were inclined to attribute the difference to the centralisation, and from 1851, the autocratic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control, inherent in the more comprehensive re-building of Paris, compared with their own democratic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions. Presumably they forgot that Britain had less of a democratic system of government than France, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and overlooked, what this author notes, the inhibiting effects in London of the competing claims of vestries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and private water and other companies. Another restraint on modernisation noted by Nead was the multi-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(temporality of modernity; the Victorian present could not escape from the past. Parisians seem to have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(less tenderhearted in their treatment of the old, however picturesque. Both of these factors weave through the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(three parts of this book. First, under the heading, Mapping and Movement, the rationalisation of the supply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of water and improvements in transport, above and below ground, are reviewed. Part Two deals with Gas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Light musing on the practical and poetical impact of the introduction of gas and on an aspect of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London's cultural/entertainment life for which gas lighting was indispensable, the Cremorne Pleasure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(244)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 January, 2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lynda Nead)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780300085051)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(264pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yale University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://yalepress.yale.edu/yupbooks/book.asp?isbn=9780300107708)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Haven and New York)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pamela Pilbeam)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7237 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gardens. The final part, Streets and Obscenity, concentrates on Holywell Street, the centre of the `dirty' book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trade.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nead dwells on the nineteenth-century fondness for comparing a city with a human body. Personal well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being depended on unobstructed movement and circulation in vital organs. Modernisers in London argued )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that similar features were essential for the health of a city. This comparison would have been familiar to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporaries. Incidentally, in Paris Saint-Simonians, eager for rationalisation in the capital, also likened )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their city to a human body and later in the century Emile Zola described Les Halles the central market, as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stomach of Paris. Following this analogy of a city with a person, Part One focuses on the mapping of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capital and the consequent opportunity to improve circulation within it. The early nineteenth century was, of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(course, obsessed with statistics and numerous `panoramas' were displayed by eager entrepreneurs showing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cities `from the air'. Nead explores the first accurate scale maps of London streets, which revealed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(absence of wide thoroughfares and the plethora of narrow alleys, snaking around in labyrinthine confusion. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first Ordnance Survey of London, mapping an area 12 miles from St. Paul's Cathedral, went on sale in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1851. This provided the vital details from which informed, comprehensive and profitable schemes for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(construction sewers and railways could be launched.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the 1850s and 1860s modernisation must have seemed to many Londoners mere destruction, that London )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was indeed to experience the fate of Babylon. First came the provision of clean water. Repeated cholera )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(epidemics, particularly that of 1854, provoked the hesitant emergence of a single London authority, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Metropolitan Board of Works. Imagination ran riot at the thought of a watery world being linked together )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under the capital from the late 1850s. The journalist John Hollingshead described a stroll through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Underground London, during which he sang the national anthem knee deep in the effluvia of Buckingham )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palace.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Easier to illustrate visually was the improved circulation in the 1850s and 1860s of people, with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of the railways and the construction of the main terminal stations. Even more disruptive was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the digging of the first underground railway system in the world in the 1860s. Gripping illustrations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrate the chaos caused by both, particularly the underground lines. The observers, depicted in these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(graphic pictures in immaculate gowns, appear unmoved by the huge craters excavated in their roads and next )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(door gardens. How indifferent were contemporaries? The railway companies were left to their own devices. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although instructed to provide for those made homeless by their efforts, the presence, by 1867 of 148 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(directors of railway companies in the House of Commons guaranteed inertia. Railway termini were carved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out in poor districts. The uprooted workers moved into rented rooms in neighbouring streets, adding to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overcrowding. This was in sharp contrast to the wholesale shipping of Parisian workers from the centre to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outlying districts to make way for the railway. It would be interesting to know whether Londoners were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aware of what had been done in Paris, and whether anyone protested that worker districts were being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(devastated. The illustrations reproduced here of the construction of the underground network from the 1860s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(raise even more questions for the reader. The underground routes cut through rich and poor habitats )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indiscriminately. Nead comments on the huge scale of the destruction. Were the well-off literate house-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(owners as silent and submissive as the poor?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gas lighting caused major and lasting blight to working class areas. By 1860, from small beginnings in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1805, there were 23 works making gas and six huge gasholder plants, all polluting the poorer parts of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(metropolis, with accompanying very real risks of explosions from their `fires of hell'. Nead weighs up the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practical and poetical benefits and disadvantages of this novel way of both lighting streets and houses and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(creating spectacular displays for special occasions. Previously householders had been obliged to set a light in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their window after dark. By 1823, 215 miles of London streets were lit by gas. By mid-century 13 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(companies competed to supply a product that was unpredictable and subject to no government quality )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control; in every streets at least 2 companies were constantly digging up the road in their fight for customers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(a strangely familiar tale\). Gas lighting allowed West End stores to be a fairyland open to 8pm; suburban )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shops stayed open even later. Was family life threatened when middle class matrons shopped late, as some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporaries suggested? By the mid-1860s an Early Closing Movement had successfully railed against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the dangerously seductive window-shopping afforded by late opening, and the shop assistants' need of a half-)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 18 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 6762 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(day rest on Saturdays.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If gas had an ambivalent appeal, the Cremorne Pleasure Garden in Chelsea was the epitome of the ambiguity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of gas-lit entertainment. By day Cremorne offered London families the chance to wander through gardens )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(similar to those of a private estate, for the not inconsiderable sum of 1/- a head. Victoria took her family to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(look at the flowers. At night gas lighting transformed Cremorne into a different world. A dance platform )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brilliantly lit by crystal glass globes could accommodate 3000 revellers. Others could relax in private boxes; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but the management insisted that all recreational activity within them was totally visible. Dinner and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(champagne were available until midnight and beyond. There were firework displays and balloon rides. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(`Swells', young City slickers and their flamboyantly dressed ladies, incensed the moralising brigade into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tirades against prostitution. Perhaps the male moralisers were alarmed that numerous illustrations of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cremorne \(many reproduced in colour in this book\) show ladies very much in control of their amorous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encounters. The painter Whistler frequently visited and painted the delights of the gardens. In 1877 the critic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ruskin dismissed one of these paintings as `wilful imposture'. Whistler won his case with a farthing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(damages, but in his evidence left no doubt of the sexual, as well as artistic delights, offered by Cremorne. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whistler may have been triumphant, but the Gardens were ruined. In 1878 the vestry authorities refused to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(renew Cremorne's license and the gardens closed for good.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Victorians clearly found debating what was obscene almost as thrilling as participation. The final section of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this book focuses this debate on Holywell Street, a narrow row of shops, some dating back to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elizabethan period. Holywell represented ambiguity. The street was criticised because it was old-fashioned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compared to the glamour of Oxford Street, yet the numerous illustrations displayed here showed that it had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appealing picturesque qualities. Until the early nineteenth century its radical literature caused some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flutterings. Jewish second-hand clothing merchants stimulated anti-Semitic reactions. Along with Temple )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bar, which is touched on in the same chapter, Holywell was a physical obstacle to a much needed widening )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Strand. However it secured most notoriety when its shop windows began to display salacious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illustrations \(none of which are included, so readers will have no chance to put in their tuppence to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debate\) alongside inoffensive prints. For many years the shops were apparently protected by customers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within parliament. Curiously the Obscene Publications Act, finally passed in 1857 to force such illustrations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under the counter, stressed the threat to public order, not private morality. It was concerned that mass-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(produced cheap prints of scantily clad girls would corrupt public morals, by luring innocent young women to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(join the window shoppers and presumably wonder what might happen if they took their clothes off.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Victorians are portrayed here, conventionally, as obsessed with sexual morality. However, if the author )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had compared the two major examples in this book, Cremorne and Holywell Street, it would seem clear that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another Victorian obsession, profit, was more dominant than criticism of the whoring in Cremorne and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(longing for it in Holywell, in their demolition. Babylon fell because the vestry could make more money )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(selling Cremorne to property developers and a comparable killing was presumably made flattening Holywell )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in favour of the fat profits to be made building the Aldwych and Kingsway. As the books shops moved, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presumably into the Charing Cross Road, their proprietors did not reap the benefit of modernisation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a delightfully presented investigation of selected case studies that effectively illustrate the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complexities and ambiguities of urban modernisation. It would be fascinating to subject the huge variety of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular culture described by Altick \(The Shows of London, Cambridge MA, 1976\) to the scrutiny afforded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in this volume to Cremorne and Holywell Street. How did the transport revolution and the prudery crusade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(affect the heart of Victorian Babylon, the streets around Leicester Square, or the West End, the focus of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modernised consumerism?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 104.479 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 86.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 86.699 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/244)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 85.305 m 322.316 85.305 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 60.328 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 85.6195 322.3157 97.4995 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/244) >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 234 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.354 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1965)] TJ ET BT 34.016 781.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 22 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000577 00000 n 0000000659 00000 n 0000004836 00000 n 0000004945 00000 n 0000005055 00000 n 0000005164 00000 n 0000008725 00000 n 0000008853 00000 n 0000008937 00000 n 0000009002 00000 n 0000016292 00000 n 0000016376 00000 n 0000023191 00000 n 0000023317 00000 n 0000023412 00000 n 0000023477 00000 n trailer << /Size 22 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 23763 %%EOF