%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141001082029+01'00') /ModDate (D:20141001082029+01'00') /Title (Change and Continuity in Nineteenth-Century Latin America) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4299 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Change and Continuity in Nineteenth-Century Latin America)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Recent studies in Latin American history have increasingly rejected the periodisation inherited in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditional historiography. In other words, the notion that the Wars of Independence \(c. 1810 - c. 1825\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represented a clear break with the colonial past has become both questioned and contested. Over the last two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decades, as a result, there has been a marked shift in the analysis of independent Latin America which has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gone on to stress and emphasise the continuities that linked the late colonial period with the first national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decades. For example, for historians such as Jaime E. Rodrguez O. this key interpretative shift led him to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(define the years 1750 - 1850 as an "age of democratic revolutions"\()] TJ ET BT 358.064 173.531 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mexico in the Age of Democratic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Revolutions)] TJ ET BT 90.680 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 96.680 159.275 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1750 - 1850, )] TJ ET BT 160.676 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 1994\). Brian Hamnett, similarly, merged the late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial period with the first half of the nineteenth century, in his recent history of Mexico, viewing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years 1770 - 1867 as ones that shared the themes of "destabilisation and fragmentation" \()] TJ ET BT 461.072 130.763 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Concise History )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(of Mexico, )] TJ ET BT 87.668 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999\). We have gone, therefore, from perceiving the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(triumph of independence as the beginning of a new political era to accepting that, instead, whilst it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represented a watershed of sorts, it did not amount to an abrupt end of the political tensions, customs and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditions that characterised the late eighteenth century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(245)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 January, 2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eduardo Zimmermann)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781900039307)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1999)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(123pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Institute for Latin American Studies)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://americas.sas.ac.uk/publications/pub_19c.htm)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Will Fowler)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7856 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This relatively novel understanding of the nineteenth century can be appreciated when some of the main )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themes of the early national period are listed. For instance, Church-State tensions were as violent in the late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial period as they were in independent Latin America. The assault on the Church that became a major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pursuit of the Bourbons, in particular Carlos III \(1759 - 88\) and Carlos IV \(1788 - 1808\), was subsequently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(endorsed by the liberal factions of the nineteenth century. The federalist - centralist divide that was to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account for the majority of revolts that surfaced with independence was one that was also explosive during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the late colonial period. The system of intendants stemming from the Bourbon attempt to centralise power in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1770s and the centralist tendencies of the 1812 Cadiz Constitution, provided the origins of much of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debate that would emerge subsequently in former Spanish America. The way regional elites clashed with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(each other over the extent to which power should be devolved to their provinces or retained in the capital )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thus replicated the ways in which their predecessors supported or opposed the )] TJ ET BT 410.612 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(intendencias)] TJ ET BT 471.272 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. The economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(divide that split factions between those who defended protectionist policies and those who supported free )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(market economics, was also a major issue in the late colonial period. Although the 1808 constitutional crisis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undoubtedly sped up the process by which the bid for independence became such a powerful force in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1810s, the economic discontent of the Creole elites had reached breaking point as a result of the Spanish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Crown's protectionist policies. The 1788 - 9 Minas Gerais revolt in Brazil erupted because of what was, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(albeit briefly, a parallel economic context. Likewise, the struggle between constitutionalists determined to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(curtail the power of the executive and )] TJ ET BT 218.300 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(caudillos)] TJ ET BT 262.304 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( or emperors in the case of Brazil \(Pedro I, 1822-31 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pedro II,1840-89\) who preferred to adopt emergency powers, close down congress and rule by decree, was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(equally present in the late colonial period. The conflicts that arose between absolutists and those Masonic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(factions who endorsed the principles of the Enlightenment, the U.S. 1787 Constitution, the French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revolution and the Spanish 1812 Constitution were equally virulent in the late colonial period. In brief, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political, social and economic problems of the late colonial period did not end with independence, they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developed, in a context wherein there was as much continuity as there was significant change. It is, of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(course, in the realm of justice and judicial institutions where issues of change and continuity can best be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appreciated. Given that all changes were encapsulated in the laws that were passed and implemented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(following independence, a study of the individuals and institutions who were responsible for proposing and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enforcing them is evidently all important.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eduardo Zimmermann's collection of essays is a welcome contribution to the historiography. In many ways, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it is surprising that, in comparative terms, so little has been written about the judicial institutions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth-century Latin America. Not only were lawyers fundamental because of their roles as interpreters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and implementers of the legal system that came into being with independence, they became as well, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Zimmermann reminds us in the introduction, the main legislators and ministers of the independent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governments. In other words, it is by studying the "interaction between the legal world and the wider )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political, economic, social and cultural processes" that we can truly begin to appreciate what the "transition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from colonial status to independent nationhood" entailed \(p. 1\). This edition, which contains articles by some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the most outstanding specialists in the field, namely: Charles R. Cutter, Vctor M. Uribe, Linda Arnold, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomas H. Holloway, Osvaldo Barreneche and Zimmerman himself, represents, therefore, a particularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compact and eye-opening revisionist volume, which places "particular emphasis on the continuities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between" the colonial and the post-colonial phases.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The issue of continuity is therefore a recurrent theme throughout the book. In the opening chapter, Cutter's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study of the legal culture of Spanish America on the eve of independence helps us appreciate the extent to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which )] TJ ET BT 66.344 161.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(derecho indiano)] TJ ET BT 144.668 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was "an intricate legal system that proved to be adaptable to the peculiar needs of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diverse regions of empire". In so doing, Cutter dispels the often-accepted myth that the colonial judicial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administration was "ponderous, tyrannical, arbitrary and corrupt" \(p. 11\). The flexibility Cutter demonstrates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characterised the Spanish colonial legal administration, even in more peripheral zones \(such as northern New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spain\), forces us to review the idea that the colonial magistrates were guilty of "malfeasance, capriciousness )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or ignorance". Instead, what becomes evident is that justice was imparted remarkably fairly. Notions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(equidad)] TJ ET BT 72.680 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which stressed the importance of the common good over personal gain, proved more important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than what may have been thought to be the case, as magistrates preferred to exercise their )] TJ ET BT 466.904 61.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(arbitrio judicial)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 5724 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than abide by the inflexible tenets of any written )] TJ ET BT 269.648 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(doctrina)] TJ ET BT 310.316 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Evidently the corporatist spirit of the colonial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legal system was to be increasingly challenged by the rampant individualism that was to characterise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth-century liberal thought. Notwithstanding the fact that, because of this, many of the tensions of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth century would revolve precisely around achieving "congruence between new political paradigms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and old social realities" \(p. 24\), Cutter's interpretation of Spanish legal culture confirms that independence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did not represent the end of an anachronistic system. In fact, many of the so-called legal advances of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth century did not come about because they overthrew or replaced an unjust and antiquated order. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reality, they built upon a flexible system which was remarkably fair in its origins, and which, because of this, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was deeply ingrained in the customs of, and widely accepted and uncontested in, nineteenth-century Latin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American society.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Linda Arnold's study of the )] TJ ET BT 168.500 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(fuero militar)] TJ ET BT 229.508 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in independent Mexico develops and complements Cutter's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assessment of Latin America's corporatist colonial tradition. Again two issues emerge which must be noted. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first is the extent to which there was continuity, especially in the way that certain key institutions such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the army and the church retained their separate jurisdictions, acquired in the colonial period, for the better )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part of the nineteenth century. The second, and perhaps the most striking, is that these corporate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(jurisdictions, often depicted as privileges, were far fairer than has generally been acknowledged. Arnold, like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cutter, forces us to rethink our perception of those colonial judicial legacies that survived into the nineteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century. As it becomes evident from her chapter, the army was not an irresponsible institution that used the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fuero to avoid justice being meted out among its ranks, as it has been so often made out to be. In fact, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("military, constitutional and ordinary jurisdiction case files reveal that judges applied jurisprudence not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(corporate biases when they decided guilt or innocence, determined liability, and issued definitive sentences" )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 61\). In the same way that Cutter demonstrates that the colonial legal culture was long-lasting because )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society at large found it was fair, Arnold proves that the )] TJ ET BT 305.300 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(fueros)] TJ ET BT 335.300 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( were not abolished until the late 1850s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because "thousands of people [.] actively asserted agency [.] in corporate society. And some of those active )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(participants in corporate society believed they would lose advantage were they cast adrift in the amorphous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and violent public culture that the military tried so hard, yet failed, to contain throughout the early national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(era" \(p. 61\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What emerges in all of the chapters is the apparent abyss that emerged between the utopian ideals of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enlightened liberal-minded Creole intellectuals \(many of them lawyers\) who took to the corridors of power )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with independence, and a social reality that could not change over night. Whilst Cutter and Arnold's essays )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(point to a society in which corporatism was deeply rooted, so much, in fact, that any major changes in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legal system were generally resisted, Holloway and Barreneche's chapters highlight how pragmatical choices )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eventually triumphed over idealistic ones in Brazil and Argentina. In other words, in some cases continuity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pervaded because the majority appeared to prefer corporatist practices, suffering from an acute and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understandable misoneism \(fear of what is new\). In others, however, the actual problems that arose in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempting to implement certain legal reforms proved either too difficult to overcome or too dangerous, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were subsequently abandoned.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7419 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Holloway's chapter on the role of the Justice of the Peace in Rio de Janeiro \(1824 - 41\), provides a perfect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example of how practical issues ultimately triumphed over matters of principle. Characteristic of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(idealism of the liberal reformers who drafted the 1824 Constitution, locally elected lay judges \(Justices of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Peace\) were created in 1827, in a bid to break with the colonial practice whereby judicial authority )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emanated from the monarch. As was to become evident soon after, by having these "magistrates of police" )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popularly elected, the well-intentioned liberal reformers had inadvertently empowered the popular classes, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what was a particularly stratified and conflictive society, by allowing them to choose who imparted justice in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their locality. Not surprisingly, the Justices of the Peace soon became popular leaders, playing a key role in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the events that led to Pedro I's abdication. As a result, from 6 June 1831 to 3 December 1841, a series of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(measures were taken to restrict the power of the Justices of the Peace and to subject them to the authority of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the appointed chiefs of police. By 1841, the 1827 law had been completely overturned and the local judicial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(system returned to what it had been in 1808, when the Portuguese Court moved to Brazil and established the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(General Intendant of Police.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Osvaldo Barreneche's chapter on the means by which the police force in Buenos Aires became more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(powerful than the judicial officials during the early national period offers a parallel account to that presented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Holloway for Rio de Janeiro. As is confirmed in both Uribe and Zimmermann's chapters, one of the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pressing problems faced by the independent nations was the marked lack of lawyers. There were simply not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enough of them to actually implement the kind of far-reaching reforms many forward-thinking liberals had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in mind. In the case of Buenos Aires, therefore, a pragmatical approach prevailed. The new governments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(avoided tackling this problem by training more lawyers \(a policy that, as Zimmerman's last chapter points )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out, was only pursued once the Rosas era drew to a close in 1852\). Instead the authorities preferred to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increase the power of the police. Therefore, despite the attempts of judicial officials "to maintain and to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expand their colonial spaces of power in the decades after Independence" \(p. 91\), it was the police and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military who became the main "givers" of justice. Police budgets were increased whilst judicial requests for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assistance were neglected. By 1833, in fact, as one discontented judge noted, the police officers had become )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("truly judges usurping [legal] jurisdiction that used to belong to the magistrates" \(p. 94\). As Barreneche )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(informs us, "in the long run, the judiciary was kept inside the courtroom, limiting its contact with civil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society, while the police became the visible face of the penal system" \(p. 95\). As a result, at least until the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(late nineteenth century, what were originally meant to be transitional and pragmatic measures \(i.e., )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empowering law enforcement agents with the responsibility of meting out justice whilst more lawyers were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trained\) became "a permanent feature of the system" \(p. 103\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As becomes evident in Uribe and Zimmermann's chapters, however, there was more to this marginalisation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the judiciary than a pragmatical approach to the violent context of early nationhood. Lawyers were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mistrusted by the emergent political forces of the day for clear political reasons. As Uribe's study )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrates, there was nothing new about this. In the last decades of the colonial period the complaint that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there were far too many lawyers was not actually based on fact. As Uribe shows, in comparative terms, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of lawyers in Latin America was indeed far from excessive when seen alongside the number of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lawyers existing in France, England and the United States at the same time. In other words, the complaint )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that there were too many lawyers was used by the Crown in order to justify its consequent marginalisation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the legal profession. The revolutionary tendencies of many lawyers were at the heart of the Crown's stand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against them. As Uribe confirms, "alleged 'revolutionary' activities on the part of lawyers and other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectuals, and their active role at abetting what today we may call an embryonic 'public sphere of civil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society', were probably among the real reasons for containing the growth of this profession and moving to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regulate training more closely" \(p. 35\). The major role played by lawyers in the Wars of Independence more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than confirmed that Crown's fears. The death toll the Wars represented, moreover, further decreased their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(numbers. And, as is illustrated in Barreneche's study on Buenos Aires, little was done to increase their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(numbers given that the new rulers of Latin America feared them as much as the Crown did at the end of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial era.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Zimmermann's final chapter on the education of lawyers and judges in late nineteenth-century Argentina )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shows that this distrust of the legal profession, for practical and political reasons, only started to be )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 3712 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overcome after 1863. As a closer look at some of Juan Bautista Alberdi's writings shows, lawyers were not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only viewed with suspicion because of their political tendencies, but because they did not contribute in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practical sense \(like engineers, for example\) to the much-desired modernisation of the new country. It was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(therefore only gradually, following the end of the Rosas era \(1829 - 52\) and the eventual triumph of a liberal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(project, that by 1872, a new generation of lawyers started to emerge, trained in constitutional as well as civil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(law.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Viewing Zimmermann's volume as a whole, it becomes evident that independence did not entail a clear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(break with Latin America's colonial past. The judicial institutions of Bourbon Spanish America and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Portuguese Brazil were not replaced by entirely new ones. They developed and progressed. Many key )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspects of the colonial legal order remained in place. So did many of the problems that affected the colonial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legal system. In some cases these continuities were due to the often-ignored merits of colonial justice. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(corporatism of late colonial Latin America did not die the day independence was achieved. It lasted, deeply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rooted in society, until liberalism became truly hegemonic at the very end of the nineteenth century. In other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cases these continuities were inevitable given that nationhood did not change the size and nature of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terrain. Communications remained poor, mountains and jungles did not disappear, and the practical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems of governing these vast and remote lands remained the same. The new governing elite made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pragmatical choices in the same way that their colonial predecessors did. In brief, it took over a century for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the colonial legal system of the 1750s to become the modern one of the late nineteenth century. Albeit short )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and succinct, Zimmermman's volume is both groundbreaking and inspiring. It is to be hoped that, motivated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by this excellent piece of scholarship, more research into the nineteenth-century judicial institutions of Latin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(America will be undertaken.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 454.111 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 436.331 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 436.331 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/245)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 434.937 m 322.316 434.937 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 409.960 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 395.560 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1968)] TJ ET BT 34.016 381.160 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 435.2515 322.3157 447.1315 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/245) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000567 00000 n 0000000649 00000 n 0000005000 00000 n 0000005109 00000 n 0000005219 00000 n 0000005328 00000 n 0000008889 00000 n 0000009017 00000 n 0000009101 00000 n 0000009166 00000 n 0000017075 00000 n 0000017140 00000 n 0000022917 00000 n 0000022982 00000 n 0000030454 00000 n 0000030538 00000 n 0000034303 00000 n 0000034431 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 34526 %%EOF