%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140930082847+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140930082847+01'00') /Title (Honour and Violence) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3980 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Honour and Violence)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On 25 July 2001 Phoolan Devi was shot dead outside her home. Best known in the west through Shekhar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kapur's 1994 film Bandit Queen, Phoolan Devi's life had been remarkable. Born of low-caste, at the age of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11 she had been exchanged in marriage for a cow. Following beatings by her much older husband, she made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her way home, but was regarded as a disgrace by her family. An outcast she took up with a dacoit gang. Its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leader, who became her lover, was killed and she was brutalised and raped by his killers. She established her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own bandit gang and wrought havoc in the Chambal river valley of Uttar Pradesh, most notably with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(massacre of 22 high-caste Thakur Hindus in the village of Behmai in February 1981 - she claimed to have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seen the men who killed her lover and raped her among the victims. She surrendered to the police in 1983, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spent 11 years in prison awaiting trial, and on her release - still without trial - she became a member of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indian parliament where, a champion of the low-castes, she campaigned for women's rights and the abolition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of child labour. In 1997 she was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize. This would have been an astonishing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(career for an illiterate, low-caste woman anywhere, let alone in India.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Karl Marx famously wrote that people make their own history, but not in the way that they intend. Phoolan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Devi's fellow bandits and supporters claimed she was the reincarnation of a goddess, but events and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(246)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 January, 2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anton Blok)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780745604497)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(35.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(376pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Polity Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.polity.co.uk/book.asp?ref=9780745604497)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford and Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clive Emsley)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7540 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outcomes can no longer be satisfactorily explained as the will of gods, and people in modern western society )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(like to stress the independence and agency of the individual social actor. A succession of social scientists has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sought to develop a theory of social action that might explain why significant social change does not come )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about as the intended result of the action of individuals. In his introduction the Dutch anthropologist Anton )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Blok describes the ambitious agenda that he has set himself in his research and which underpins this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collection of twelve essays, namely to demystify individual practice and strip it of its 'voluntaristic aura' \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3\). Cultural settings and historical context, he emphasises, reduce the autonomy of actors. Similarly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contingency, cultural forces, human interdependence together with a variety of other imponderables, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coalesce to transform intentions. His subject matter for this challenging project is grouped loosely under the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concepts of the title, 'honour' and 'violence'. The story of the Phoolan Devi constitutes the kind of starting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(point that Blok takes for his explorations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The essays collected for this volume were written over roughly a thirty-year period. They range widely from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(banditry in the Low Countries and in Sicily, to a comparison between the death-hastening practices accepted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within tribal and pre-industrial society and contemporary European concerns about euthanasia. Throughout )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Blok shows a determination to expose any woolly thinking by others and to squeeze his analyses till the last )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drop of explanation has been yielded. He has no truck with terms such as 'senseless violence'. This latter, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues, merely reveals the reluctance in so much of Western contemporary thought to face up to the need for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a serious exploration of violent behaviour. Violence, Blok emphasises, makes statements. If the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bokkeryders, who terrorised the Catholic churches and farms of the eastern Meuse valley during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth century, and the mafiosi were \(and, in the case of the latter, still are\) violent, then the important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thing is to look for the meanings in that violence. While Phoolan Devi might, these individuals do not sit at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all comfortably in Eric Hobsbawm's category of 'social bandits', and the first essay in the book is Blok's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critique of Hobsbawm. The Bokkeryders were local to the district they pillaged, but agricultural workers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were significantly under-represented among their members. The bands were linked by kinship and marriage, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and contained disproportionate numbers of skinners, marginalized men whose trade gave them familiarity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with pain and death, not least since skinners commonly served as executioners' assistants. Blood has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(symbolic meaning for groups like the Mafia: shedding the blood of an enemy can be seen as a way of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(replacing blood lost by a family or group; blood signifies the ties between family and friends. Moreover, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the absence of effective control by the state, bonds between friends and family can be all the more important. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Violence, however, is not just the instrument of bandits. The state claims the right of legitimate violence, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Blok is also at pains to emphasise how the violence inflicted on the bodies and dwelling houses of those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convicted of being Bokkeryders constituted equally important symbolism on the part of the relatively weak )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authorities in the troubled districts.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Blok notes how young mafiosi in the United States tend to talk in terms of the rights and duties of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('individual', a concept unknown in Sicily where the concern always used to be for 'family' and/or 'blood'. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thus contemporary and identical behaviour can be explained and understood in different ways dependant on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the context. But there also appear to be interesting variations in violence between countries that can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribute to the context. Since criminal justice statistics began to be collected, the homicide rate in England )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has always appeared well below that of Sicily and Southern Italy, yet, and there are always problems in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparing the judicial statistics of one country with those of another, it would appear that its instance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violent assault was higher. The monopolization of the means of violence within the hands of the state has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been established for longer and with more permanence in England than in Sicily and the Mezzogiorno, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(godfathers like those of the mafia are scarcely apparent. Yet young men have continued to strut in what they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perceive as the height of fashion, sometimes in explicit fighting gangs, and sometimes carrying the designer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weapon of the day - cut-throat razor, bicycle chain, knuckle duster, knife, even gun. Their sense of 'honour' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was \(is\) rather more personal than familial, but essentially it remains a sense of honour. The homicide rate in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the USA appears higher than that in England, but, as in Italy, the instances of assault are apparently lower. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(How might this be explained? It is unfair to criticise Blok for what he has not considered, and it is a measure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the stimulation provided by his writing that these questions do come to mind, but perhaps some tentative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approaches to these issues could have rounded off the discussions rather more satisfactorily for this volume.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 8424 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In an essay called 'the narcissism of minor differences' Blok stresses how ruthless struggles often originate in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subtle distinctions rather than major differences between individuals and groups: Bosnian Croats, Moslems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Serbs are of the same ethnos; the differences between Hutu and Tutsi are, in many respects, far from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extreme and in the fifteen years following 1945 in terms of property, wealth, as well as intellectually and as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elites, they became more and more similar. It is, Blok insists, the loss of differences, and particularly cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differences, that can lead to explosive violence. Just as violence can be, and needs to be, unpicked for its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meanings, so too can the cultural associations of honour. Blok explores the reasons why various trades and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professions were perceived as 'infamous' across time - from ancient Rome to the early modern period - and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(across continents. Other essays discuss why chimney-sweeps, members of another dishonourable profession, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were regarded as bringing good luck, and why rams and billy-goats had different totemic meanings in pre-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industrial Mediterranean societies and almost certainly fed into the symbolic horns given to a cuckolded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(husband. Blok's range is formidable, and he takes no prisoners.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mediterranean societies, and particularly Italy, have always figured large in Blok's work. He often ventures )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out of the area to make comparisons with the work of others, but in his essay on nicknames as symbolic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inversions it is at least arguable that the generalizations made for such societies might need some rethinking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from a different perspective. 'The evidence from Sicily and other parts of Italy', he concludes, 'confirms that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while nicknames reflect dominant cultural codes and values, they also reflect on them' \(p. 172\). Quite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(probably, yet there are other nicknames that are as self-explanatory as)] TJ ET BT 369.584 530.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( La Zoppa)] TJ ET BT 418.928 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(the limping woman\) but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which surely lack the profound )] TJ ET BT 186.320 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(double entendres)] TJ ET BT 268.640 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( that Blok finds in the way that this label was applied to an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apparently adulterous woman with a limp - physical imbalance may possible relate to moral imbalance, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the folklore of Sicily as well elsewhere, associates passion with limping women. In British society, however, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nicknames appear to have been common well beyond the confines of village communities. British schools, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regiments, ships, once abounded \(and possibly still do\) with 'Nobby' Clarks, 'Dusty' Rhodes or 'Dusty' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Millers, 'Chalky' or 'Snowy' Whites and many more. Such nicknames relate specifically to the individual's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(name and say little or nothing about the individual. Similarly other nicknames within the military that refer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to particular individuals, and that spread across units, do not necessarily pick up on dominant cultural codes. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The rank and file of Wellington's army knew him as 'Old Nosey'. Nicknames in contemporary France do not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appear to have developed in similar forms to Britain, yet Napoleon was )] TJ ET BT 379.628 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(le petit caporal)] TJ ET BT 452.960 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to his men. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moreover, there is another form of nickname common to both Britain and France that merits some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consideration, and not necessarily for the way in which it picks up on cultural values. The )] TJ ET BT 467.948 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(menu peuple)] TJ ET BT 528.932 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the French Revolution, were denigrated as )] TJ ET BT 240.308 344.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sans-culottes)] TJ ET BT 302.972 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, but rapidly took the title as one of pride. Similarly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when, contemporaneously, Edmund Burke disparaged the unenfranchised in Britain, his slight was adopted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a badge of pride by radicals who referred to themselves as members of 'the swinish multitude' \(as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sans-culottes)] TJ ET BT 96.680 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(!\) while the proto-socialist pamphleteer Tom Spence began publishing his magazine )] TJ ET BT 503.624 302.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Pig's Meat)] TJ ET BT 555.188 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(or Food for the Swinish Multitude)] TJ ET BT 197.696 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Perhaps this is expanding the notion of the 'nickname' too far, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps too Blok's treatment of nicknames would benefit from moving out of the village and small town )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community context. Blok's essays are never dull, always provocative, rich, and stimulating, but the concepts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of honour and violence do become rather attenuated as the book progresses. It is easy to recognise them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(among bandits. As Blok himself puts it in his critique of Hobsbawm: 'What animated banditry was the quest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for honour and respect. What often motivated it was revenge.' \(p. 22\), and this can be seen as applicable to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Phoolan Devi as the Robin Hood label. But it is less easy to find the centrality of the title's concepts when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the subject matter becomes southern Italian agro-towns, female rulers and their consorts, or euthanasia. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Norbert Elias may, as Blok points out \(p. 308, n. 15\), have noted that death is always an act of violence, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this seems to be pushing the meaning of violence to the very limit and not exactly encompassing the clarity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Blok insists upon elsewhere. Perhaps the variations in violence might have been compared a little more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as suggested earlier. In one essay, first written in 1991, Blok criticises historians and anthropologists for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their reluctance to make systematic analyses of violence \(pp. 103-4\). Yet it could be argued that, in more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recent years, English cultural and social historians have begun to do just that, notably Joanna Bourke, Andy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Davies, Shani D'Cruze, and Vic Gatrell; moreover the decision announced by the ESRC in 1997 to invest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heavily in research into 'violence', and subsequent conferences and publications, suggests still further that his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criticism is now dated. Nor does England/Britain appear alone in this; in the United States, for example, the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 1373 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(National Consortium on Violence has now been active for several years.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The essays in)] TJ ET BT 98.672 770.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Honour and Violence)] TJ ET BT 204.992 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( never cease to stimulate and provoke, but in the end the book suffers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the kind of problem that is common to other such collections of essays - some, more than others, have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(become dated. And some of the accusations that were justified five or ten years ago, are much less so today.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 715.445 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 696.463 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 678.683 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 678.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/246)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 677.289 m 322.316 677.289 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 652.312 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 637.912 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1970)] TJ ET BT 34.016 623.512 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 677.6035 322.3157 689.4835 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/246) >> endobj xref 0 22 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000522 00000 n 0000000604 00000 n 0000004636 00000 n 0000004745 00000 n 0000004855 00000 n 0000004964 00000 n 0000008525 00000 n 0000008653 00000 n 0000008737 00000 n 0000008802 00000 n 0000016395 00000 n 0000016460 00000 n 0000024937 00000 n 0000025021 00000 n 0000026447 00000 n 0000026575 00000 n trailer << /Size 22 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 26670 %%EOF