%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 25 0 R 36 0 R 44 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140721180311+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140721180311+01'00') /Title (Slavery, Abolition and Emancipation: Writings in the British Romantic period) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4147 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Slavery, Abolition and Emancipation: Writings in the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Romantic period)] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It would seem that this weighty collection is part of an even larger project. Much of the preparatory work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was carried out by Peter Kitson and his colleagues in the recent )] TJ ET BT 341.288 209.171 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Romanticism and Colonialism. Writing and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(empire, 1780 - 1830)] TJ ET BT 131.336 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which he also co-edited.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 253.976 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 253.976 193.521 m 267.968 193.521 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 267.968 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Contributors here sought to extend debates on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Romantic movement by exploring a previously neglected aspect, namely, its specific relationship with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonialism. The Romantic period, they rightly argue, was one punctuated by momentous events. The loss of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Americas, the French Revolution, the abolition of slavery, and the turn to the east signalled what many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have seen as the transition from the first to the second British Empire. Under such circumstances, it comes as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no surprise to discover that the work of most writers within or on the fringes of the Romantic canon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(displayed a concern to understand hitherto unfamiliar cultures. Thus figures from Blake to Burke, Coleridge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Clarkson sought to represent individuals and societies found in corners of the empire, most especially in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the vital areas of India and the Caribbean.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Furthermore, it was during the Romantic period that a fundamental shift occurred in the discourse of race. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(247)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 31 December, 2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(P. J. Kitson)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Debbie Lee)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781851965137)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1999)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(595.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3664pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pickering & Chatto)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.pickeringchatto.com/major_works/slavery_abolition_and_emancipation)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Marriott)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 253.9757 193.8355 267.9677 205.7155 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 23 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7677 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the writings of people such as Edward Long, Charles White and Anthony Benezet, the idea of race was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformed from a system of arbitrary to natural signs, which were employed to arrange humanity into a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hierarchical order at the foot of which stood the African. Even the great anti-slavery campaigner Thomas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clarkson could not avoid privileging the European in the perceived civilised order.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Slavery, Abolition and Emancipation)] TJ ET BT 212.012 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( focuses these concerns by exploring the unprecedented output of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literature in its various forms that appeared in this period on the subject of slavery. How, the editors ask, can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we explain the coincidence of the rise of antislavery sentiment, the peak of the slave trade and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intensification of Romanticism? How was it that at a time when much of the literature recorded the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(destruction of the enslaved African, British poets and novelists valorised an expansive selfhood through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national and personal liberty? Answers are sought in a series of texts organised thematically - but not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consistently - by genre or topic in eight volumes, each of which is edited and introduced by a member, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(members of a team.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Volume 1 contains a general introduction to the anthology by Debbie Lee, and a collection edited by Sukdev )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sandu and David Dabydeen of virtually the entire corpus of known black writings on slavery published in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century. Here the familiar texts of Mary Prince, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Olaudah Equiano and Ignatius Sancho are supplemented by fragmentary writings of forgotten figures such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as Julius Soubise and James Harris. Volume 2 edited by Kitson brings together extracts or complete texts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from writings on the abolition debate, including amongst opponents James Ramsay, Thomas Clarkson and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William Wilberforce, and supporters William Beckford and Bryan Edwards. The debate on emancipation is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(covered in Volume 3 edited by Lee, which comprises five extensive texts published over 1823 - 26. The next )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(three volumes are devoted to genre. Volume 4 edited by Alan Richardson includes a wide selection of verse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representing the diverse, contradictory and complex response to slavery among well-known poets such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Blake, Cowper and Burns, and the lesser-known including Thomas Pringle and James Boswell. Drama is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject of Volume 5. Edited by Jeffrey Cox it includes the work of playwrights such as Isaac Bickerstaff and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Fawcett in an attempt to challenge conventionally wisdom that drama was a genre that had no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engagement with antislavery sentiment. To the contrary, the stage offered a highly suitable site for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(depiction of the global scale of slavery. Volume 6, edited by Srivinas Aravamudan, covers fiction. Excerpts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the writings of Sterne, William Earle and others are used to demonstrate the significance of the form in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(projecting utopian visions of a future without slavery while simultaneously depicting the slave condition in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stereotypical and sentimentalised ways. We return to themes with medicine edited by Alan Bewell in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Volume 7, and theories of race edited by Kitson in the final volume. Here are represented the growing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bodies of scientific, ethnological, geographical, epidemiological and anatomical research that sought to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comprehend through classification the human condition, and so establish familiar racial hierarchies. Writers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as Thomas Clarkson, Edward Long, William Jones and James Prichard, it is argued, provided a ready )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(source of ideas for the more imaginative appropriation of slaves and their experience.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Few could fail to be impressed by the 3,000 pages of writings, all of which are reproduced in facsimile, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whenever possible in their entirety. The collection makes available many texts made familiar by frequent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reference in secondary works, but much less frequent study of the originals. Each text has a brief and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generally informative introduction, and is valuably annotated by extensive notes. I can only hope that these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attractive volumes will encourage historians to recognise more fully the centrality of slavery to modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British experience rather than seeing it as a regrettable side issue, and so redress the damaging consequences )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the longstanding historical amnesia on this question.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Permit me, however, to sound one or two critical notes. I found the putative links between abolition and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Romanticism unconvincing. There can be little doubt that the period witnessed a momentous shift in human )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consciousness - what David Brion Davis has described in his magisterial )] TJ ET BT 385.640 121.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Slavery and Human Progress)] TJ ET BT 527.288 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('progressive enslavement to 'progressive emancipation'.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 300.116 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 300.116 105.555 m 314.108 105.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 314.108 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Under such circumstances figures within the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Romantic movement were almost inevitably engaged by the moral and philosophic debates that resounded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout the west. Abolitionism and Romanticism then could both be viewed as products of the 'changing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sensibility that marked late eighteenth-century culture', and it is a matter of demonstrating their interplay.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 539.444 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 539.444 62.787 m 553.436 62.787 l S endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 300.1157 105.8695 314.1077 117.7495 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 539.4437 63.1015 553.4357 74.9815 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R 31 0 R 34 0 R ] /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 7829 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The difficulties in exploring these links, however, are not addressed; indeed, most of the introductions to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual volumes make no reference to Romanticism. Perhaps they felt it impossible to embrace the sheer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(variety of authors within such a framework. How could the likes of Phillis Wheatley, Robert Wedderburn, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomas Clarkson, Edmund Burke, Hannah More, William Wilberforce, Lord Kames, William Cobbett and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sir William Jones be thought as part of the same movement? The problem is compounded by a failure to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examine in detail the precise ways in which key Romantic figures engaged with slavery beyond their role as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mere contributors to antislavery literature. To do so would have required more thought on the imaginative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(articulation of themes such as selfhood, progress, unity and redemption)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 376.304 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 376.304 683.283 m 390.296 683.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 390.296 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to the experience of slavery and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its abolition.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I remain sceptical, therefore, about the extent to which these writings can be framed by Romanticism, even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in its widest sense. I am more persuaded by the argument that they 'defy over-arching theories', and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggestion that 'imaginative texts influenced political, medical, religious and anatomical texts, and that these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in turn shaped imaginative literature'.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 213.152 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 213.152 600.003 m 227.144 600.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 227.144 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This more modest claim better describes the ambition of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collection \(in this respect its texts are in rather than )] TJ ET BT 282.644 587.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(of)] TJ ET BT 291.980 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the period known to us as the Romantic age\). And )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although it may not be particularly original or startling, the precept is one that can and does open up some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neglected lines of inquiry.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In these terms the collection works well, sometimes exceptionally so. Take, for example, the volume )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(devoted to fictional writings edited by Srinivas Aravamudan. In the excellent introduction Aravamudan goes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beyond the sterile debates that have tended to feature in critical studies of the extent to which, say, Jane )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Austen's )] TJ ET BT 77.840 489.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mansfield Park)] TJ ET BT 152.168 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( expresses antislavery sentiments. Isolated references to the source of Bertram's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wealth in Antigua, and speculations on the allusions to Mansfield in the Somerset case, help little in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding how imaginative literature came to be seen as a valuable vehicle with which to explore the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moral and philosophic issues surrounding slavery. Nor can a study of radicalised stereotypes seen out of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context reveal adequately ways in which literature sought to represent the slave. Instead, he argues, it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessary to examine the complex modes adopted by writers in their attempts to apprehend the condition and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience of slavery.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Most fiction proved inadequate to the task, treating slaves as 'objects of analysis, pathos, and amelioration )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than as full-blooded sociological and moral beings of the sort encountered in staple versions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(novelistic realism'.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 124.172 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 124.172 347.907 m 138.164 347.907 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 138.164 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thus sentimentalism, which until the end of the eighteenth century dominated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(antislavery fiction and poetry, engendered tear-jerking responses to depictions of individual slaves rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than outrage at the system, so sustaining an implicit conservatism. The genre eventually declined as it lapsed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into bathetic romance, to be replaced by didactic fiction which, although open to the charge of sociological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inadequacy, did have imaginative potential, and presented opportunities for moulding opinion. In this light, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the literature on slavery represented in this volume can be seen to possess all those ambivalent and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contradictory powers characteristic of fictional interventions more generally.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Similar misgivings about artistic potential are aired by Sukdev Sandhu and David Dabydeen in their fine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduction to the volume on black writers. Confronting previous studies that have claimed optimistically to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unearth in these texts evidence of 'disruptive strategies, counter-hegemonic discourses and acts of epistemic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violence', they point to the manifold structural and artistic inadequacies in the writers' attempts to express )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(black sensibility. While not denying the considerable achievements of black authors in publishing under )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficult circumstances, Sandhu and Dabydeen thus provide a refreshing and necessary corrective to the well-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intentioned but zealous radicalism that has hindered a better understanding of the historical significance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these works. The sad but telling conclusion is that none of these texts advanced the cause of antislavery.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To say that such high levels of scholarship are not sustained throughout the anthology is not to be unduly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critical for an enterprise of this nature is bound to be uneven. Some of the other volumes could not quite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(match this standard. Despite meticulous efforts in tracing the histories of obscure plays, I did find, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, that Cox's introduction to the volume on drama a less than powerful challenge to previous claims )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that there was no drama of antislavery. 'Black' characters had featured on the English stage since medieval )] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 376.3037 683.5975 390.2957 695.4775 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 213.1517 600.3175 227.1437 612.1975 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 124.1717 348.2215 138.1637 360.1015 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 39 0 R 42 0 R ] /Contents 37 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Length 8027 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(times, and so it must have come as no surprise to the eighteenth-century theatre-going public to encounter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plays that included dramatic representations of slaves. Such plays, however, in tending to present slavery in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the abstract as a universal condition masked its historical realities, and the role of England in its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perpetuation. Many spoke rather more about the conventions of representing blacks than slavery itself.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And yet we are told little about this tradition, or the constraints under which playwrights and managers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(operated. Most of the plays enjoyed only short runs. Mrs Weddell's )] TJ ET BT 359.804 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Incle and Yarico)] TJ ET BT 439.796 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was never performed, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while George Colman's musical drama )] TJ ET BT 223.148 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Inkle and Yarico)] TJ ET BT 303.140 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( had as many performances as Hamlet in the last )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quarter of the eighteenth century, but it not included in the collection. Nor are any stage adaptations of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aphra Behn's )] TJ ET BT 102.164 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Oroonoko)] TJ ET BT 150.824 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, arguably one of the most popular tales of the eighteenth century, and whose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence can be detected in virtually all plays depicting the noble slave. Finally, I was disappointed by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lack of historical awareness. The plays included cover a period from 1742 to 1816 - one that witnessed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(profound changes in both antislavery sentiment and the English stage. Did none of this impact on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dramatic forms themselves, or the ways in which they were received?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To take one more example, Kitson's volume on theories of race is in many respects a worthy inclusion in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anthology. Many of the texts selected for inclusion were influential in contemporary thinking about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature of the human order and racial taxonomies. Thus we have extracts from Edward Long's infamous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History of Jamaica)] TJ ET BT 126.008 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Drawing upon the notion of the great chain of being as evidenced in earlier work of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French enlightenment natural historian Buffon, Long employed a pseudo-scientific, polygenist approach to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argue that Negroes were a separate species, occupying an intermediate position between humans and apes. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This particularly vicious fantasy was to be taken up in future decades by Charles White and Josiah Knott, so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(laying the foundation for the scientific racism of the nineteenth century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Johann Blumenbach was also indebted to Buffon, but in contrast to Long maintained that humans were part )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a single species. This did not prevent differentiation, however. Relying on detailed measurements of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(physical characteristics, most notably those of the skull, Blumenbach was able to separate humans into five )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(racial varieties, at the apex of which stood the Caucasian, thereby establishing a typology that is still )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commonly in use. Although he continued to argue for the full humanity of other groups, the notion of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nexus between race and anatomy was open to abuse by racial theorists, the logic of which came to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(realised with horrific consequences in the twentieth century. Sir William Jones is a more surprising )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inclusion, but given his influential work on relationships between race and language entirely defensible. For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jones also classified the human race, identifying the common origin of Indo-Europeans. James Prichard later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(combined the physical anthropology of Blumenbach with linguistic work of Jones to produce a cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anthropology, on the basis of which the tradition of British ethnography was built.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kitson's introduction is measured, striking a nice balance between the content of this literature and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical context. And yet the critical questions on its relationship to slavery and Romanticism are not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addressed. If anything, the thrust of the argument is that any relationship is difficult to detect. As he points )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out, Long's racial theory did not influence pro-slavery writers, the majority of whom denied that racial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inferiority was an issue. Furthermore, racial theorists such as White and William Lawrence rejected slavery. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The links with Romanticism are even more tenuous. While it is evident that writers such as Coleridge and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Blake knew these works, in no sense were they used to construct racial hierarchies. Overall, few Romantics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('engaged directly with these works of natural philosophy'.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 310.964 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 310.964 191.091 m 324.956 191.091 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 324.956 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 'Much work still needs to be done on the ways )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in which race theory of the period relates to the artistic productions of the time,' Kitson concludes.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 505.436 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 505.436 176.835 m 519.428 176.835 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 519.428 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Well, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(yes, but we might have hoped that such an anthology would begin to answer these questions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If natural philosophy and a nascent cultural anthropology were not the principal sources of racial imagery in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this period, then what were? Christian cosmology and travel writings must figure prominently. From the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early modern period when a global consciousness was forged Europe came to know 'the Other' through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(travel and exploration. The accounts published, fantastic though they might have been, were informed by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(older discourses subordinating the heathen, the savage, and the black to the white, the Christian, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civilised. Evangelical and travel writings on Africa, India and the Caribbean, which were much more widely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(read, cannot be fully understood unless as part of this paradigm. To have included some in the anthology )] TJ ET endstream endobj 38 0 obj [36 0 R /Fit] endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 310.9637 191.4055 324.9557 203.2855 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 41 0 obj [36 0 R /Fit] endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 505.4357 177.1495 519.4277 189.0295 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R 54 0 R 56 0 R 58 0 R 60 0 R 62 0 R 64 0 R ] /Contents 45 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Length 4966 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would therefore have strengthened it as a whole, and made some of the arguments more telling.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These reservations aside, the eight volumes in this collection represent an ambitious and enterprising project )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to make available key texts from one of the most significant episodes in British history. If, as I believe, they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(now make it virtually impossible both to ignore slavery in thinking about the emergence of Britain as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world power, and to deny that a consciousness of it entered into the very fabric of the nation's culture, then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their publication is vindicated. Indeed, our thanks are due to everyone involved, including the publishers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whose reputation for such bold ventures will be enhanced.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 664.035 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 633.418 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 633.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kitson, P.J. And Fulford, T. \(eds.\), )] TJ ET BT 234.344 633.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Romanticism and Colonialism. Writing and empire, 1780 - 1830)] TJ ET BT 543.680 633.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 619.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press \(1998\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 237.332 619.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 237.332 617.763 m 291.320 617.763 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 604.906 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 604.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Brion Davis, )] TJ ET BT 160.676 604.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Slavery and Human Progress)] TJ ET BT 302.324 604.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, New York, Oxford University Press \(1986\), p. xvii.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 590.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 589.251 m 118.004 589.251 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 576.394 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Slavery, Abolition and Emancipation, Vol. 2, p. xxv)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 314.672 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 314.672 574.995 m 368.660 574.995 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 562.138 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See the classic study of M.H. Abrams, )] TJ ET BT 251.324 562.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Natural Supernaturalism. Tradition and revolution in Romantic )] TJ ET BT 64.016 547.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(literature)] TJ ET BT 109.352 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, New York, Norton \(1971\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 243.656 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 243.656 546.483 m 297.644 546.483 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 533.626 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Slavery, Abolition and Emancipation, Vol. 1, p. xxii.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 318.344 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 318.344 532.227 m 372.332 532.227 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 519.370 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ibid, Vol. 6, p. xi.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 149.684 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 149.684 517.971 m 203.672 517.971 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 505.114 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ibid, Vol. 8, p. xxv.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 158.348 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 158.348 503.715 m 212.336 503.715 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 490.858 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ibid, Vol. 8, p. xxvi.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 161.684 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 161.684 489.459 m 215.672 489.459 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 464.597 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 450.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Romantic Circles)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 436.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.rc.umd.edu/reviews/slavery.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 434.691 m 249.332 434.691 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 252.332 436.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 431.359 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 413.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 413.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf 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