%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 17 0 R 19 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R /F4 16 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140930060120+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140930060120+01'00') /Title (Sites of Memory, Sites of Mourning: The Great War in European Cultural History) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4161 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Sites of Memory, Sites of Mourning: The Great War in European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Cultural History)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The experience of grief is one of history?s most universal yet elusive themes, ever present even in peacetime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but generated with almost intolerable intensity and frequency by wars. The practice of mourning, both public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and private, provided essential consolation for those bereaved as a result of the Great War. Jay Winter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(admits that "how healing occurs, and what quietens embitterment and alleviates despair can never be fully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(known". Yet "not to ask the question . . . is both to impoverish the study of history and to evade our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responsibility as historians" \(116\). If directed to every scholar individually, this injunction would indeed be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outrageous ? some of us must be allowed to indulge other interests in, say, laughter, labour, railways, sex, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incunabula, or diplomacy. In fact, Winter is addressing historians of the Great War as if they were a team, an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideal rarely achieved in scholarship but to some extent realised in the conferences and collaborations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(associated with the Historial de la Grande Guerre at Pronne, which he helped establish. The collaborative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach suffuses this book, and the endnotes are strewn with warm and deserved acknowledgements of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(help from numerous colleagues. The effect is to suggest a series of lively and speculative seminars, complete )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with sometimes indistinct and half-explored images flashing onto the whiteboard from an overheated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(projector: the 31 illustrations are often dark and dim, in contrast to the splendidly sharp reproductions in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 April, 1997)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jay Winter)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780521496827)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1995)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(40.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(320pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.cambridge.org/uk/catalogue/catalogue.asp?isbn=9780521496827)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Fitzpatrick)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7680 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Winter?s )] TJ ET BT 80.336 796.469 Td /F4 12.0 Tf [(The Experience of World War I)] TJ ET BT 237.332 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1988\). This is history in the making: inconclusive, uneven, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consistently exhilarating.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In assembling the material for his grand tour of wartime and post-war grief, Winter bursts through national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boundaries with missionary impatience, promising to guide the reader past sites of memory and mourning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout "the cultural history of Europe", so repudiating "the distorting effects of a narrowly national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach" \(10?11\). Despite his intention to "avoid the scattered approach of eclecticism . . . through an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exploration of the comparative method", the result is refreshingly unsystematic. Illustrations, counter-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examples and local variations are plucked with gleeful erudition from a vast if unavoidably selective range )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of published and archival sources mainly relating to France, Britain and \(more haphazardly\) Germany. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although the European experience is explicitly central to the book, some of the most illuminating examples )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are taken from the magnificent archives of the Australian War Memorial, which underpin the second chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on "communities in mourning". Far from applying any "comparative method", Winter boldly asserts that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("one particular case, that of the Australian Red Cross, . . . can stand for the support networks which sprang )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(up in every combatant country" \(44\). Perhaps ? but how do we know this? In some ways, the eclectic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach is preferable to rigorous and systematic analysis of comparable evidence in several national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contexts. The outcome of a multinational study after the fashion of political science is often dry, schematic, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrowly focused and didactic; whereas Winter?s restless wizardry tantalizes, challenges and provokes the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reader to test out the myriad hypotheses and speculations in other contexts. If this book generates a spate of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("narrowly national" monographs on grief and mourning, it will in any case promote the desired comparative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outcome. Through the device of quoting, thrice, a triplet from Apollinaire \(18, 217, 228\), Winter seems to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beg readers to judge him mercifully as a pioneer rather than a technician: "Pity on us who are always )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fighting on the frontiers / Of limitlessness and the future / Pity our mistakes pity our sins.")] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Winter?s tour of western Europe and Australia encompasses many sources of consolation for the bereaved: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public and private, demotic and hieratic. The author admits no clear functional separation between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(humble village memorial and the responses of literary or artistic genius: all were moulded by the need to re-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imagine "the postwar world as composed of survivors perched on a mountain of corpses" \(17\). Part I, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("Catastrophe and Consolation", selects several strategies of psychological adjustment to personal loss which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(helped define postwar popular culture. Successive chapters elaborate the themes of resurrection, "fictive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kinship", spiritualism and war memorials, all of which drew heavily upon prewar forms, images or rituals in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(order to mobilise "tradition" in the service of healing. An eloquent account of the 1918?19 version of Abel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gance?s film )] TJ ET BT 100.664 344.789 Td /F4 12.0 Tf [(J?Accuse)] TJ ET BT 147.992 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, with its unsettling vision of the re-embodied dead returning reproachfully to their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(villages, introduces a fine, French-focused analysis of the significance of corpses for survivors. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ultimately successful campaign for reinterment of the fallen French in village graveyards, and the symbolic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representation of the unidentified dead through the Unknown Warrior, provided essential consolation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through repossession of the corpse. The longing for immediate contact was further appeased by the wartime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and postwar eruption of spiritualism, which offered the hope of communication with dead or absent relatives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or intimates. In this third chapter, as elsewhere, Winter?s enthusiasm for the theme sometimes overflows in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fascinating but irrelevant digressions ? the discussion of "spiritualism at the front" \(64?69\) concerns the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(psychology of fear rather than grief, and seems misplaced here.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The remaining chapters in Part I concern the social organization of mourning rather than the motifs of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(private consolation. The second chapter, entitled "communities in mourning", provides sketchy but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggestive evidence of "mutual help" among bereaved civilians, and of the insistent demand for factual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detail about casualties \(often satisfied by Red Cross investigators overcoming dogged military resistance\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whole cans of cultural worms are momentarily opened by the casual observation that the news of death was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(carried home by a clergyman in Australia, the mayor in France, and in Britain by letter or telegram, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(depending on rank. Leaving the worms to wriggle unattended, Winter dashes forth to raid personal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(testimony of bureaucratic insensitivity, blithely declaring that one such story was "repeated millions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(times" \(34\). Hasty inferences from the particular to the general abound, as in a later depiction of wartime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(images d?Epinal)] TJ ET BT 115.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( which announces that "in these examples \(and in thousands more\) we see all the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(components of this form of art" \(131\). The footnote names a library and a helpful guide, but no catalogue in )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F4 /BaseFont /Times-BoldItalic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 8112 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which such works are analysed. Winter has certainly moved a long way from being the cautious data-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collector and statistician so widely acclaimed for )] TJ ET BT 271.640 782.213 Td /F4 12.0 Tf [(The Great War and the British People)] TJ ET BT 459.656 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1986\). Not that his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement has been backwards ? there are brilliancies, lateral connections and insights in this work which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would never have survived the narrow scrutiny of more pedestrian scholarship.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The engrossing discussion of war memorials treats them "as foci of the rituals, rhetoric, and ceremonies of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bereavement" \(78\), developing the research and ideas of scholars such as George Mosse for Germany and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elsewhere, Bob Bushaway for England, Ken Inglis for Australia, and Antoine Prost for France. Following )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the admirable example of Prost?s)] TJ ET BT 193.988 684.677 Td /F4 12.0 Tf [( In the Wake of War)] TJ ET BT 294.992 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1992 edn.\), Winter emphasises that the "initial and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primary purpose" of memorials was not political manipulation of the survivors, but "to help the bereaved to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recover from their loss". While not denying the political uses to which many memorials were subsequently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(put, he rejects the "Foucaultian" notion that the memorials were devised to prepare Europeans for another )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war through deploying abstraction as a pain-killer \(94?6\). Winter?s insistence on primary function rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than secondary appropriations is a welcome corrective to the approach adopted by Bushaway and also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mosse, whose )] TJ ET BT 105.008 599.141 Td /F4 12.0 Tf [(Fallen)] TJ ET BT 140.684 599.141 Td /F4 12.0 Tf [(Soldiers)] TJ ET BT 180.692 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1990\) depicts commemoration as a concerted attempt to mask the realities of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war. In the absence of full inventories for memorials in most countries, the iconographic survey is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessarily provisional: for example, there seems little foundation for the claim that "Celtic crosses are less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prevalent in Northern Ireland" than in the Irish Republic \(247, n. 58\). The focus of the chapter flickers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(somewhat, reflecting the dualities of the memorials themselves \(catering for ex-servicemen as well as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bereaved, and commemorating the war as well as its casualties\). Oddly, very little attention is given to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rituals of commemoration associated with anniversaries such as Armistice Day and Remembrance Sunday, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the subject of Adrian Gregory?s engrossing study, )] TJ ET BT 277.976 499.349 Td /F4 12.0 Tf [(The Silence of Memory)] TJ ET BT 393.632 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1994\). Nevertheless, this wide-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ranging and often moving account of the intersection between public commemoration and private grief will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leave every reader better informed and more curious than before.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A major theme of Winter?s study of the forms of collective consolation is their "traditionalism" \(115\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflecting an atavistic response to bereavement far more powerful than mere nostalgia. Part II, "Cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Codes and Languages of Mourning", detects similar reactivation of archaic forms and motifs in film, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(graphic arts, fiction and poetry. Each of these chapters is individually rewarding, showing the author at his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most animated as he darts from story to story and image to image. As in Part I, the flood of information is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not always relevant and the connections are often loose. A tenuous link between the film )] TJ ET BT 462.608 373.301 Td /F4 12.0 Tf [(J?Accuse)] TJ ET BT 509.936 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("mythical or mundane? tradition of the )] TJ ET BT 223.556 359.045 Td /F4 12.0 Tf [(images d?Epina)] TJ ET BT 303.236 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(l justifies a along digression on the proliferation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these demotic religious posters in the form of war propaganda, a phenomenon tangential to bereavement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(122?33\). Likewise, the three chapters on apocalyptic imagery are only sporadically related to the theme of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bodily resurrection as a source of personal consolation. The connotations of the apocalypse, ranging from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fear of class warfare or urban collapse to the hope of redemption and salvation, clearly draw upon a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(multiplicity of emotions and forebodings to which wartime bereavement was merely a contributing factor. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite its incomplete integration in the ostensible topic of this book, Winter?s analysis of the apocalyptic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imagination is fascinating and cogent in its own right. Part II provides a powerful rejoinder to the thesis, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advanced by Paul Fussell and his successors, that the war unleashed "modernity" through a cumulative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(repudiation of established artistic forms. As Winter concludes, "it is the central contention of this book that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the backward gaze of so many writers, artists, politicians, soldiers, and everyday families in this period )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflected the universality of memory on Europe from 1914" \(223\). Equally at home with Otto Dix and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stanley Spencer, Karl Kraus and Maurice Barrs, Winter almost convinces us that the preoccupations of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wartime and postwar imaginative art reflected and served the thirst for consolation among the uncultivated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(masses of bereaved Europeans.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F4 12.0 Tf [(Sites of Memory)] TJ ET BT 114.680 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surveys a vast territory by offering innumerable close-ups, without pretending to provide a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comprehensive map indicating the precise relationships and linkages between the selected sites. As in most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(free-wheeling cultural history, the connections drawn between personal grief, collective consolation and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imaginative representation are suggestive, but seldom conclusive. Typically eloquent and persuasive, Winter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is oddly incurious about the permutations and complexities of personal loss, taking it as self-evident that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grief is a universal and uniform response to the death of a close relative. In distancing himself from murkier )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 21 0 R 23 0 R 25 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 2896 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responses \(anger,relief, apathy\), Winter calls to mind Prost?s dismissive remark about the emotional impact )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of killing on the killer: "It matters little . . . if some soldiers did or did not experience some kind of primitive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pleasure in killing, as some maintain . . . The task itself was guilty" \()] TJ ET BT 363.560 767.957 Td /F4 12.0 Tf [(In the Wake of War)] TJ ET BT 461.564 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 11\). Concentration )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upon the purer themes of sorrow and consolation is appropriate for decoding public memorials, but surely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inadequate for the analysis of imaginative art or literature. War was sordid not only as experienced by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(participants, but as a moral and emotional pollutant for the survivors. At times, Winter?s analysis of grief )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and commemoration seems too high-minded and generous for its subject. Yet this flaw, if it is one, is surely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outweighed by his unswerving respect for both the dead and the testimony of those surviving the war. All in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all, this is an innovative, exciting and humane essay in the history of emotion.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H-Net Reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 626.259 m 212.000 626.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 215.000 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Social History)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2005/is_2_32/ai_53449369/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 597.747 m 353.696 597.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 356.696 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 594.415 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 576.635 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 576.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/25)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 575.241 m 316.316 575.241 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 550.264 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 535.864 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/247)] TJ ET BT 34.016 521.464 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=550)] TJ ET BT 34.016 507.064 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2005/is_2_32/ai_53449369/)] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 22 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 626.5735 211.9997 638.4535 ] >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=550) >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 598.0615 353.6957 609.9415 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2005/is_2_32/ai_53449369/) >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 575.5555 316.3157 587.4355 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/25) >> endobj xref 0 27 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000353 00000 n 0000000390 00000 n 0000000592 00000 n 0000000674 00000 n 0000004887 00000 n 0000004996 00000 n 0000005106 00000 n 0000005215 00000 n 0000008776 00000 n 0000008904 00000 n 0000008988 00000 n 0000009053 00000 n 0000016786 00000 n 0000016901 00000 n 0000016966 00000 n 0000025131 00000 n 0000025229 00000 n 0000028178 00000 n 0000028305 00000 n 0000028400 00000 n 0000028527 00000 n 0000028643 00000 n 0000028771 00000 n trailer << /Size 27 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 28865 %%EOF