%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R 32 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141027170443+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141027170443+00'00') /Title (Mental Disability in Victorian England: The Earlswood Asylum 1847-1901) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3919 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Mental Disability in Victorian England: The Earlswood Asylum )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(1847-1901)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Several decades ago, during my teenage years in the 1970s, I attended a grammar school near Reigate in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Surrey. Every weekday morning for seven years, I would take an early train from Horley to Redhill, before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(walking or catching a bus from there to the school. As the train travelled northwards on its way to Redhill )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(and on to London\), it passed through a small, often seemingly abandoned, station at Earlswood. Just before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the train reached Earlswood Station, passengers could glimpse through the trees on the embankment on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eastern side of the line, the imperious, neo-gothic faade of the Royal Earlswood Hospital, as it was then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(known. This view of the asylum at Earlswood, visible from the windows of the 7.50 train to London, left an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indelible impression on my young, receptive mind.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Some years after first witnessing the asylum's architecture from the carriage windows, I became more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(closely acquainted with the institution and its inhabitants. While striving for my gold Duke of Edinburgh's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(award in the late 1970s \(at the precise moment when governments were initiating the gradual phasing out of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutional incarceration\), I spent one afternoon each week working, along with several school-friends, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one of the outlying modern villas on the extensive asylum estate. During our time there, we assisted and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(250)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 28 February, 2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Wright)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780199246397)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(74.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(256pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ukcatalogue.oup.com/product/9780199246397.do)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mark Jackson)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7739 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cared particularly for people with multiple and severe disabilities, those deemed unsuitable for immediate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(release into the community. On one occasion, I ventured on an errand into the main building that had been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(erected over a hundred years earlier in the 1850s. Although faded and damaged by many decades of neglect, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the internal design of Earlswood, like the external faade, still presented an imposing, even awe-inspiring, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vision of grandiose Victorian aspirations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Royal Earlswood Hospital, once the Earlswood Asylum, was undoubtedly the premier institution \(at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very least in terms of its public profile\) for `idiots' and `imbeciles' for much of the nineteenth and twentieth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centuries. As such, it clearly merits a full-scale, academic biography, and it is perhaps surprising that we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have had to wait until now for an incisive and scholarly study. To his credit, David Wright does manifest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(justice to the diverse aspects of the institution's history, from its slender origins in 1847/8 until the turn of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth century. At the same time, he largely satisfies the long-standing intellectual and emotional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(curiosity about Earlswood's history that was first aroused many years ago in the heart and mind of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inquisitive adolescent schoolboy. Given the evident complexity of Victorian philanthropic, political, legal, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medical, educational, and familial narratives of disability, this is no mean feat.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mental Disability in Victorian England)] TJ ET BT 222.692 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( constitutes a fine, constructive and substantial contribution to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of psychiatry and mental deficiency. It is based on extensive and original research, engages )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intelligently and diplomatically with recent \(rather fractious\) historiographical debates, exploits novel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(methodological tools, is smoothly written and well-presented, and manifestly achieves many of the aims that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are clearly set out in the introduction. The book is organised both thematically and chronologically. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although successive chapters chart Earlswood's development from its original incarnation in the 1840s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through to the early twentieth century, they also address a series of interconnected and crucial theoretical and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practical issues in the history \(and historiography\) of mental disability. In addition, each chapter \(except )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(curiously Chapter 2\) benefits from a concise conclusion, which not only summarises the chapter's main )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(findings but also leads persuasively, and almost seamlessly, into the subject of the following chapter.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the remainder of this review, I want first to outline and applaud much of the evidence and engage with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(major arguments presented in successive chapters. I shall conclude briefly by exploring some minor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(limitations to Wright's approach. My aim will not be to detract from the evident merits of Wright's study but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather to consider alternative features of the history of Earlswood that require further historical attention.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In a focused introductory chapter, Wright sets out the background to, and intentions of, his study. Situating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his research within the broad field of the history of psychiatry, he rightly points out that there has been little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretative consensus in recent years. Moreover, while historians have paid increasing attention to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of madness, they have expressed only minimal interest until recently in the history of people with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mental disabilities. Wright's ostensible aims in this book, then, are both to redress the relative neglect of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disability in the historical literature and to reappraise often contentious arguments about the role of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutional care and the implications of asylumdom. More particularly, Wright is keen to `reveal the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diversity of the "insane" population in Victorian England and the complexities of institutional committal' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p.7\) in that period, and to contextualise \(rather than `validate or condemn'\) the rise of large residential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hospitals for people labelled as mentally defective. Concentrating as it does exclusively on the Victorian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period, Wright's study of the Earlswood Asylum welds neatly with, and constructively extends, the themes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and approaches raised in recent monographs on developments in Edwardian England and in the inter-war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 62.336 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 62.336 176.835 m 76.328 176.835 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the first main chapter, Wright traces early state involvement in caring for idiots and imbeciles. Drawing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially on recent initiatives by Peter Bartlett and Len Smith,)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 337.988 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 337.988 136.323 m 351.980 136.323 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 351.980 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( this chapter persuasively locates the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emergence of interest in specific institutions for idiots within the context of changing provisions for paupers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the one hand, and legislative and administrative changes in the care of lunatics and the regulation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(asylums, on the other hand. In addition, Wright indicates \(although perhaps too briefly\) the importance of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emerging medical discourse on insanity and the growing interest in studying and protecting childhood and in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(establishing children's charities. In the process, he also highlights the reasons for the contemporary \(and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps, by extension, historical\) neglect of idiocy and imbecility. While Poor Law Guardians and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 62.3357 177.1495 76.3277 189.0295 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 337.9877 136.6375 351.9797 148.5175 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7458 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(magistrates were preoccupied with managing violent and dangerous defectives or with ensuring the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treatment of `curable cases', there was little time or money to consider the appropriate care of chronic, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(harmless, incurable patients.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter 2 applies these broad observations of contemporary approaches to insanity and idiocy to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(founding of the national idiot asylum at Earlswood. The context for the establishment of a small institution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for idiot children in 1848 at Park House, in Highgate, with a later annex in Colchester, was complex: its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(founders were motivated not only by general developments in the poor law and lunatic asylums but also by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the notion of moral treatment, by continental approaches to educating idiots, by philanthropic ideals, and by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the professional and economic interests of an emergent group of alienists. Wright includes incisive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biographies of leading actors, such as Dr John Conolly and Rev. Andrew Reed, explores the financial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pressures faced by the Earlswood Board, and narrates the eventual removal of all patients to a new, purpose-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(built asylum on Earlswood Common in 1855, an institution which, as Andrew Reed observed in 1856, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(`commands attention and admiration' \(p. 42\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The following two chapters reveal the methodological strengths of Wright's study and demonstrate the utility )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of combining quantitative and qualitative research. In Chapter 3, Wright is keen to move beyond the static )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutional histories beloved of historians of medicine and madness to explore how idiot children were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cared for in the community and to re-evaluate the role of the asylum. His approach is novel and instructive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and fits with a growing interest in the history of community care. In essence, he exploits information )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provided on certificates of insanity and on reception orders, in conjunction with census returns, to determine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the previous histories of children admitted to Earlswood. His conclusions are challenging. In particular, his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(data suggest that, while some children had certainly been boarded-out or were transferred from other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions, the majority had previously been looked after at home, within a nuclear family. In addition, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wright argues that the burden of care fell mostly on women, that is on mothers and sisters of the disabled, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and that institutionalisation may well have followed a particular `crisis of caring' within the household, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(precipitated for example by a sibling leaving home. Wright supports the conclusions from his database \(of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2,053 patients\) with evocative, qualitative fragments from the asylum records.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter 4 pursues this quantitative analysis further. Linking asylum records and census returns, Wright )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analyses the characteristics of families sending children to Earlswood according to whether they paid fully or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(partially for care or were admitted on an entirely charitable basis. The findings once again are stimulating. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Parents who paid for their children's care appear to have used the asylum as an experimental alternative to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(care at home, rather than as a dumping ground for unwanted relatives. More acutely, evidence from an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis of charitable cases \(particularly relating to their geographical mobility\) reinforces the tentative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusions of the previous chapter that poor households who sent children to Earlswood were those in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which care may have become impossible because of the lack of family support. The limitation of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument as it stands is that the conclusions are clearly speculative \(pp. 83-4\) and require substantiation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from qualitative sources. However, the benefit of Wright's approach is that it demonstrates that the history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutionalisation needs to be situated carefully within the context of histories of the family.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In Chapter 5, Wright continues his historiographical attack on revisionist historians of psychiatry, who have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argued that the mid-Victorian expansion of asylumdom should be viewed as a means of repressive social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control or as the product of the manoeuvres of a self-interested and upwardly-mobile medical profession. By )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(carefully exploring the characteristics of children admitted to Earlswood, Wright disputes the common )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assumption that Victorian asylums were transformed from educational to custodial institutions. By contrast, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he suggests that long stays were unusual and that the length of stay decreased over time. While the evidence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is interesting, there are occasional weaknesses in the narrative. In the first place, Wright tends to skirt around )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crucial issues. For example, having noted that boys were admitted more often than girls, he offers only a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(limited explanation of this trend. In addition, it would have been helpful if both the gender and age patterns )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of admission over time had been situated within the context of changing medical and educational approaches )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to child development and mental deficiency. Finally, Wright's anxiety to debunk previous critical histories of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions may have coloured his reading of the evidence and unreasonably accentuated the positive side of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(asylum care. In his conclusion to this chapter, for example, he writes: `Within such an atmosphere individual )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 6286 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(desires and peculiarities may often have been suppressed rather than encouraged. On the other hand, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monotony of the patients' existence was mediated by their relationships with a group of individuals perhaps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(less well understood than the patients - the staff themselves.' \(p. 98\) Without betraying the evidence, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simple reversal of these two sentences would leave the reader with an entirely different, and perhaps equally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(valid, message. The impact of institutional care on children and families remains elusive.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In Chapter 6, Wright explores the staff of Earlswood in detail. In the process, he successfully illuminates the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of a previously hidden occupational group and effectively tempers previous negative assessments of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both male and female asylum attendants in the nineteenth century. As he demonstrates, women often came )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Earlswood from domestic service, and frequently left to take up superior positions elsewhere. Male )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attendants often came from the armed services and many moved to county constabularies. Although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conditions of work could be difficult, the financial remuneration was relatively good, and the asylum )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(managers attempted to improve conditions in order to reduce the loss of employees to other institutions. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These findings counter suggestions that attendants were entirely unskilled and unemployable, and that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(asylum work constituted an occupation of last resort.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As a charitable institution, Earlswood was ultimately dependent on subscriptions and donations, and in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter 7 Wright develops a detailed profile of subscribers to the charity. Receiving subscriptions \(in return )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for votes for admission\) from individuals and companies, Earlswood was one of the largest philanthropic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisations of the period. Nevertheless, the Board was at the mercy of changing economic conditions and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(competition from alternative charities for idiot children that emerged in the last half of the nineteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century. Claiming to be a national, rather than merely regional, asylum, the Board attracted subscribers by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasising in particular the educational and reclamational aspect of their work with idiots. As was the case )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with later educational and residential institutions for the feeble-minded, women were especially drawn to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(charity, a feature of the history of mental deficiency that requires further exploration.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unfortunately, little is known of day-to-day life in Victorian institutions. The experiences of inmates and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(staff and the educational strategies need to be extracted from asylum records and occasional visitors' reports. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In Chapter 8, Wright uses a variety of such records to furnish historians with a glimpse of institutional life at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Earlswood and of the manner in which staff attempted to educate and train idiots and imbeciles for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(productive work. Wright's account succinctly captures not only the regimentation of daily life but also the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(educational and moral imperatives that permeated the therapeutic and spiritual ethos of the institution. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(final two main chapters trace the gradual decline of optimistic beliefs in the curability and educational )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(potential of idiots, and their displacement by a more pessimistic and hereditary based formulation that linked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mental defectives to a wide variety of domestic and imperial problems. Wright's account of the work of Dr )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Langdon Down is sensitive and informative. He avoids shallow accusations of racism or hagiographic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speculation about Down's influence. Instead, Chapter 9 carefully contextualises Down's contributions at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Earlswood, and makes a convincing case for more balanced and reflective biographical studies within the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of medicine. In Chapter 10, this pessimistic trajectory is pursued further into late nineteenth and early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(twentieth-century debates about the dangers of the feeble-minded. While the conflation of mental defectives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the social residuum ushered in a new era of repressive social policy, it also served to undermine the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hegemony of Earlswood and its enlightened therapeutic rationale. As Wright concludes, Andrew Reed's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vision of a `national system of voluntary idiot asylums failed to materialize' \(p. 193\). Amidst growing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerns that biology, rather than environment and education, dictated ability and behaviour, the charitable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(image of the innocent idiot child proved short-lived.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R 30 0 R ] /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 7071 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rounded off with a neat and provocative conclusion, )] TJ ET BT 290.972 784.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mental Disability in Victorian England )] TJ ET BT 482.648 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clearly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitutes a major contribution to historical understandings of Victorian approaches to insanity, poverty, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and mental deficiency. In particular, Wright manifestly achieves his aims of exposing the complexity of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutional committal and of studying Earlswood `in a dynamic with, rather than in isolation from, society' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 8\). From this perspective, Wright's work resonates with other recent studies of the role of families and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local communities in caring for the disabled and perceptively challenges simplistic notions of institutional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(care as a strategy which was aggressively imposed by the emergent middle-classes on working-class `idiots' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and their families.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What then are the weaknesses or limitations of Wright's account? In general, the style, presentation and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument are all first rate. The text, tables, and figures are informative and accessible but are occasionally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marred by frustrating errors: in particular, some of the numbers in Table 4.1 do not appear to add up, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reference on p. 88 should presumably be to Figure 5.2 not Table 5.2, and the reference on p. 92 should be to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Figure 5.6 rather than 5.5. More importantly, there are moments when central assertions are not sufficiently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(substantiated with evidence. For example, at several points in the text, Wright asserts intriguingly that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(children admitted to Earlswood were only marginally improved by their stay in the institution \(pp. 83, 136\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And yet the reader is given no evidence to support this. Indeed, the only cases quoted \(p. 95\) support the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opposite conclusion; namely that education and training did effect improvements in ability and behaviour. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although such references to progress were of course fashioned by the need to attract subscribers and justify )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discharge, this aspect of the institution's impact needs further exploration.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is, however, a more striking omission from Wright's account: the book contains no illustrations, of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institution, its inmates, or \(less importantly\) the pioneers of voluntary idiot asylums. For document-minded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians this may seem a minor quibble, and yet there is a serious historiographical point here. At one point )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the text, Wright refers briefly to growing contemporary preoccupations with the appearance of idiot )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(children as a means of identifying and classifying deficiency \(pp. 64-5\). And at several points, he quotes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrew Reed's pleasure at the intrinsic and striking beauty of Earlswood's faade \(p. 42\), or refers to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary illustrations of its majestic buildings \(p. 141\). Such references are apposite. Increasing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(visibility of defectives and making manifest philanthropic endeavours were equally crucial features of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Victorian and Edwardian attempts at social improvement. And yet, in Wright's account, the reader is given )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no visual indications of the features of idiocy that proved decisive or of the particular architectural facets of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the asylum that prompted admiration. By omitting visual images, Wright \(or perhaps the publisher\) has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(denied his readers \(and there should be many\) of perhaps the most potent evidence of Victorian aspirations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and follies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It would be unfair to push too far this criticism of what is in all respects an excellent and provocative study. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After all, the desire to see Earlswood more clearly may merely be the product of a mind disturbed by those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adolescent glimpses of the remnants of an optimistic Victorian dream of perfectibility that, for some inmates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at least, became a nightmare of life-long segregation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.611 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 183.994 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 183.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mathew Thomson, )] TJ ET BT 157.676 183.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Problem of Mental Deficiency: Eugenics, Democracy, and Social Policy in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 169.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Britain, c. 1870-1959)] TJ ET BT 167.348 169.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(Oxford, 1998\); Mark Jackson, )] TJ ET BT 325.316 169.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Borderland of Imbecility: Medicine, Society )] TJ ET BT 64.016 155.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and the Fabrication of the Feeble Mind in Late Victorian and Edwardian England)] TJ ET BT 460.016 155.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(Manchester, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 141.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 141.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 139.827 m 149.000 139.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 126.970 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 126.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Bartlett, )] TJ ET BT 133.676 126.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Poor Law of Lunacy: The Administration of Pauper Lunatics in Mid-nineteenth )] TJ ET BT 64.016 112.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Century England)] TJ ET BT 146.348 112.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(Leicester, 1999\); L. D. Smith, )] TJ ET BT 303.332 112.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(`Cure, Comfort and Safe Custody': Public Lunatic )] TJ ET BT 64.016 98.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Asylums in Early Nineteenth-Century England)] TJ ET BT 287.336 98.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(Leicester, 1999\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 378.308 98.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 378.308 97.059 m 432.296 97.059 l S endstream endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 95.0117 140.1415 148.9997 152.0215 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 378.3077 97.3735 432.2957 109.2535 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 34 0 R 36 0 R ] /Contents 33 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Length 1070 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The English Historical Review)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/117/473/1006.full.pdf+html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 766.563 m 346.784 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 349.784 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 763.231 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 745.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 745.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/250)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 744.057 m 322.316 744.057 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 719.080 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 704.680 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1981)] TJ ET BT 34.016 690.280 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/117/473/1006.full.pdf+html)] TJ ET endstream endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 766.8775 346.7837 778.7575 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/117/473/1006.full.pdf+html) >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 744.3715 322.3157 756.2515 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/250) >> endobj xref 0 38 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000587 00000 n 0000000669 00000 n 0000004640 00000 n 0000004749 00000 n 0000004859 00000 n 0000004968 00000 n 0000008529 00000 n 0000008657 00000 n 0000008741 00000 n 0000008832 00000 n 0000016624 00000 n 0000016654 00000 n 0000016780 00000 n 0000016816 00000 n 0000016846 00000 n 0000016974 00000 n 0000017010 00000 n 0000017075 00000 n 0000024586 00000 n 0000024651 00000 n 0000030990 00000 n 0000031081 00000 n 0000038205 00000 n 0000038332 00000 n 0000038387 00000 n 0000038514 00000 n 0000038569 00000 n 0000038660 00000 n 0000039783 00000 n 0000039910 00000 n 0000040026 00000 n 0000040154 00000 n trailer << /Size 38 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 40249 %%EOF