%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140416054423+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140416054423+01'00') /Title (Revolutionary Women in Russia 1870-1917: A Study in Collective Biography) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4288 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Revolutionary Women in Russia 1870-1917: A Study in Collective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Biography)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is the third book on Russian women of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century collectively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authored by Jane McDermid and Anna Hillyar of Southampton University. The two earlier volumes are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(respectively, )] TJ ET BT 98.000 223.427 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Women and Work in Russia 1880-1930; A Study in Continuity through Change)] TJ ET BT 477.656 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1998\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and )] TJ ET BT 54.344 209.171 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Midwives of the Revolution: Female Bolsheviks and Women Workers in 1917 )] TJ ET BT 428.624 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 1999\). It is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps significant that for the first time Anna Hillyar's name appears first and this may indicate that this is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(largely based on her recently completed doctoral thesis. )] TJ ET BT 304.292 180.659 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Midwives of the Revolution )] TJ ET BT 438.284 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argued persuasively that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women were indeed of predominant importance in 1917, not just in the sense of participating in a bread riot )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on International Women's Day but as workers in the textile and metal working factories of the capital. It was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the women who went on strike, persuaded their male colleagues to follow them, took a proactive role in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shaping the revolution and successfully pushed the reluctant revolutionary party activists into supporting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them. Even later in the year, when they were overshadowed by the male movement in factory committees, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there were strikes of women in some industries and women did continue to play a role, as did Bolshevik )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women in organising them. In many ways this book shows why. Women workers and revolutionaries \(often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the same thing\) had a long history of action behind them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(253)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 1 February, 2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anna Hillyar)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jane McDermid)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780719048371)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(232pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.manchesteruniversitypress.co.uk)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Beryl Williams)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7549 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The introduction argues the case for the book and sets out its intentions and sources. The authors admit that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there are several existing works on women revolutionaries over the period, by Stites, Clements, Fieseler and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others, but argue that there is a need for a study which concentrates on working class women activists as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well as the highly educated intelligentsia, and which looks at the pre-1917 period including all political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parties as well as the Bolsheviks. The aim is thus to put Bolshevik women in the wider context of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolutionary women in Russia from the 1860s onward, and to show that the movement was not dominated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only by the intelligentsia or by migrs, but included a large number of working class female footsoldiers. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is what separates the volume from Barbara Clements' excellent )] TJ ET BT 363.452 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bolshevik Women )] TJ ET BT 452.096 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 1997\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although there is inevitably overlap in content and sources used, and the two books are bound to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compared. Almost half the contents of Clements' book deal with events before October 1917, although she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concentrates more on the higher ranks of the party activists. In many ways this volume complements )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clements rather than competing for the same territory.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The primary documentation for the work is impressive. Archives include the International Institute of Social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(History and the Hoover library, but the majority of material is from Russian archival sources, much of it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only recently available since the fall of the Soviet Union. The collective biography is based on 1500 named )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women, of whom some details of lives and activities have been collected for 1200. The authors have used )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memoirs, biographical dictionaries, for example the one edited by Nevskii in the late 1920s, encyclopaedias, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the lists of old Bolshevik membership applications for joining the VOSB \(the Society of Old )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bolsheviks\), including those rejected by the society. Also used are the membership of the Society of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Political Convicts and Deportees, compiled in 1927, of whom 13% were women. Many of these sources, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although by no means all of them, have been used by Clements, but her period is shorter and her interest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confined to the Bolshevichki. The material has been collated, with tables showing where possible social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(origins, education, marital status, occupation and party affiliation. The authors rightly stress the problems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they faced in interpreting the material used, which is at best fragmentary and incomplete and at worst )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(misleading. They have made a good job of the necessary detective work.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book is divided chronologically into three periods; 1870- 1889, 1890-1904 and 1905-1917. The authors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reject the alternative divisions of political affiliation or party allegiance as too difficult to organise. Unlike )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clements, who divided her women Bolsheviks into those who joined the party before October 1917 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those who joined over the civil war, they argue persuasively for 1905 as a crucial date in changing the nature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the revolutionary movement and the women's role in it. This is because the revolution brought increasing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(numbers of people, including women, into the revolutionary movement, and because it clarified the divisions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the Bolsheviks and the Mensheviks. Each section combines a brief overview of the general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolutionary movement of the period with individual case- study biographies of some of the women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involved and statistical information on women in the parties and groups considered. At the end of the book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there are short biographical details of the careers of selected Bolshevik women before October 1917, and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(list of most of the revolutionary women named in the book across parties, with professions where known. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Two overall conclusions emerge. The first is an increase over time in )] TJ ET BT 368.948 247.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(revoliutsionerki)] TJ ET BT 444.944 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( from peasant and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worker backgrounds rather than from the nobility and those from the higher education courses, leading, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the case of the Bolshevik party, to 45% of women from the working class as opposed to 25% from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intelligentsia by 1917, as opposed to 28% workers and 60% intelligentsia before 1905. The other is of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasing Bolshevik support over other parties, although it is worth noting that Clements estimates that in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1907 the SRs had approximately 8000 women members, the Mensheviks the same and the Bolsheviks 2000 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p.30\), so the increase is in the decade before the revolution. Secondly the authors stress an increasing self- )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisation among working women over time and thus less reliance on party guidance, hence their role in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(February 1917.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first period of populist women was dominated by the nobility and the intelligentsia and especially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women of the Fritsche group who returned prematurely from studying medicine in Zurich when the Russian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government recalled them. Already committed to what they saw as 'the cause' they participated in the going )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the people movement. Most women got involved as students in their late teens or early twenties, a pattern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which was to be remarkably consistent up to 1917. After 1878 the Bestuzhev courses enabled Russian )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7617 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women to obtain a higher education without going abroad and these courses proved a fertile recruiting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ground for future revolutionaries as both the government and many parents recognised. Alexandra )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kollontai's parents were not unique in banning their daughter from attending them. As early as the 1870s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12% of active revolutionaries were women and they featured in the two major trials of the period, the trial of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 50, of which 16 were women, and the trial of the 193 of whom 38 were women. Women ran safe houses, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they went to the factories as propagandists, they became village school teachers or ran clinics, as the Figner )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sisters did, and they got involved in the movement as terrorists under the umbrella of Narodnaya Volya. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the first trial six women were sentenced to hard labour but their sentences were commuted, and Breshko-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Breshkovskaya in the second trial was the first to actually serve katorga. The government made no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinction between men and women in its punishments, and of the 10 women on the executive committee of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Narodnaya Volya one was executed, one served 23 years in solitary confinement and one died in prison.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Chaikovsky circle had its women's section, which set up literary circles and entered the factories, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some of those involved lived with working women. As more women came into the cities to the service )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industries and into textiles, women revolutionaries tried to organise them, often with difficulty. By the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1890s, with industrialisation well under way, women circles were established under Brusnev and others, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with their members, often workers themselves, living in communes and concentrating their activities among )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(female labourers, leaving their male colleagues to concentrate on the primarily male metal- working )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(factories. The chief area of concentration was, inevitably, textiles. Foundling hospitals frequently placed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their girls in the textile industry and many of these became involved in the movement. The book, in one of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its sections on biographical details, takes three textile workers, all Brusnev members, and traces their very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different revolutionary patterns to show how women from similar experiences could take different political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(routes. One, Natalia Grigoreva, became an SR, while Vera Karelina joined the Gapon movement in 1905, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which had over 1000 women involved in it. The third, Anna Boldyreva became a Bolshevik, to be eventually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(denied membership of the VSOB, after being denounced in 1934 for complaining about the price of bread. If )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the early women revolutionaries had been students, by the turn of the century more women were being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drawn into the movement through their factory or through family or siblings. There are a surprising number )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of sisters who became)] TJ ET BT 140.324 413.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( revoliutsionerki)] TJ ET BT 219.320 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By the time of the major textile strikes of 1896 workers were acting independently of the intelligentsia, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(creating illegal trade unions and organising themselves. Guidance and education might come from the upper-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class professional revolutionary women through Sunday schools and circles, such as the one Nadezhda )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Krupskaya worked for, but the days of predominantly intelligentsia involvement were over. The data base )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collected shows that two thirds of women involved in the revolutionary movement were without a higher )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(education by the 1890s. Nevertheless it is clear that a thirst for education at whatever level was important in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the motivations which took many women into the lifestyle of a revolutionary. Upper class women were more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(likely to be involved as technical secretaries, an important role in the underground, and one taken by both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Krupskaya and Elena Stasova, the latter from a very upper class family.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The events of 1905 are portrayed as crucial to the development of the revolutionary movement and to worker )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and women worker's involvement in it. 1905 also saw the )] TJ ET BT 313.148 232.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(revolutsionnerki)] TJ ET BT 391.808 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( challenged by 'feminist' groups of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(middle class women like the All- Russian Union for Women's Equality. The authors do not give much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention to those that Kollontai scathingly called 'bourgeois feminists', and they are not strictly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('revolutionary women', but these groups could be very radical in 1905 and aimed at getting working class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support. Petitions to zemstva or city councils called for votes for women at a local level as well as calls for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(female suffrage for the newly created Duma. As soviets were formed in the major cities women played a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part, especially in the textile towns, like Ivanovo- Vosnesensk where about 60% of workers were women. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Trade union work was common among female activists in 1905 although few women workers got involved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in trade unions, partly because of male hostility. Indeed male workers could be as much of a hindrance as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authorities, objecting to women participating in trade unions and fearing for their jobs. In fact after 1905 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(male gains during the year were undercut by employers taking on cheaper female labour when it became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(easier for women to move to the towns in the aftermath of the Stolypin land reforms. The book does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examine peasants, except in so far as some worker women came from peasant backgrounds, but in 1905 )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 4714 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there were women involved in the rural movement, demands for equal rights for women came from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(villages and from the Peasant Union. The Ukrainian sugar beet industry employed female labour and saw )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(active protests by them during the revolutionary year.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thus the authors show that by 1917 there was a real history of working women's revolutionary involvement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behind the events of February. By the latter years of the First World War soldiers' wives rioted on not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(receiving promised benefits and committees of soldiers wives were common. By 1917 45% of Bolshevik )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women were workers, but they were young, often of humble and uneducated backgrounds and not easily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(controlled by the party committees as the events of February showed all too clearly. Women, like men, took )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the intelligentsia and party activists what they wanted and discarded what they did not. This book sets )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out to argue that women's passivity, as seen by male party members at the time and historians since, is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(myth. Perhaps this is now not as controversial as the book sometimes implies. It also sets out to argue that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women were more important in the revolutionary movement than the repetition of a few high profile names )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indicates, and that is undoubtedly true. Nevertheless the average number of women involved over the period )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was only 8.5%, peaking at 16% in 1885 \(p.180\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As the authors admit the hardest task is to trace the private lives of these women. Many, probably most, were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(married and, as the Frischte were willing to abandon a comfortable lifestyle for prison, bombs and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(martyrdom, so later women were willing to abandon even loving and happy marriages, and often also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sacrificed their children's futures and comfort, for the good of the cause. Most were content to remain 'foot-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(soldiers'. One of the problems with this book stopping in 1917 is that apart from small details, like the fate of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Boldyreva quoted earlier, their future careers are not known, but few achieved political leadership. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(According to Clements, Stasova, one of the most qualified of the Bolshevik women, seems, like many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women, not to have desired political influence. If women were often more educated and from a higher social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(background than their male comrades, they seem to have entered the movement for more moral motives, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with less desire for power and an equal if not greater willingness to suffer. This book certainly achieves its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(object of showing the scale of women's involvement in all branches of the revolutionary movement before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1917. But they remained a relatively small minority, even if a significant one, and one which did not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasingly achieve influence with their growing numbers. An Alexandra Kollontai or a Sofia Perovskaia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remained exceptions to the rule.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 342.319 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 324.539 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 324.539 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/253)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 323.145 m 322.316 323.145 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 298.168 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 283.768 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1993)] TJ ET BT 34.016 269.368 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 323.4595 322.3157 335.3395 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/253) >> endobj xref 0 22 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000575 00000 n 0000000657 00000 n 0000004997 00000 n 0000005106 00000 n 0000005216 00000 n 0000005325 00000 n 0000008886 00000 n 0000009014 00000 n 0000009098 00000 n 0000009163 00000 n 0000016765 00000 n 0000016830 00000 n 0000024500 00000 n 0000024584 00000 n 0000029351 00000 n 0000029479 00000 n trailer << /Size 22 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 29574 %%EOF