%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 25 0 R 27 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140728144710+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140728144710+01'00') /Title (Medieval Children) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4197 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Medieval Children)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Orme's new and lavishly illustrated work on medieval children presents the lives and activities of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(children in England from the Anglo-Saxon to the late Medieval periods. Although many aspects of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(childhood in the medieval period have been covered by other writers, Professor Orme is the first historian to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempt to discuss the topic from before the Norman Conquest to the 16th century. Accessible to the general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interested reader and useful to the historian of childhood, the book includes full footnotes, a complete )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bibliography and a friendly index. The intention of the book is to 'reveal the richness of the material about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval English children' \(p10\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter 1, Arriving, covers births, baptism, naming and record making. Family Life, the second chapter, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(covers family size, bringing up the baby, weaning, 'daytime' \(essentially a discussion of children's diet, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clothing and toilet training\), 'nighttime' \(sleeping arrangements and dreams\), relationships between parents )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and children, and the lives of the poor. This last leads on naturally to chapter 3, focussing on danger and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(death in the lives of the medieval child. The next two chapters introduce aspects of children's play: chapter 4, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Words, Rhymes, and Songs, traces the sketchy surviving examples of their oral culture. With occasional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(special pleading, Orme is able to identify a number of nursery rhymes specifically for children, as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exploring the often blurred distinction between children's pastimes and adult pursuits in the medieval period. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Orme even manages to include a page or two dedicated to the most rare of records, children's talk \(p158-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(254)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 31 January, 2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nicholas Orme)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780300085419)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(400pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yale University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://yalepress.yale.edu/yupbooks/book.asp?isbn=9780300097542)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Haven and London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sally Crawford)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R 23 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8139 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(160\). The examples given are all from adult sources, but the delightfully scurrilous verses do resonate with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(children's taunting language. Chapter 5, Play, also confronts the problem of distinguishing adult from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(juvenile activities, emphasising the simple fact that adults and juveniles in the medieval period shared )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common interests, and that children were not always segregated from adult society. However, the attempts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the crown to legislate 'educational' play for children sheds interesting light on the attitudes of adults. At )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the highest level, children's culture was of sufficient interest to be controlled and directed towards purposeful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(play \(p183\). Also in this chapter is a section on 'The Children's Calendar'. This charts the seasonal games )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and festivities of the child's year. This section exemplifies the value of Orme's work and why it represents a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(departure from previous works on medieval childhood; Orme is always striving to see the medieval world )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the child's viewpoint, and devotes topic after topic to activities and problems that really mattered to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(children. Cock fights, ball games, scrumping, roasting beans - children's business is Orme's subject. Chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6, on the church, discusses the clergy's involvement with the raising of children, including their religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(education, Christian rites of passage, and children working within the church as clergy or as participants in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the liturgy. Inevitably, given that secular and ecclesiastical life were finely interwoven in the medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period, there is some discussion of these topics in other chapters too. Orme chooses the topics of 'Learning to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Read' and 'Reading for Pleasure' for his penultimate chapters, concluding with a chapter on the transition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from childhood to adulthood.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Is anything missing from this detailed, information-packed account? A more common approach to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organising the discussion of medieval childhood would be to include several chapters on education: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shulamith Shahar, for example, in her )] TJ ET BT 219.992 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Childhood in the Middle Ages )] TJ ET BT 366.992 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(which covers Europe as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England\) dedicates five of her twelve chapters to the education of children from different social backgrounds.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 483.699 m 48.008 483.699 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.008 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Orme discusses 'Learning to Read' \(chapter 7\) and 'Reading for Pleasure' \(chapter 8\), but deliberately )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excludes broader issues of education and schooling in this work. As he rightly states, education is a large )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject and one he has written on in more than one previous work, and it is not unreasonable to have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excluded this as a separate subject requiring more intensive study than this already large book has space for.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 426.675 m 48.008 426.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.008 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In practice, the school, school books and schoolboy thoughts crop up repeatedly in the illustrations of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval life and play. There may be no formal discussion of schooling, but truancy, writing tasks, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frustration at unkind masters, and the trials of being away from home all crop up with such frequency that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the school looms as large in this text as it must have done in the lives of many a medieval boy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Studies of childhood in history have come a long way since Phillipe Aris first published his thesis of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval childhood in 1960, alerting historians to the idea that social history does not begin with adults, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inviting them to see the worst of man's character in his attitude to children.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 392.804 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 392.804 329.139 m 406.796 329.139 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 406.796 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Aris could not 'see' children )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in history; their lives were of no great significance to medieval adults, and their treatment at the hands of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their carers was negligent at best and brutal at worst. Since Aris, most historians of childhood have seen a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different history in their records, and have been moving away from the idea that the majority of children had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an abusive upbringing. It is appropriate, then, that with a new millennium, Nicholas Orme has offered a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work in which the page seems to have been turned on the past as an unsavoury place for children. Death, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abuse and infanticide are certainly part of Orme's narrative, but this dark side to life is balanced by portraits )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of loving, cherishing parents and carers, and happy children absorbed in their play, or comfortably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ensconced within the family. Orme presents a comprehensive and evocative picture of the life of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval child from birth to adolescence, exploring the relationships between children and the cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions that surrounded them. Baptism, birthdays, disablement, playtime, family life and preparation for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adulthood are presented through the chronicles, paintings and, to a lesser extent, the material culture of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period. In Orme's populated pages, we are introduced to hundreds of medieval children going about their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(business - Peter Carew, playing truant from school and later humiliated for it in public by his father \(p85\); a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boy named Durand who had a small stone lodged in his ear \(p111\): Dorothy Plumpton, a teenager miserable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at having been sent away from home as part of her upbringing \(p318\) - names, incidents and the minutiae of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(children's lives, games and emotions teem within the pages of this book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Compared to earlier discussions of medieval childhood, Orme's presentation of loving parents, caring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(teachers and a considerate judiciary may seem to be a sweetening of the past, but it represents an admirable )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 484.0135 48.0077 495.8935 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 426.9895 48.0077 438.8695 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 392.8037 329.4535 406.7957 341.3335 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 7625 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(determination to show the positive aspects of medieval childhood and parenting, rather that dwelling on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grim, brutal, and quite probably unrepresentative material that survives in the records of courts and coroners )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rolls. Moreover, he is at pains to explain the reasons for some of the apparent brutality of medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(childhood, and to show how accessible medieval emotions and thought patterns are to us. In his section on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(infanticide and abandonment, for example, Professor Orme insists that 'medieval people, like us, regarded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such deeds [as infanticide] with horror' \(p95\). Later, we are advised that 'the medieval families that came )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(closest to modern ones in providing support for children's reading were those of the wealthier and literate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people' \(p274\). When it comes to the crowded sleeping arrangements of the later medieval period, Orme )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cautions us that 'people get used to sleeping in groups, and one can be as lonely in a dormitory as in a private )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(room' \(p79\). Teenage sex and pregnancies 'could be as surprising and unwelcome to adults as they are today' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p331\), and even the notorious 'Italian relation', in which a 16th century Italian visitor to London describes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parents heartlessly turning their children out of their homes to work in hard service as apprentices, is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questioned and reinterpreted. Altruistic and indulgent parents were trying to better the lives of their children )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p310\). Aris said; 'look how differently children were treated in the past because parents did not care about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their children; isn't this interesting?' By contrast, the starting point for Orme's presentation of childhood is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that parents and carers normally loved their children. In a sense, his vignettes of children at play, children )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(learning to read, children helping around the home, say 'look at medieval childhood, see how consistently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval parents treated their children the way modern parents do: isn't that interesting?' In one sense, yes. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Orme's sympathetic treatment of medieval childhood creates an enthralling and intimate social history. But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where does the discipline of research into the history of childhood go from here?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The difficulty arises because the book conveys no real sense of development in the history of childhood in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this period. Orme claims to be covering the period from the 7th century to the 16th - some 900 years of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(societal change and development, but his medieval children show little growth or change, with the notable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exception of an interesting and important discussion of names, where Orme traces the shift in the popularity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of names from the Anglo-Saxon, through the Viking and into the Norman periods, showing how the political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(climate and prevailing ethnic power groups had a direct impact on the names chosen by parents for their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(children, even if the most popular names were at odds with the parents' own cultural background. If )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval childhood was static through 900 long years of war, Conquest, agricultural change, urbanisation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and theological upheaval, as this book, for the most part, implies, and if medieval childhood, with its nursery )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rhymes, reading for pleasure and upsetting teenage pregnancies is really very similar to modern childhood, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then there is, after a book such as this, no point in studying the subject further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fortunately, the impression this book creates of a world in which most medieval children throughout this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time span experienced broadly similar childhoods is, to a large extent, accidental. In spite of his intentions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stated at the outset, Orme too often refers to 'the medieval child' engaged in some activity, giving the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impression that a 9th century Aelfric would have a similar lifestyle and expectations as a 16th century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nicholas. In part, Orme is drawn into this trap by the inevitable contrast between the sparse evidence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(available for the Anglo-Saxon period and the wealth of documentary records from the very end of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval period, and perhaps for the general reader, this broad brush approach is not a problem; only an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(academic pedant would feel obliged to point out that this book says very little about Anglo-Saxon childhood )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and a great deal about the late medieval period. Large portions of the book have nothing to do with pre-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conquest society: discussions of apprenticeship and the drift of adolescent workers into towns, for example, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are presented in general terms, as though common to medieval society throughout the period. Revealingly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Orme begins a section on 'stories and memories' by claiming that 'it is easy to find evidence about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval children as they were seen by others' \(p338\). If only this were true for the Anglo-Saxon period!)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But, as Orme's discussion of children's names illustrated, societal changes do have an impact on the culture )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of childhood. What is static through time, and what Orme and others have convincingly demonstrated, is that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parents cared about their children. But what is worthy of study, is what parents did, at different times and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under different circumstances, in order to do their best for their child. None knows better than a modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(western parent how the demands and pressures of society lead to internal conflict and much compromising )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the desire to protect your offspring and the desire to do what is 'right', and what was 'right' for an )] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R 41 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 4304 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anglo-Saxon child was surely very different, because society was very different, to what was 'right' for a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(16th century child.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This does not come across in Orme's book, however, because this is only a book \(albeit a very, very good )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one\) about 13th to 16th century childhood in England, with occasional reference to the earlier period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nicholas Orme has done a tremendous amount for the medieval child in this very enjoyable and readable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book, but fortunately, it is not the last word in the study of the subject.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 666.291 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 635.674 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 635.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shahar, S. )] TJ ET BT 116.012 635.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Childhood in the Middle Ages)] TJ ET BT 260.012 635.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( London, Routledge, 1990.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 388.676 635.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 388.676 634.275 m 442.664 634.275 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 621.418 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 621.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For example, see Orme, N. )] TJ ET BT 196.652 621.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Schools in the Middle Ages)] TJ ET BT 366.980 621.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, London and New York, 1973; )] TJ ET BT 64.016 607.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Education and Society in Medieval and Renaissance England)] TJ ET BT 359.648 607.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, London and Ronceverte, 1989, and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 592.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Education in early Tudor England: Magdalen College Oxford and its School)] TJ ET BT 433.340 592.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Oxford, 1998.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 506.996 592.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 506.996 591.507 m 560.984 591.507 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 578.650 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 578.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aris, P.)] TJ ET BT 105.680 578.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( L'Enfant et la Familiale sous l'ancien Rgime)] TJ ET BT 327.812 578.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Paris, 1960.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 390.812 578.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 390.812 577.251 m 444.800 577.251 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 552.389 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 538.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Guardian)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 523.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2001/sep/15/historybooks.highereducation1)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 522.483 m 408.668 522.483 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 411.668 523.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 509.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yale University Press)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 495.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://yalepress.yale.edu/yupbooks/book.asp)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 493.971 m 247.004 493.971 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 250.004 495.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 34.016 481.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Google Books)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 466.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://books.google.co.uk/books)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 465.459 m 188.360 465.459 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 191.360 466.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 462.127 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 444.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 444.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/254)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 442.953 m 322.316 442.953 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 417.976 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 403.576 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1996)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.176 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2001/sep/15/historybooks.highereducation1)] TJ ET BT 34.016 374.776 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://yalepress.yale.edu/yupbooks/book.asp?isbn=9780300097542)] TJ ET BT 34.016 360.376 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4] http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=oOZQWewRPBgC&sitesec=reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 388.6757 634.5895 442.6637 646.4695 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot 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