%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140728073354+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140728073354+01'00') /Title (A European Experience of the Mughal Orient: The I'jaz-i Arsalani \(Persian Letters, 1773-1779\) of Antoine-Louis-Henri Polier) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4215 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(A European Experience of the Mughal Orient: The I'jaz-i Arsalani )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(\(Persian Letters, 1773-1779\) of Antoine-Louis-Henri Polier)] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Antoine-Louis-Henri Polier was a Swiss Protestant of French descent who served in the army of the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(East India Company. The major part of his service was in northern India, beyond the area under formal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British control. There he immersed himself deeply in Indian society as he pursued a career which involved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(him closely with Indians varying in eminence from the Mughal emperor to the numerous clerks and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(craftsmen whom he personally employed. Constantly on the move, Polier maintained a copious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correspondence in Persian with those Indians with whom he had dealings. )] TJ ET BT 391.964 152.147 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The I'jaz-i Arsalani)] TJ ET BT 485.204 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \('the wonders )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Arsalan', from Polier's Mughal title, )] TJ ET BT 222.320 137.891 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Arsalan Jang)] TJ ET BT 286.652 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 'lion of the battle'\) was the name given to his Persian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(letter-book of copies of some 2000 of the letters that he wrote, or to be more exact, that his )] TJ ET BT 472.940 123.635 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(munshis)] TJ ET BT 512.276 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( wrote at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his command. The )] TJ ET BT 126.008 109.379 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(munshis)] TJ ET BT 165.344 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( put the letters into the form appropriate to the kind of message that was to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conveyed and to the status of the intended recipient. The volume under review is a translation of half of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them, written between 1773 and 1779.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The letter-book was acquired by the Bibliotheque Nationale in Paris. French academic institutions and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(255)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 31 January, 2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Muzaffar Alam)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Seema Alavi)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780195649802)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(30.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(438pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ukcatalogue.oup.com/product/9780195649802.do)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Marshall)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7420 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholars attached to the French embassy in Delhi have been the generous patrons of the project for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publishing the manuscript. They entrusted the work to two very well qualified scholars, Muzaffar Alam, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(until recently of the Jawaharlal Nehru University, now at the University of Chicago, the leading authority on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Islam in India in the eighteenth century, and Seema Alavi of the Jamia Millia Islamia, who has written a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(valuable book about the Company's army in North India.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(How to present the manuscript evidently raised formidable problems. A full literal translation was for very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understandable reasons rejected. The editors have chosen instead to give 'a summary translation of the text )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without ignoring any substantive part of the translation' \(p. 74\). Most of the elaborate embellishments and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allusions that politeness in Persian letter writing required, but which would have extended the translations to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unmanageable length, have been omitted along with the 'figurative and grandiose language' of certain formal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(congratulatory letters. Editing the text in the conventional sense of providing the reader with some sort of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apparatus of notes to elucidate the letters has not been attempted either. As is made clear on the title page, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(readers are offered a translation and an introduction, but nothing else. They must cope with the letters as best )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they can.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This decision is again a perfectly understandable one. Attempting to identify the vast numbers of people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mentioned in the letters would have been a dauntingly formidable task. To give an example of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficulties, some European names, such as those of Major Marsack, Dr Thomas or John Bristow, are given )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in forms that anyone reasonably familiar with the period will be able to identify; others are rendered in ways )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that makes them virtually unrecognisable. Who, for instance, is 'Mr Math' \(perhaps Thomas Motte\), 'Dr )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chue' or 'Major Hang' \(probably Major Hannay\)? A huge number of Indians, many of them relatively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(humble people, are mentioned, often with variations in their names. The letters also contain many apparently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abstruse Persian terms, for instance for the names of kinds of textiles, of plants and birds or of revenue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(procedures. A glossary has been added, which is valuable as far as it goes, but perhaps inevitably due to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vast range of the subject matter of the letters, many Persian terms seem not to be covered by it. Each letter is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dated according to the )] TJ ET BT 143.324 430.325 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Hijra)] TJ ET BT 171.320 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( era without an equivalent in the Christian era.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(How much readers will be able to derive from the great quarry of material that is being presented to them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will of course depend on the expertise that they bring to it. Some of the letters will be instantly accessible to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anyone with an interest in the period. These will include the letters to and about Polier's two bibis or his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(children by them. On a trip to Calcutta away from his household at Faizabad, Polier commiserates with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(senior bibi: 'It is due to your love for me and your anxieties, as well as your loneliness which has made you )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(averse to eating and suffer from insomnia. . However, I will soon be back . Do not lose heart and be careful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about your regular food and timely sleep. Remain happy' \(p. 182\). Equally accessible are his accounts of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(situation of the Mughal emperor Shah Alam, which he witnessed at first hand on an extended visit to Delhi. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Sikhs and the Afghans were taking control of the emperor's lands, but 'Here in Delhi there is nothing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(except negligence and thoughtlessness. . There is only confusion, anxiety and sleeplessness. I am surprised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and worried. I do not know what there is in store for the country' \(p. 336\). 'There is nothing left of the empire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(except the veneer of its name' \(p.337\). Those who know Polier as a collector and connoisseur will be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rewarded by a series of letters concerning the painter Mehrchand, who was taken to Delhi under Polier's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patronage.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The great bulk of the letters, however, deal with very complex matters in which finance and politics were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(closely linked. Polier was an entrepreneur on a very large scale. He acted in partnership with other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europeans, notably Claude Martin and Dr Baladon Thomas, and employed a staff of European clerks and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(huge retinue of Indian )] TJ ET BT 143.324 149.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(gumashtas)] TJ ET BT 194.660 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 200.660 149.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sarkars)] TJ ET BT 236.660 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and other agents. To fulfil his ambitions, Polier needed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maintain his position in three Indian courts, those of the wazirs of Awadh at Faizabad and later at Lucknow, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that of the emperor in Delhi and the establishment maintained by the great lord Najaf Khan. In addition, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(needed to keep a sharp eye on the internal politics of the Company's Supreme Council in Calcutta and on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disposition of its Residents at Lucknow. Much of Polier's correspondence therefore reflects his need for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political intelligence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If court or Company politics turned against Polier he had much to lose. Hence his obvious sense of outrage )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7750 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at the report of what seem to have been slighting remarks about him made by Asaf-ud-Daula. Shuja-ud-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Daula was much too 'polite and cultured' to have done such a thing \(p. 371\). Polier drew salaries from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wazirs for his skills as an engineer and as an experienced officer in the field, notably in expelling the Jats )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the fort at Agra. He engaged in elaborate building projects for them. He seems to have raised troops for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the wazirs. He supplied their courts and imperial Delhi with luxury European goods shipped up from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Calcutta. He traded in elephants. He was also a provider of girls and slave children. He hoped, for instance, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to deliver to Delhi a girl that he had acquired in repayment of a debt owed to him by her father \(p. 371\). He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidently traded on a large scale in commodities like opium and cotton cloth, trading that required court )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(protection if it was not to be interrupted by local officials.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The ultimate success of all these operations depended on getting paid for them. Payment from an Indian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ruler usually meant the granting of a )] TJ ET BT 211.652 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(tankhwah)] TJ ET BT 258.320 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( or assignment on the revenue of the government. It was, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, one thing to obtain such a grant, but quite another to get it realised. A very large part of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume consists of letters referring to the seemingly endless struggle to make Shuja-ud-Daula and later Asaf-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ud-Daula or Najaf Khan honour their obligations to him. Greater financial security might come by obtaining )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(direct access to revenue collections through the personal grant of a )] TJ ET BT 356.936 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(jagir)] TJ ET BT 380.276 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Polier brought off a considerable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coup in getting a )] TJ ET BT 117.344 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(jagir)] TJ ET BT 140.684 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( awarded to him in person by the emperor, only to find that Najaf Khan's agents )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obstructed his collection of the revenue.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The editors very properly hope that their translation will be a valuable source for the 'economic and social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of the eighteenth century' \(p. 74\), and, they could add, for its now somewhat unfashionable political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history as well. It is very much to be hoped that it will fulfil this laudable intent. Yet if the outline of Polier's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activities at this stage of his life is reasonably clear, to elucidate the detail seems to require a large )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(endowment of prior knowledge. Could the editors have made their material more accessible without an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investment in scholarly endeavour that would probably have been disproportionate to the ultimate value of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the text? The answer is probably no, but some things could perhaps have been attempted that would have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(given some support to the reader at no great cost to the editors. First of all, it regrettably has to be said that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adequate proof reading would have been a significant help. The number of typographical and other errors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflects badly on all concerned. Secondly, it is no doubt deplorably Eurocentric not to be able readily to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convert )] TJ ET BT 73.004 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hijra)] TJ ET BT 99.008 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( into Christian dating, but the scholars who compiled the old )] TJ ET BT 392.336 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Calendar of Persian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Correspondence)] TJ ET BT 113.336 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( did pander to weakness by putting Christian dating in the margin. These scholars also tried )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to standardise spellings and, in their later volumes, to produce an index with identifications of at least the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more prominent Indians mentioned. The index to this volume is perfunctory in the extreme.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Will the long Introduction be of help to those trying to extract meaning from the text? In some respects it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certainly will. There is, for instance, a valuable section that puts Polier's letter-book into the context of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evolving conventions of epistolary style in Mughal India. Much of the rest of the Introduction is, however, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerned less with elucidating the text than with, as the blurb on the cover puts it, locating it 'in the social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and cultural world of the period'. This reviewer has to confess sadly that he finds much of that unconvincing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and on occasions misleading.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Introduction seeks to make several points about Antoine Polier. Beginning on the first page, he is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout described as 'French'. It is assumed that he suffered discrimination in the British Company's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(service because of his Frenchness \(pp.3, 5\). Although the editors do not go so far as to argue that Polier )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(openly identified himself as French, they do attribute to him without any apparent evidence a nostalgia for a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French empire in India \(p. 30\), and they see him as adopting on occasions a 'European' identity different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from a 'British' one \(pp. 31-2\). This seems to lead the editors to conclude that Polier was part of a 'European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of eighteenth-century India [which] contested with English Orientalist underpinnings of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial rule' \(p.73\). Hence presumably the significance of 'European' in the title of the book; it is to signify )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a non-British and therefore a different 'Experience of the Mughal Orient'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(All these propositions invite a degree of scepticism. 'French' was clearly an elastic term in the eighteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century. Polier, although evidently completely fluent in English and willing to assume the name 'Anthony )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Polier' in the Company's records, was no doubt French-speaking by choice. But he was not a subject of the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7768 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(king of France. He called himself of 'a family of French origin but established and naturalised in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Switzerland' and was called a 'Swiss' by a French contemporary \(Sanjay Subrahmanyam, 'The Career of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Colonel Polier and late eighteenth-century Orientalism' )] TJ ET BT 302.144 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society)] TJ ET BT 474.464 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 3rd ser. X )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2000\), 45, 48\). It is most unlikely that his British contemporaries thought of him as French. Warren )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hastings gave him permission to become engineer and architect to the wazir to prevent the job going to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gentil 'and the other Frenchmen under him' \(Bengal Secret Consultations, 19 Dec. 1774, Oriental and India )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Office Collections, P/A/23, p. 463\). For the British Polier would have been a 'foreign Protestant', a category )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that they understood very well. Officers with Huguenot, Dutch, Swiss or German Protestant backgrounds )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had long served successfully in the British army. One of them, Lord Ligonier, was commander-in-chief of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the British army during the Seven Years War, when there was extensive recruitment of foreign Protestants to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fight both in America and India. Polier's uncle was commissioned in the Swiss infantry of the Company in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1751. Antoine went to India as a cadet no doubt to benefit from his patronage. During the war the Company )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also recruited a lot of French soldiers and a few genuine French officers like Martin, who deserted from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defeated army of Lally. Foreign Protestants were generally well treated. An act of parliament of 1762 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extended naturalisation to those who had served for two years in America. One or two of them rose to high )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(office. The Swiss Frederick Haldimand, who became Governor of Quebec, was the most conspicuous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example. By contrast, the East India Company imposed a restriction on the promotion of foreign officers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beyond the rank of Major in 1766. There is, however, no evidence that this was a specifically anti-French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(measure. It is likely that the directors wished to ensure that lucrative senior rank went to people within the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British world of patronage. Polier suffered by this prohibition, until it was later circumvented in his favour, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but in other respects he seems to have made a successful career until he was caught out by the seismic shift )] TJ ET BT 34.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Calcutta politics brought about by the arrival of the new councillors in 1774. They disliked Warren )] TJ ET BT 34.016 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hastings's informal and, they believed, corrupt diplomacy in northern India. Evidently assuming that Polier )] TJ ET BT 34.016 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was Hastings's, agent they ordered his recall. He resigned the service in protest, but nevertheless, with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evident connivance of all sides in Calcutta, he was permitted to remain in Awadh on an unofficial basis to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pursue his various enterprises.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If it seems unlikely that Polier thought of himself or was thought of by others as French, it seems even less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(likely that he regarded himself as a 'European' in the sense that this was a category from which the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were excluded. None of the evidence cited in the Introduction supports that assumption and it seems to have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been a concept totally alien to eighteenth-century usage. 'European' was an inclusive term for the whole )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continent of Europe and for all white men or )] TJ ET BT 250.976 356.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(firangis)] TJ ET BT 288.320 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in India. In his own eyes and in those of others, Polier )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was undoubtedly 'a foreigner', even if a favoured one, in the British world. Foreigners, however, came in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many different forms rather than constituting a single category and it is surely as an individual rather than as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part of some larger entity that Polier should be assessed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If Polier differed from his British contemporaries in his response to India, the explanation for any difference )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is more likely to lie in his personal experience of India than in any sense of identity that can be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(retrospectively attributed to him. At a time when relatively few Europeans lived for any length of time in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(northern India Polier almost certainly immersed himself more deeply in the Indo-Persian culture of its elite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than did any of his contemporaries. The )] TJ ET BT 227.984 230.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(I'jaz)] TJ ET BT 248.552 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is probably therefore a unique record. Martin seems to have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kept something similar and it is perhaps possible that Richard Johnson or William Palmer did the same. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was not, however, until some years later that men like Ochterlony or William Fraser were to make )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves as thoroughly at home in Delhi as Polier had done in Faizabad or Lucknow.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The assumptions that the editors seem to be making that there was a 'sharp contrast' \(p. 57\) between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outlook of the 'European' Polier and of his British contemporaries seem to rest on distorting generalisations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the British. The British are said to have been excessively concerned with high culture rather than with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('ordinary folk and the subaltern classes' \(p. 39\), to have 'compartmentalized' Indians into rigid categories of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hindus or Muslims or Hindu castes and to have 'shunned the Mughal regime as despotic and abstracted from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indian society' \(p. 65\). None of these propositions stands up to close examination. The collections of books )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and pictures by Hastings and Johnson were, for instance, as 'eclectic' as Polier's. Hastings's admiration for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the what he called 'the original constitution' of the Mughal imperial system is made clear in his minute )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 24 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 2099 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commending Gladwin's translation of the )] TJ ET BT 235.160 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ain)] TJ ET BT 251.828 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and his reverence for those who occupied the Mughal throne )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was to be demonstrated by his reception of the prince Jawan Bukht at Lucknow in 1784.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Polier was a remarkable man and his )] TJ ET BT 213.644 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(I'jaz)] TJ ET BT 234.212 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a work of great interest. What potential readers need is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dubious interpretations of Polier's milieu, but as much help as possible from editors who are singularly well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(qualified to enable the letters and the man to speak for themselves. It is very much to be hoped that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(editors will soon be able to follow this volume with a second to complete the project.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Complete Review)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.complete-review.com/reviews/orientalia/polier.htm)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 657.027 m 338.312 657.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 341.312 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.695 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 635.915 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 635.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/255)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 634.521 m 322.316 634.521 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 609.544 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 595.144 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1999)] TJ ET BT 34.016 580.744 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.complete-review.com/reviews/orientalia/polier.htm)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 657.3415 338.3117 669.2215 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.complete-review.com/reviews/orientalia/polier.htm) >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 634.8355 322.3157 646.7155 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/255) >> endobj xref 0 26 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000635 00000 n 0000000717 00000 n 0000004984 00000 n 0000005093 00000 n 0000005203 00000 n 0000005312 00000 n 0000008873 00000 n 0000009001 00000 n 0000009085 00000 n 0000009150 00000 n 0000016623 00000 n 0000016688 00000 n 0000024491 00000 n 0000024556 00000 n 0000032377 00000 n 0000032468 00000 n 0000034620 00000 n 0000034747 00000 n 0000034859 00000 n 0000034987 00000 n trailer << /Size 26 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 35082 %%EOF