%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140819050101+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140819050101+01'00') /Title (The Neville Chamberlain Diary Letters. Volume Two: The Reform Years, 1921-27) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 2014 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Neville Chamberlain Diary Letters. Volume Two: The Reform )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Years, 1921-27)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(256)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 1 March, 2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert Self)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781840146929)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(75.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(500pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ashgate)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.ashgate.com/isbn/9781840146929)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aldershot and Burlington, Vermont)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David J. Dutton)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7576 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Modern historians, and particularly biographers, soon become aware of the importance to their research of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the private papers of leading politicians. They hope that such archives will add a human dimension to their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studies, the opportunity to get to the private individual behind the public figure. They hope also for those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extra insights and understandings that cannot be found in the public record, the additional elements of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detailed explanation which the politician is only prepared to reveal to those particularly close to him, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps only to himself in the privacy of his diary. Often, of course, disappointment awaits. Many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collections described as 'private papers' turn out in fact to consist largely of private office papers - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(documents which essentially form part of the public life of the individual concerned. Sometimes, indeed, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they are no more than copies of documents that are also to be found in the public archives, rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(genuinely private letters and papers. Typically, the historian will hope for the survival of a diary - providing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it has not been kept too self-consciously with a possible eye to later publication - and family correspondence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where the individual concerned unburdens himself in total confidence to a close relative, revealing aspects of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(himself or thoughts about the key issues of his public life which he would not confide to a public document )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no matter how restricted its circulation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chance can play an important part in the existence or otherwise of such material. Even in the great age of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(letter writing family members were often too close to one another in geographical terms to require a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continuous written correspondence. Husband to wife letters can be particularly revealing but are usually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extremely intermittent for the obvious reason that they are only required when the two are temporarily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(separated. Modern means of communication have to a large extent curtailed the practice of writing long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personal letters. Neville Chamberlain lived at a time when the telephone had become available and one was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(installed in his Birmingham home. But, to the infinite benefit of the historical profession, he remained to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(end of his life deeply distrustful of this instrument. Thus, it has long been recognised that the series of letters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(written by Chamberlain to his two spinster sisters, Ida and Hilda, living in the village of Odiham in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hampshire, represent by far the most valuable single element in Chamberlain's private papers held at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of Birmingham. The letters - nearly 1200 in number and containing almost two million words - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(span the period between 1915, when the sisters left the family home in Birmingham, and Neville's death in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1940. Over a quarter of a century, during which time he progressed from being Lord Mayor of his city to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Prime Minister of his country via a succession of cabinet offices, Chamberlain shared his thoughts on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developing political situation with his female siblings with, it must be said, far greater candour and openness )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than he ever showed towards his half-brother, Austen, notwithstanding their shared participation in the game )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of politics. The letters thus provide a unique and detailed commentary on the inner workings of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conservative Party and of the British government which, as regards the 1920s and 1930s, is probably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without equal. Chamberlain entered the House of Commons in December 1918; by October 1922 he was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government minister; thereafter he was only out of office during the brief interludes of Labour government )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1924 and 1929-31 until a few weeks before his death in November 1940. Yet throughout this period he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rarely failed to find the time to write in his own hand a lengthy weekly epistle, addressed alternately to Hilda )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Ida, but clearly intended for the eyes of both.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For Chamberlain himself the letters are particularly important. Dying so soon after leaving office, he never )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had the opportunity, enjoyed by so many of his political contemporaries and put to such effective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(propaganda purpose by his successor in 10 Downing Street, of stating his own case at the bar of history in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the form of a political memoir. Indeed, he only ever wrote one book, a short but occasionally revealing study )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of his cousin, Norman, who lost his life on the Western Front in 1917. He was in any case the most private )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of men who strained to conceal his true personality behind an outwardly cold public faade. Such, however, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was the relationship between Neville, Hilda and Ida Chamberlain that 'there were no external inhibitions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upon the author in revealing as much about his personal and emotional life as he was ever capable of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expressing' \()] TJ ET BT 94.496 118.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Neville Chamberlain Diary Letters)] TJ ET BT 262.160 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( vol. 1, p. 32\). If, then, Chamberlain is to have the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(posthumous chance to 'speak for himself', his letters to his sisters provide the obvious vehicle.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The letters themselves have enjoyed an interesting history. Chamberlain's surviving family, and particularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hilda who lived on until 1966, clearly believed that they contained the raw material upon which the eventual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rehabilitation of his historical reputation could be based. From here would come the counter-thrust to rebut )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7738 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the powerful indictment made by )] TJ ET BT 196.328 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Guilty Men)] TJ ET BT 250.652 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and other popular tracts of a second-rate politician who had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presided with complacency and indifference over the country's fortunes during a period of acute national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(danger. The letters were used extensively, but selectively, by Keith Feiling in his official biography )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published in 1946. Thereafter their availability was jealously superintended. Selected extracts were offered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to sympathetic authors such as Chamberlain's cabinet colleague, Samuel Hoare. Not until 1975 were they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made generally available for research. Since then they have formed an indispensable quarry for scholars of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Chamberlain era, particularly those intent on adding to the seemingly limitless historiographical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mountain relating to British foreign policy in the 1930s. What is striking, however, is the way in which this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one source, and often the very same letters and even quotations from them, have been used to diametrically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opposed purposes. 1989 saw the publication of two studies that relied heavily upon this source for their best )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insight into Chamberlain's policies and inner beliefs. According to John Charmley, writing in )] TJ ET BT 484.484 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Chamberlain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and the Lost Peace)] TJ ET BT 125.672 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Chamberlain had striven manfully to avert the catastrophe of the Second World War and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to preserve the British Empire. His reputation 'stands better now than it has ever done'. Yet for Sidney Aster )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in '"Guilty Men": The case of Neville Chamberlain' the pendulum of revisionism had swung too far and it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was time to revert to those moral judgements which had so damaged Chamberlain's standing back in 1940. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For Aster, Chamberlain stands condemned not just by his actions, but also by his own words.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Now Robert Self has placed all students of inter-war Britain in his debt by producing an expertly edited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collection of Chamberlain's letters to his two sisters. The title )] TJ ET BT 331.160 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Neville Chamberlain Diary Letters)] TJ ET BT 519.824 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(somewhat misleading to the extent that Chamberlain, unlike his half-brother, did keep an extensive, if not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continuous, diary, and the primary purpose of his letters to Ida and Hilda was not to record events for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(posterity but to keep them informed, to share his concerns with two women of considerable intelligence and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(good sense, and to use his sisters as a sounding board for his own thoughts and plans. None the less, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(letters do form an almost continuous record and Chamberlain did, on occasion, clearly use them as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(substitute for entries in his diary which the busy schedule of an over-burdened cabinet minister sometimes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prevented from being written.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The project still has some way to go. The present volume, the second to be published, only takes the story up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to 1927, still a decade away from the dramatic events of the premiership upon which, for better or for worse, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chamberlain's historical reputation will in the last resort always depend. But the years that are covered here, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1921-27, are full of interest and offer vital insights into Chamberlain's career. For Chamberlain personally it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was a period of dramatic transformation. At the start of 1921 he was a humble, if industrious, backbencher of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(just two years standing and, already in his early fifties, entertaining little prospect of ministerial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advancement. Six years later he was a senior cabinet minister, had already served as Chancellor of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Exchequer, had been responsible for a considerable body of reforming legislation and probably stood as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number two figure in the Conservative party, the most likely successor as Prime Minister should Stanley )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Baldwin, for whatever reason, decide or be forced to stand down from his leading position. This advance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might be described as meteoric, if only that adjective did not seem curiously inappropriate when applied to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chamberlain. He had achieved this transformation in his personal fortunes, as these letters illustrate, through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a combination of good fortune - being on the right side in the Conservative split of 1922 - hard work, sheer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administrative competence and a healthy measure of self-confidence in his own worth.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Above all we are presented here with the authentic Chamberlain, the committed domestic reformer on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(progressive left of the Conservative party and, in this respect at least, a very different political animal from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his half-brother. If what history has judged to be the most important part of Chamberlain's career came to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focus on his role in international diplomacy, this was not something which he himself engineered. Equipped )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps to be a great peacetime Prime Minister it was fate, and Adolf Hitler, which decreed that he had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instead to focus on foreign policy and preparations for war. Yet almost certainly he would have wished, had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumstances been otherwise, to be remembered as a domestic reformer. It was obvious, noted a cabinet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colleague of many years standing at the time of Chamberlain's death, 'that he looked back, as he was entitled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to look back, on what he had done at the Ministry of Health [1924-9] as really the thing in his career in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which he felt he had served the people well'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chamberlain's commitment to social improvement, albeit of a distinctly paternalistic hue, shines out from )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7417 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these pages. It was to his great relief that Baldwin offered him the Ministry of Health in 1924, rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obliging him, as he had thought probable, to return to the Treasury, even though it was the latter office )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which was more likely to lead to further advancement within the Tory hierarchy and possibly to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(premiership itself. 'If I have 4 or 5 years of office', he wrote in 1925, 'I may leave behind as great a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reputation as Minister of Health as Father did as Colonial Secretary. Only it will probably take longer for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public to find it out and it will only be after I am dead that my administration will be talked of as a Golden )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Age at the Ministry!' As his prevailing reputation remains engulfed in the mire of appeasement, the second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part of his expressed hope is, even now, at best only partially fulfilled. Those who read these pages may do )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(something to turn the tide. We see a minister who set himself goals and strove mightily to achieve them. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This was not a man who was in politics for its own sake or for the crude pursuit of power. More than fifty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years ago Feiling declared that Chamberlain's legislative record at the Ministry of Health stood 'massive and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unquestioned, the chapter of his life least controverted'. There is little here to challenge that judgement.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The letters also throw light on the surprisingly difficult relationship which existed between Chamberlain and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his half-brother. At the beginning of Neville Chamberlain's parliamentary career attitudes towards Lloyd )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(George seemed to lie at the heart of the problem. Neville never forgave the Prime Minister for the unfair )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way in which he believed he had been treated during his first incursion into national politics as Director-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(General of National Service in 1917. Austen, by contrast, had become attracted - seduced is hardly too )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strong a word - by Lloyd George's beguiling charm and undoubted qualities of dynamic leadership, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(becoming a mainstay and leading apologist of the post-war coalition. These differences caused family )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(friction throughout the lifetime of Lloyd George's government which were not ended by the fall of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coalition in October 1922. For while Neville now accepted office in Bonar Law's new Conservative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government, Austen remained loyal to the concept of coalition government and still viewed favourably the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prospect of future alignment with sympathetic Liberals. Such tactical divergences reflected deeper )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differences between the two men. All the Chamberlains came, of course, from Liberal stock, but Austen was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a born conservative and had drifted more easily and naturally than either his father or Neville into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(embraces of the Tory party. For him the post-war coalition and a possible party realignment represented the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indispensable means of resisting the advance of socialism. Neville, by contrast, was a genuine radical. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(once said that he and Samuel Hoare were 'the only Socialists in the late [Conservative] Govt' [p. 237]. And )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he did not dissent from the proposition that the Conservatives \(or at least the sort of Conservative party )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which he wanted to mould\) had more in common with Labour than either had with the Liberal party [p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(214]. Indeed, for him the Liberals had become an outdated irrelevancy and it was the duty of Conservatives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(like himself to destroy what remained of a once great party. We see also Chamberlain's firm roots in the city )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Birmingham, roots which Austen, who had not served an apprenticeship in local government, never )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspired to match. Neville comes as close as was seemly to telling his sisters that Austen was a poor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constituency MP. He even seemed to seek their confirmation that his children were more interesting and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(talented young people than were those of his half-brother [p. 108].)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Insights are also provided into relationships which acquired greater significance in later years. If )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chamberlain sympathised with at least some of the aspirations of the Labour party, he also developed a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growing contempt for its parliamentary leadership. Though, as an industrialist, he had once enjoyed a good )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rapport with organised Labour, we note here the beginnings of that steady alienation between Chamberlain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and his political opponents which would have fatal consequences in the national crisis of 1940 'I suppose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what irritates [Ramsay MacDonald]', he wrote revealingly in 1926, 'is what the Nation calls my "sharp )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tongue and the bitter sarcasms with which I delight to stir up the hornets nest in front of me"!' [p. 360]. A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(few months later he added: '[Douglas] Hogg and I are left as the only ones who really annoy the Socialists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and of the two I believe they hate me most. I fancy its because of my nasty sarcastic way.' [p. 405]. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chamberlain's other nemesis of 1940, Winston Churchill, also figures prominently in his correspondence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this time. In the light of the growing revisionist literature about the great war leader, Chamberlain's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comments seem more acute than might once have been the case. 'The worst of having a genius for a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colleague', he noted perceptively in November 1927, 'is that he is always flying after some new game which )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 3126 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diverts him from the more humdrum but more practical political paths' [p. 428].)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Self's editorial work is generally meticulous, though there might have been scope to increase the number of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those footnotes which explain allusions within the text. As an adoptive Liverpudlian the present reviewer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may be permitted one factual quibble. Edwin Lutyens did not design Liverpool's Roman Catholic Cathedral, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at least not the one that was actually built. The volume begins with a thoughtful commentary on these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important years in Chamberlain's career, though the excellent discussion of his life as a whole and of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general importance of the run of letters contained in Self's first volume is not reproduced. Those who come )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first to volume two would be well advised to refer back to this essay. When, a few years ago, the same editor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(produced a volume of Austen Chamberlain's letters to his two sisters \(and the contrasting commentary on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same events provided by the brothers is often most instructive\), he usefully provided the archival reference )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of each document. Dropping this notation from Neville's letters is a pity. Such complaints are, however, at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the margin. Robert Self is to be congratulated on another valuable and well-produced volume. It is only a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pity that its price is likely to deter many potential purchasers. It will be interesting to see how the editor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interprets the later and increasingly controversial years of Chamberlain's career. It may be that no consensus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is ever going to be reached about this key figure of inter-war British politics. But Self's work will at least )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ensure that the case for Neville Chamberlain is put as persuasively as the subject's own words permit.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 525.391 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 507.611 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 507.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/256)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 506.217 m 322.316 506.217 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 481.240 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 466.840 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 452.440 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 506.5315 322.3157 518.4115 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/256) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000586 00000 n 0000000668 00000 n 0000002734 00000 n 0000002843 00000 n 0000002953 00000 n 0000003062 00000 n 0000006623 00000 n 0000006751 00000 n 0000006835 00000 n 0000006900 00000 n 0000014529 00000 n 0000014594 00000 n 0000022385 00000 n 0000022450 00000 n 0000029920 00000 n 0000030004 00000 n 0000033183 00000 n 0000033311 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 33406 %%EOF