%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140713134240+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140713134240+01'00') /Title (Russia and the Russians: A History from Rus to the Russian Federation) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4334 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Russia and the Russians: A History from Rus to the Russian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Federation)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(History on this scale is a daunting task, not just for the breadth of scholarship it requires but also because it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lays before the author the powerful temptations of platitude and over-generalization. Geoffrey Hosking, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he has amply shown elsewhere, is a historian who can draw a big picture without losing his curiosity, his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feel for detail, or his capacity for concise but penetrating summary. Despite the need to make reasonably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brisk progress through more than one thousand years of history, this book is not in a hurry. )] TJ ET BT 472.976 209.171 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Russia and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Russians)] TJ ET BT 76.688 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is intended to be accessible to a reader with little or no prior knowledge of the subject, and it meets )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this requirement without oversimplifying the analysis or patronizing the reader. Less expert readers will be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grateful for the strongly articulated narrative complemented by numerous thematic subsections. Professional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians will find new information, and food for thought, on periods and topics that lie outside their main )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research. Hosking has read widely and provides an illuminating synthesis of Anglo-American, Soviet, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russian and German scholarship. The quality and clarity of the writing, and of the organization of material, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meet the standards he has set in his earlier work.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But readers familiar with this earlier work will expect more than information, intelligence, and clarity of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exposition: they will take up the book anticipating big ideas as well. Here, too, )] TJ ET BT 414.320 68.867 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Russia and the Russians)] TJ ET BT 530.660 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not disappoint. It offers not merely an account but also an interpretation of Russian history; not so much a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(257)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 31 March, 2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Geoffrey Hosking)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780713995145)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(731pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Allen Lane)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.penguin.co.uk/nf/Book/BookDisplay/0,,9780140297881,00.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stephen Lovell)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8295 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(textbook as a fabric of interwoven arguments. In this sense, the book is in the vein of Richard Pipes?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(combative )] TJ ET BT 87.008 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Russia under the Old Regime)] TJ ET BT 227.660 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1974\) rather than that of Nicholas V. Riasanovsky?s sober and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scrupulously even-handed )] TJ ET BT 162.656 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A History of Russia)] TJ ET BT 256.328 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1963, and several subsequent editions\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of Hosking?s main ideas follows on from his previous book, )] TJ ET BT 349.988 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Russia: People and Empire 1552-1917)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1997\). In that work he argued that Russia?s empire-building mission should be held responsible for much of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what is commonly held to make the country distinctive \(and, in many people?s eyes, defective\). The absence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of civil society, the persistence of authoritarian rule, the weakness of the market and of economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development, the failure to achieve technological innovation in all but a few areas, the deep divisions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between rulers and educated elite and between both these groups and the common people: all these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regrettable phenomena should be seen primarily as resulting from Russia?s incessant striving to acquire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more territory in the Eurasian land mass and then to defend and maintain that territory. The most significant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(casualty of this imperial destiny, in Hosking?s view, has been a sense of Russian nationhood. Russians were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relentlessly pressed into participation in a multi-ethnic service state instead of receiving a secure and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sustainable basis for social solidarity, cohesion and identity \(be it through ethnic or through civic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalism\). As a result, Russian society was less active, productive and stable than was good for it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Russia and the Russians)] TJ ET BT 150.356 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( presents this argument again, but in a slightly different light. Most obviously, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chronological boundaries are pushed back at both ends -- and this matters. )] TJ ET BT 392.948 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Russia: People and Empire)] TJ ET BT 524.600 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historian?s cliffhanger: it left the reader wondering not what would happen next but what happened before. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If given the opportunity to write another book, would Hosking trace back the causes of Russia?s imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mission even further? Surprisingly for such a long and conceptually ambitious book, )] TJ ET BT 442.976 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Russia: People and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Empire)] TJ ET BT 69.344 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( gave the impression of plunging )] TJ ET BT 230.000 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(in medias res)] TJ ET BT 293.996 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: it started in 1552 with a specific campaign, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Muscovite conquest of the Khanate of Kazan?. With this blow, its first annexation of a non-Russian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sovereign state, Muscovite Russia was launching itself on the imperial path ? a path that, in Hosking?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account, leads, without too many deviations, to the bloodbath of the revolution and the civil war. But how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exactly did Russia arrive at Kazan??)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first sentence of )] TJ ET BT 135.320 404.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Russia and the Russians)] TJ ET BT 251.660 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( already indicates what the answer will be: "The north Eurasian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plain is not only Russia?s geographical setting, but also her fate." Any major state that established itself in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Inner Eurasia was likely to be strong and resilient: it would have access to such enormous resources and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would command such a territory as to seem almost indestructible. Yet it would also face extraordinary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficulties: the natural obstacles to efficient and economically beneficial communications with the wider )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world, the near-impossibility of policing all the frontier zones, and the huge task of governing effectively a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(multi-ethnic and widely dispersed population. This "paradoxical combination of colossal strength and almost )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crippling weakness" \(p. 3\) has left its mark everywhere in Russian history: in the struggle to push back and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maintain the borders of the Russian Empire, in the creation of a multi-ethnic ruling class, in chronic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic underdevelopment, and in religious and ideological conflict. In later chapters, Hosking shows )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these problems persisting all the way through to the present day. He first explains how a major state did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(establish itself in Inner Eurasia, and why that state proved to be Muscovy. He shows the imperial and state-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(building imperative in action through the Romanov period, and then takes the story beyond 1917. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enduring problems of society under empire were, if anything, exacerbated by the Soviet period, where the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy of ?indigenization? adopted in the 1920s prepared the way for subsequent ethnic tensions and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperial overstretch, and where perennial economic and political habits remained more or less intact.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The other main way in which this book expands on )] TJ ET BT 282.656 163.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Russia: People and Empire)] TJ ET BT 414.308 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is in its extensive and well-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(informed treatment of non-Russian ethnic groups, religions, and territorial and political units. Hosking is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acutely aware that ?Russia? has meant many things for many people, but that only rarely has it been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understood in mono-ethnic terms. The reason that Russia has been "one of history?s great survivors" \(p. xi\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is precisely that it has been omnivorously inclusive of non-Slavic ethnicities \(not for high-minded motives of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural tolerance but for hard-headed imperial )] TJ ET BT 261.284 92.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(raison d?tat)] TJ ET BT 324.956 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although empire-building is a prominent topic in )] TJ ET BT 273.680 66.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Russia and the Russians)] TJ ET BT 390.020 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, it is not the only, or indeed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(main, focus of Hosking?s attention. Unlike )] TJ ET BT 243.332 52.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Russia: People and Empire)] TJ ET BT 374.984 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, this is not a book with a single )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 8934 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thesis. It aims not to explain what went wrong with Russia, or what made it the way it is, but rather to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understand the way Russia is and has been. Hosking?s approach to his subject is sympathetic rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forensic: if Russia has insatiably swallowed up territory and oppressed its own and other peoples, it needs to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be explained, not diagnosed or indicted. This makes for an instructive contrast with Richard Pipes?s )] TJ ET BT 516.956 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Russia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(under the Old Regime)] TJ ET BT 139.664 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Pipes made no bones about what was driving his inquiry: he set out to explain "why )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Russia ? unlike the rest of Europe to which Russia belongs by virtue of her location, race and religion ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society has proven unable to impose on political authority any kind of effective restraints". He found the key )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to this question in the relationship between ?ownership? and ?sovereignty?. Unlike in western European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(states, which managed over many centuries to distinguish between "authority exercised as sovereignty" and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("authority exercised as ownership", political authority in Russia was exercised as "an extension of the rights )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of ownership". The result was a "patrimonial state" that was increasingly riven by internal tension as it came )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into greater contact with states that enjoyed a different political and legal culture.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hosking?s is a more expansive, less political and less single-mindedly analytical account. Pipes began his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book with a chapter on ?The environment and its consequences?, which starts with low agricultural yields, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the collective character of farming, and the geopolitical colonizing impulse, and goes on to consider the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implications of all these for Russian statehood. Hosking?s concerns are more wide-ranging, as is suggested )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the subtitle of his introductory chapter: ?Geopolitics, Ecology, and National Character?. The first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subsection, ?Agriculture, habitation, and diet?, follows Pipes and others in citing low yields as a powerful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(determinant of Russia?s economic and political history, but also considers the long-term effects of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eurasian terrain in other areas: peasant architecture, food, and \(especially\) drink. The next section moves on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to discuss what Hosking sees as the two ?key concepts? of the Russian mentality: )] TJ ET BT 427.976 499.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(mir)] TJ ET BT 444.644 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 467.972 499.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(pravda)] TJ ET BT 501.968 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these concepts are expressions of the ?community solidarity? to which Russians have always been inclined, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(given their geopolitical vulnerability and the unfavourable agricultural conditions that have confronted them. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mir)] TJ ET BT 52.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(literally ?world?\) refers to the community itself, while )] TJ ET BT 322.640 456.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(pravda)] TJ ET BT 356.636 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( denotes the spirit that infuses it: a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(synthesis, in our terms, of truth, justice and morality. The final section of the introduction presents another, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(related, characteristic of Russian culture: its ?binary nature?, or the "tendency to seek extreme solutions to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems and to lurch from one set of cultural patterns to their diametrical opposite" \(p. 22\). Russians, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other words, have seen the world in terms of a stark opposition between that which lies inside the )] TJ ET BT 504.284 399.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(mir)] TJ ET BT 520.952 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that which lies outside it; between paganism or Western Christianity and Orthodoxy; between the archaic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the modern; between Heaven and Hell; or between West and East.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is one thing to assert the existence of a Russian ?national character?. It is quite another, however, to show )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how this character was formed and maintained by social and political institutions and practices. To make the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connection between an apparently trans-historical mentality and a shifting set of historical conjunctures, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hosking relies above all on two related concepts. First, ?joint responsibility? \()] TJ ET BT 408.980 302.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(krugovaia poruka)] TJ ET BT 494.636 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), an ethos of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collective life that can be traced back to medieval times. Given the remoteness of much of Russia from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centres of political authority, communities had to find their own way of ensuring harmony. The aim was to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reach decisions by consensus; individual or minority interests could not be defended independently, though )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they could be expressed during the course of the community?s discussions. The result was a strongly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(egalitarian society: individuals were, on the whole, permitted neither to enrich or empower themselves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unduly nor to go under entirely. The custom of )] TJ ET BT 261.992 216.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(krugovaia poruka)] TJ ET BT 347.648 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( later proved to be a boon to Russia?s state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(builders, who were able to rely on peasants? sense of their collective responsibility to discharge labour dues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or fiscal obligations. The second key factor Hosking identifies in Russian social history is )] TJ ET BT 467.648 187.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(kormlenie)] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(literally ?feeding?\), the practice of levying tribute in Kievan and Muscovite Rus?. \(It is symptomatic of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(term?s prominence in )] TJ ET BT 140.996 159.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Russia and the Russians)] TJ ET BT 257.336 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( that )] TJ ET BT 281.336 159.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(kormlenie)] TJ ET BT 329.324 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( loses its italics after the introduction, though it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is hardly a household concept in English.\) The right of )] TJ ET BT 298.988 145.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(kormlenie)] TJ ET BT 346.976 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was enjoyed by the princes who ruled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(various parts of the territory of Rus?, and it could also be granted by them to the leading warriors \(or boyars\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in their retinues, on condition that the boyars gave up a portion of the income they derived from their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(territory. The practice persisted even when Muscovy started its drive towards centralization. )] TJ ET BT 479.252 102.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kormlenie)] TJ ET BT 529.916 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enormous practical advantages for pre-modern state-builders in a political space such as Eurasia. Direct )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(central authority over the full territory of a rapidly expanding dominion was simply impossible; the best way )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to maintain some semblance of control was to create a class of tribute-gatherers. The practice of )] TJ ET BT 497.564 59.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(kormlenie)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 8553 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also meant that the state would not have to meet the potentially enormous costs of tax collection; nor would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it need to provide direct material support for most of its servitors. Hosking ? quite rightly, in my view ? sees )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an essential continuity between )] TJ ET BT 187.328 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(kormlenie)] TJ ET BT 235.316 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in Muscovite Russia, master-serf relations on the post-Petrine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(landed estate, and the )] TJ ET BT 140.324 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(nomenklatura)] TJ ET BT 206.984 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( system of the Soviet period. He might also have added that in practice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(krugovaia poruka)] TJ ET BT 119.672 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is what )] TJ ET BT 160.004 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(kormlenie)] TJ ET BT 207.992 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( feels like if one does not have the good fortune to belong to a socio-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political elite: ?joint responsibility? and ?feeding? were mutually reinforcing features of Russian society.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In Muscovite times, )] TJ ET BT 132.680 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(kormlenie)] TJ ET BT 180.668 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was a rational and relatively effective means of governing the territory. As )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the grand princes \(in due course ?tsars?\) became more secure in their political power and symbolic authority, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they increasingly sought to bolster that authority by handing out patrimonial estates \()] TJ ET BT 441.992 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(votchiny)] TJ ET BT 482.648 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) to their loyal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(servitors. This was a wider dissemination of )] TJ ET BT 248.660 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(kormlenie)] TJ ET BT 296.648 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( that was designed to strengthen the state. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship thereby established between patrimonial masters \(or tribute-gatherers\) and subjects was not, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moreover, a purely exploitative one. The former had opportunities to generate income for themselves, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they also had responsibilities to the people who lived on their estates; they were, moreover, bound by a set of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(customary expectations regarding land use. As Hosking argues, "the concept of ownership was much more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diffuse in fifteenth- and sixteenth-century Muscovy than it became in later centuries, and was compatible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with multiple intersecting rights" \(p. 91\). Equally, the relationship between the grand prince and his leading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(servitors \(themselves lords of their own manors\) was far from being one of outright domination. For the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most part, Muscovite rulers understood that they could accomplish little without the unswerving support of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the main boyar clans, and did their best to ensure that these clans would remain major stakeholders in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state-building enterprise \(by doling out generous land grants\). Hosking suggests that we need to distinguish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the absolutist rhetoric of Muscovite rulers and the often more accommodating logic of their actions. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For this reason, he takes issue with Pipes?s notion of medieval Russia as a ?patrimonial monarchy?. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was not the mere enslavement of servitors to the state \()] TJ ET BT 297.968 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(gosudarstvo)] TJ ET BT 356.636 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, literally ?lordship?\) but the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(establishment of a more fluid mode of politics that Hosking calls the ?statization of personal power?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Muscovite rulers did not behave like the lords of a patrimonial state, they did not believe, and could not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(afford to believe, that they owned people in the same way that they owned land. Nor, of course, were they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bound by legal or constitutional constraints. Rather, they acted as patrons at the command centre of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(network of clientelistic relations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hosking identifies the patron-client mode of politics as one of the defining constants of Russian history. As )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mentioned above, he sees a continuity from )] TJ ET BT 245.984 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(kormlenie)] TJ ET BT 293.972 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to )] TJ ET BT 309.308 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(nomenklatura)] TJ ET BT 375.968 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. But this continuity masks profound )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changes. In Muscovy, the ?statization of personal power? was in general an extremely effective way of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mobilizing resources to pursue the interests of the state. Muscovy was able to cement its position as the new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centre of Rus? because it was a more successful gatherer of tribute than its rival principalities. It then proved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remarkably adept at acquiring and incorporating new territory. But the personalistic style of politics left )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russia ill-equipped for many of the social, political and economic challenges of the following centuries: it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impeded the development of a legal system and the emergence of a legal consciousness; it ensured that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weakness of intermediate social institutions would endure; and it left both the Russian state and the Russian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people vulnerable to the caprice of wrong-headed patrons. In time, patrimonial masters? sense of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obligations weakened, and the pressure applied by the state on the agricultural population increased; the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(result was often indistinguishable from slavery. Servitors of the state with the right to )] TJ ET BT 446.984 216.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(kormlenie)] TJ ET BT 494.972 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( saw ?joint )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responsibility? not as an ethos that should inform their own actions as well as everyone else?s, but rather as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(means of squeezing more tribute out of an economically and politically disabled population.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The domination of personalistic power over the rule of law did not preclude the search for symbolic sources )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of political legitimation but rather exacerbated it. Muscovite Russia was split between three identities: it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might imagine itself as the centre of the Eastern Christian ecumene; as the centre of a Eurasian empire; or as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an emerging European great power. Usually rulers did not commit themselves to any single one of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legitimizing strategies but rather used an eclectic mix of all three. But however they viewed the mission of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Muscovy, their vision was bound to place enormous strain on the available state-building resources. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strain showed in the violent internal strife of the reign of Ivan IV and of what Hosking calls "the turbulent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seventeenth century". In the time of Peter the Great, the Russian state began to place emphasis on )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7754 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modernization: on overcoming Russia?s economic and technological backwardness; on creating more and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(larger cities; on inculcating more ?civilized? forms of behaviour; and even on instituting the rule of law in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some areas. But such attempts very often relied on coercion, and in any case had to work within existing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personalistic power structures; for this reason, more often than not, "modernization reinforced archaism" \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(176\). Attentive readers of )] TJ ET BT 160.316 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Russia and the Russians)] TJ ET BT 276.656 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( will find many other examples of ?archaicizing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modernization? in Russian history of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries as well: in the ?great leaps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forward? that have resulted in gigantic steps backwards, or in the creation of bureaucracies that have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entrenched, not eliminated or obviated, personalized powerbroking. Where modernization has been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effective, however, is in eliminating institutions and practices that might have helped Russian society and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(statehood to take more benign forms. A notable casualty, in Hosking?s view, has been the Orthodox Church, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whose thorough statization under Peter the Great left it incapacitated as a provider of national cohesion.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Up to and including the chapter on the Petrine period, chronological and thematic approaches work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beautifully in tandem. The Kievan and Muscovite eras are not just periods in history but represent emerging )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(models of statehood. The seventeenth century stretched to near-breaking point some of the tensions inherent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Muscovite statehood. The Petrine era brought an explicit, if only partially successful, attempt to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modernize and revitalize the mechanisms of authority. When we reach the period from the death of Peter to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that of Nicholas I, however, big ideas and historical paradigms are thinner on the ground. When Russian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history is viewed on the grand scale that Hosking lays before us, the era 1725-1855 might appear to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(something of an interlude between the awesome first phases of state- and empire-building and the onset of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terminal decline in the later nineteenth century. Even so, Hosking identifies several new themes that advance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his argument as well as his narrative. Although Russia continued to make territorial gains, it now did so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within the framework of European great power politics. While this was gratifying for the imperial self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(image, it also placed new strains on the Russian polity \(as the Crimean War would eventually demonstrate in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terms too stark for anyone to ignore\). The fiscal burdens borne by the population increased to meet the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demands of military expenditure and nascent industrialization. At the same time, Russia?s rulers ? especially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catherine II ? were searching for new ways to boost the health and the efficiency of the Russian state: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notably, by strengthening the role of corporations and the rule of law \(with law understood in a primarily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instrumental sense, as a means of achieving state ends\). But the reality of state administration at all levels )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remained extremely personalistic ? not least in Catherine?s own court. Throughout the eighteenth century, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the power of the tsar was seriously constrained by a set of elite families whose power was reiterated by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(palace coup that brought the murder of Paul in 1801. A further obstacle to the exercise of rational )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monarchical authority was the emergence of a group of free-thinking intellectuals who had their own ideas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on statehood and were increasingly inclined to give voice to those ideas \(in the late eighteenth century many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of them were freemasons, by the 1840s they had coalesced into an ?intelligentsia?\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By the time he reaches the 1860s, Hosking is on the home straight. The last few pre-revolutionary decades )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are shown to bring the tensions of Russian society and statehood to a new level of intensity. And the Soviet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rulers are seen to have grappled with many of the same problems as their tsarist counterparts. Conceptual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continuity is maintained even into the post-Soviet period. Yeltsin?s shelling of the White House in October )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1993 was the kind of action to be expected from a Russian ruler confused about his sources of legitimacy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and frustrated by constitutional constraints on his statization of personal power.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In sum, Hosking has given us an important and coherent vision of Russian history. This is a book that should )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be read by anyone seriously interested in the social, economic and political paths open to the contemporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russian Federation. It also deserves to make an impact in more specialized, historiographical, areas. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hosking?s insight on the centrality of patron-client relations needs to be followed up in more focused )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studies. It is time to investigate in greater depth how ?patrons? and ?clients? operated in specific institutional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(settings, and what implications their manoeuvres had for Russian statehood. A particularly fascinating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period in this respect is the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, when the imperial court was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subsumed under what might be called ?elite society?. For some readers, perhaps, Hosking?s work will seem )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(too tolerant of Russian social and political pathologies and not political enough in its determination to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illuminate Russian society, culture and even the Russian ?national character?. On both these counts, )] TJ ET BT 516.944 61.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Russia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 47.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and the Russians)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R 26 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 1624 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is profoundly different from Pipes?s incisive and brilliant )] TJ ET BT 312.656 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Russia under the Old Regime)] TJ ET BT 453.308 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the book that is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps its closest analogue in intellectual ambition. But it seems to me that these two works complement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than contradict each other. History is \(or should be\) the broad church that Russia tried, and failed, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Google Books)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://books.google.co.uk/books)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 697.539 m 188.360 697.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 191.360 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 694.207 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 676.427 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 676.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/257)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 675.033 m 322.316 675.033 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 650.056 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 635.656 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 621.256 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=oh-5AAmboMUC&sitesec=reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 697.8535 188.3597 709.7335 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=oh-5AAmboMUC&sitesec=reviews) >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 675.3475 322.3157 687.2275 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/257) >> endobj xref 0 28 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000586 00000 n 0000000668 00000 n 0000005054 00000 n 0000005163 00000 n 0000005273 00000 n 0000005382 00000 n 0000008943 00000 n 0000009071 00000 n 0000009155 00000 n 0000009220 00000 n 0000017568 00000 n 0000017633 00000 n 0000026620 00000 n 0000026685 00000 n 0000035291 00000 n 0000035356 00000 n 0000043163 00000 n 0000043254 00000 n 0000044931 00000 n 0000045058 00000 n 0000045173 00000 n 0000045301 00000 n trailer << /Size 28 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 45396 %%EOF