%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140930132909+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140930132909+01'00') /Title (Warriors and Scribes: Essays on the History and Politics of Latin America) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3996 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Warriors and Scribes: Essays on the History and Politics of Latin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(America)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This volume is a collection of seven essays on Latin America by James Dunkerley, all written and published )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(separately between 1992 and 1999. The most immediate question posed, given the wide and varied range in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(topic covered and in approach \(no two essays being alike\), is both how the essays work individually and, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more pertinently, how coherently they hang together. Collected essays can pose special difficulties: if the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author is already an established literary celebrity, collected works constitute an already accepted subject for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study, regardless of topic, but, for others, one perhaps expects such a collection to show some sort of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coherent unifying theme to justify publication. Thankfully, one does emerge, although that ought not to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surprise anyone familiar with Dunkerley's voluminous work, where consistent themes and patterns can be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinguished, and it is clear that all seven essays display already familiar qualities: an impressive erudition, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an ironic eye, a literary elegance and eloquence, a genuinely original way of thinking, and a clear affection )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for, and vast knowledge of, Latin America. Simply, the reader of this collection will not be disappointed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The opening essay, 'Barrientos and Debray: all gone or more to come?' \(1992\), is a fascinating study which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sets the theme and the tone \(of challenging analysis, astute observation, broad-brush painting, and erudition\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(260)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 1 March, 2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James Dunkerley)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781859847541)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(40.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(210pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Verso)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.versobooks.com/books/cdef/d-titles/dunkerley_warriors.shtml)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Antoni Kapcia)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7194 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and gives us Dunkerley as would-be biographer. Originally an inaugural lecture, it partly responds to Francis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fukuyama's 'end of history' thesis, taking up the question of whether his two subjects Rene Barrientos \(ex-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolutionary and Bolivian president\) and Rgis Debray \(ex-revolutionary, philosopher and later Mitterand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advisor\), who coincided on different sides of Che Guevara's final battle in Bolivia in 1967 are, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fukuyama's terms, 'yesterday's men'. Here, Dunkerley's colours seem nailed to the mast with his admonition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against 'unilinear perspectives that confuse the 'development' of political economy with the 'nature' of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society in its entirety \(p.18\). However, his purpose is wider as his critical reviews often are -, and he clearly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(looks for a moral within the forgotten Plutarchian traditions of 'parallel lives'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Of the two, Dunkerley reserves his most scathing commentary for Debray, a person for whom he seems to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have little sympathy, emerging as confused, egoistic, unreliable and even, perhaps, shallow intellectually. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dunkerley's deconstruction of Debray's Althusserian positions is perceptive and sharp \(in every sense\), and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(if there is a villain of the piece it seems to be the slightly dilettante French philosopher who strayed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(irrelevantly into the Bolivian drama. Barrientos, however, survives largely unscathed from Dunkerley's pen a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generally more attractive person, whose foibles and rightward political shift are ultimately less criticised, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more logical and even less self-centred. If Debray is 'villain', then Barrientos is inherently more 'heroic', and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certainly more rounded and appealing. Seemingly, in the theme of 'warriors and scribes', Dunkerley has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preferred the former.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet that is ultimately misleading, since the codicil to the essay a two-paragraph paean to the Bolivian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolutionary, Chichi Ros Dalenz, killed in Pinochet's Chile is more significant than it seems. For it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduces what may be at least one of the collection's intentional unifying themes the homage to the 'third )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(man', to those who die in defeat rather than die in victory \(Barrientos\) or, like Debray, survive defeat to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('ruminate' \(p.18\). In fact, of course, the essay is about a good deal more than the two principal characters and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dunkerley is here only a 'would-be biographer', since it is really a thoughtful discussion of Bolivia, Latin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(America, intellectuals, Guevara and political commitment, and does, indeed, really set the tone for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collection in several ways.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second essay 'Beyond Utopia: the State of the Left in Latin America' \(published in )] TJ ET BT 453.944 404.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(New Left Review )] TJ ET BT 537.608 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1994\) is effectively a critical review to a leftist audience of Jorge Castaeda's disenchanted view of the Latin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American Left in )] TJ ET BT 119.660 375.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Utopia Unarmed. )] TJ ET BT 207.320 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, the essay is more a critique than an exposition of Dunkerley's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own views, which are often not easy to discern. Here, Castaeda is treated sympathetically, seen as honest, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broad in vision and largely accurate in his judgements, and even as still possessing an underlying utopian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vision in his suggested alternative to the Left's impasse. Dunkerley also praises the limpidity which makes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Castaeda's prose readable although one suspects that this in fact damns with faint praise, as 'limpidity' can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(easily be taken as an over-simplification which misses complexities. Certainly Dunkerley's own prose is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occasionally far from 'limpid', although that is because of the depth of the argument and the awareness of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complexity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dunkerley evidently feels that Castaeda has missed much, being weak on the 'new social movements', and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also somewhat narrow in his definitions, presenting a fragmented and selective critique of the traditional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Left based on personal experience and preferences. Moreover, he does not accept Castaeda's uniform )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rejection of the need for revolutionary violence and clandestinity, citing the Zapatistas and pre-1959 Latin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(America as respective proofs of their necessity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This essay therefore gives us several facets of Dunkerley: as literary critic, with a capacity for subtle and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nuanced views, with hints of a political perspective and commitment. It also gives us the author as political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analyst, with a prescience on later Mexican politics although also a time-trapped underlying confidence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about US intentions in the region that owes much to Clinton's benign neglect.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dunkerley's capacity for political analysis, however, comes out convincingly in the next essay 'The 1997 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bolivian Election in Historical Perspective' \(1998\). With an eye for often exhausting fine detail, he dissects )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the remarkable electoral return of a politician - Hugo Banzer - to the Bolivian presidency, three decades after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he began his brutal rule as a hated military dictator. The irony is compounded by Banzer's tactical alliance )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7282 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the now centrist MIR, founded in 1989 to overthrow him, and by the coincidence with the return to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cuba of Che Guevara's bones. The message at first seems clear: criticism ought perhaps to be levelled either )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at opportunism, or at Guevara's failed radicalism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, there is more to the message, since the picture which Dunkerley paints of recent Bolivian history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is one of a vibrant, sophisticated and subtle polity. With a fine analytical mind, he deconstructs the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complexities of voting behaviour through, and beyond, statistics, demonstrating the strength of tactical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(voting and of alliances, and revealing the emergence of a )] TJ ET BT 310.940 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(continuismo)] TJ ET BT 369.608 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( surprising given Bolivia's past )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notoriety for political volatility. Here, the many tables provided are invaluable, especially in measuring the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scale of the shift since 1952; the details are, moreover, interspersed with a wealth of astute observation, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which the only real criticism is that one easily gets lost in the to-ing and fro-ing of groupings, alliances and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shifts and might have benefited from a chart.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, Bolivia's political development is really the 'hero' of the essay, as Dunkerley presents a convincing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(picture of the maturation of the political system into a 'polyarchy' with an astonishing degree of real )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('indigenisation' \(of culture, attitudes and politics\), and with an MNR which skilfully managed to use its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditional loyal base to change political direction, the key to the growing consensus. Dunkerley sees the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(roots of this transition in Banzer's 1978 removal by his fellow military, becoming more profound after 1985. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Once again, though, the coda is revealing the brief peroration on Guevara's bones introduces reflections on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Bolivian Left's reaction and on the wider Left's relevance to Bolivia. Here, equating Guevara with other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('extra-Bolivians', such as Bolvar, who have crossed the Bolivian stage, Dunkerley seems to see the real )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('hero' of the piece in the Bolivian people.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps the least satisfying essay, because, being the shortest \(only 8 pages\), it frustrates, is the next one, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('"All that trouble down there": Hollywood and Central America' \(1993\). However, though short, it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exhilarating and polemical, and brings out yet another Dunkerley persona: as astute film critic. Indeed, what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we get is an often scathing but always subtle and perceptive critique of Hollywood's treatment of Central )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(America, in particular of the American film industry's shift to the region of the locus of 'conflict' and 'the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enemy' from an East-West spectrum, but without any awareness of the historical context, allowing it to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indulge in less subtle and more explicitly tasteless stereotypes - usually of sex, power and treachery.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Within this picture, Dunkerley gives us sharp comment on a number of exemplary films, including Gregorio )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nava's 1983 'El Norte' \(wooden in characterisation but none the less accurate in its depiction of the Latino )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dilemma\), John Milius's 1984 'Red Dawn' \(a right-wing paranoid fantasy\), Haskell Wexler's 1985 'Latino' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(sermonising from the Left\), and, finally, comparing Roger Spottiswoode's 1983 'Under Fire' and Oliver )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stone's 1986 'Salvador', leading to a perhaps surprising but convincing preference for the honesty of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(latter. Once again, what comes through in this excursion into yet another genre is not only Dunkerley's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(almost )] TJ ET BT 69.020 278.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(renacentista )] TJ ET BT 131.348 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(breadth, but also his evident affection for the supposed cinematic subjects, the 'forgotten' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Latin America. Indeed, by now, an unspoken unifying theme is becoming clear.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps the most puzzling essay, however, is the next 'The Study of Latin American History and Politics in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the United Kingdom: an Interpretative Sketch' \(1996\). It puzzles since it is not clear where it fits into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('whole', although it again gives full rein to Dunkerley's characteristic talents the often astonishing breadth of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his reading and knowledge \(you believe that he has actually read and digested all the works cited\), his desire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be fair, and his attention to detail.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The essay opens well, with a sweeping panorama of Latin America when British 'Latin Americanism' began, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and then catalogues the key people, publications, centres and academic events of the last three decades. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(History rightly receives the lion's share of his attention, given its pioneering and continuing 'core' role. Here )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his observations are astute: on the remarkable continuity over the period, not least in the penchant for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrative and empirical pragmatism; on the causes of the 'explosion' \(university expansion, increased travel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opportunities and the development of historiography in Latin America\); on the lasting \(and largely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beneficial\) impact of 'dependency theories', albeit often indirectly, through other influenced disciplines; on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the weak treatment of gender and of Brazil; on the mixed blessings of the evolving relationship between )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7128 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('cultural studies' and history \(occasionally creative but also risking a neglect of a research base\); on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seminal impact of economic history. Politics gets a narrower treatment, but the same qualities are evident, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and one particularly welcomes the observation that the British study of Latin American politics \(always )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflecting the shifts in British political life\) has benefited from a rich exchange with, and openness to, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(journalistic and NGO-based work on the region.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One underlying theme, here, of course is predictably the comparison with the United States. Dunkerley's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(judgements are occasionally dangerous in their sweep but never without foundation, especially on British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians' lesser concern with Latin America's 'otherness' and greater interest in traditions, and, in politics, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the British tendency to eschew the American preference for paradigms and theoretical debates and to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gravitate towards empiricism. There is also the underlying theme: the tendency for British Latin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Americanism to be 'committed' in several senses, a conclusion that, indeed, seems to return to the opening )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion, to the changing continent itself.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Panorama' is very much and deliberately also the approach of the next essay the 1999 'The United States and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Latin America in the Long Run \(1800-1945\)'. A bold and ambitious essay, it nonetheless succeeds in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presenting a convincing set of arguments, although, again, the result is less a clear statement of the author's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(position than a set of astute critiques of others' positions. It is Dunkerley as interpretative historian, whose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broad vision nonetheless allows him to engage with a range of revealing source texts.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He begins by taking issue with Peter Smith's then recently re-stated 'imperialist thesis', suggesting that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('newness' of the 1990s situation should not blind us to the continuities with, and the context created by, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pre-Cold War days a 'long run' indeed. The essay works through a series of sub-sections, of which the first is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cuba, normally seen as 'exceptional'; Dunkerley, however, gives us an eloquent 'mini-essay' on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inconsistencies of such 'exceptionalism' and persuades us that Monroe's principle of non-transferability )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continued in Cuba until 1960, and then, following a three-decade interlude where policy was determined )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideologically, returned \(as in the Helms-Burton Act\). The section on the Monroe Doctrine is also astute, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identifying the declaration not as a charter for expansionism \(as often assumed\), but, rather, a declaration of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(containment, reflecting a deep-seated and persistent isolationism, which made the leap from the Doctrine to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roosevelt's later Corollary one from an avowal of principle to an assertion of conditionality.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dunkerley then traces the evolution of American confidence, questioning the La Feber thesis that 1860-98 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(saw the emergence of a new imperialism; instead, he still prefers to see containment as the driving force, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reminding us that American fears of Europe, and especially Britain, were not unjustified, and demonstrating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that only between 1900 and 1914 did American economic power overtake Europe and justify an outward-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(looking policy. Even then, isolationism continued, evolving naturally into the 1933 Good Neighbor policy. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, he asserts, it was 1941 which provided the real American turning-point, not solely because of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involvement but also because it was driven ideologically.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final essay is one of the best 'The Third Man: Francisco Burdett O'Connor and the Emancipation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Americas' \(1999\). It fully brings out Dunkerley's biographical skills; the attention to detail, penchant for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anecdote and tendency to engage in tangential observation which all characterise much of his writing \(and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can occasionally either distract or confuse\) are, in biography, enriching additions to the subject and yet more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proof of the subject's fascinating humanity. Moreover, his sympathy for the subject is clear, much more so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than was the case in the opening essay. Brother of the more famous Irish Chartist, Feargus, and godson of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the parliamentarian, Sir Francis Burdett, whose surname he adopted, O'Connor ended up fighting for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberation in Bolivia, 'going native' to the extent of Hispanising his first name. His biography before leaving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain and after reaching Bolivia is rich in incident and challenge, Dunkerley seeing his motives as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primarily political, as much as anything seeking freedom from the oppressive British political climate.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dunkerley is fascinated by O'Connor not only because of his Irish and Bolivian connections but also because )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he is an archetypal 'third man', less famous than the other two whose names he bore, but whose history is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well worth recounting. He is also, evidently, somewhere between the 'warriors' and the 'scribes', but, unlike )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 'third man' who silently opened the collection Ros Dalenz -, emerged victorious and is rightly )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 5101 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remembered in his adopted country.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This, then, returns us to the collection as a whole, and its supposed coherence. Here, one imagines that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(order of the essays \(which is not chronological\) has been deliberately chosen; certainly the opening and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(closing essays give it a unity and circularity of theme: the forgotten subjects of history with whom )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dunkerley has a palpable sympathy. Some of the other essays are, however, less clearly contained within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this theme, the essay on the United States, for example.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These are, however, minor quibbles, and, while one can question the order, the fact is that it is not obtrusive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or ever distracting. We have the order which we are given, for good or bad, and must take the essays )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(separately at face value. Nonetheless, not least because several of the essays included do not really touch )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more than marginally on the supposed theme of 'warriors and scribes', there remains a feeling that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collection might have benefited from the inclusion of either an introduction \(or short preface\) or a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusion. In fact, of course, as a collection, cohesion is not in itself essential, since it is largely also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(something of a personal journey through themes, subjects and countries \(although Bolivia figures large\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illustrated with detail, comment and passing analysis.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In fact, analysis is one clear )] TJ ET BT 170.312 560.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(forte)] TJ ET BT 192.980 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. As observed earlier, Dunkerley comes over throughout as much more of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critic - an excellent, sharp and balanced critic than a theorist, as a reviewer whose quill is sharp, whose irony )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is enjoyable, and whose ability to see beyond the obvious is always welcome. He writes intelligently, not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only with erudition, but with an ability to develop and hold an argument that never gets lost, in spite of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diversions although at times one suspects that the casual reader may be challenged by the pace, the detail and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the occasional density of style that arises from the pertinent meaning that needs to be mined from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apparently passing comment.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, the essays are all in their own way, and in the best of senses, challenging, for one of Dunkerley's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characteristics is his consistent search for the unusual, the exception, the flaws in the conventional argument )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the necessary doubt. He gives us real scholarship questioning, critical and based on thorough knowledge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and wide reading.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Overall, however, what we perhaps most value in the collection is the always evident sense of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commitment to the discipline, the subjects, Latin America and, of course, the 'forgotten' heroes. He is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historian who actually cares, but this informs his work and sharpens, rather than dulls, his judgement, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this quality above all makes the collection both welcome and valid in itself. Ultimately, the question of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coherence becomes less relevant, as it is 'commitment' and the sympathy for the 'forgotten' \(person, question, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(angle, detail\) which unifies them all.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 282.533 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 263.551 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 245.771 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 245.771 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/260)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 244.377 m 322.316 244.377 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 219.400 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 205.000 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.600 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 244.6915 322.3157 256.5715 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/260) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000583 00000 n 0000000665 00000 n 0000004713 00000 n 0000004822 00000 n 0000004932 00000 n 0000005041 00000 n 0000008602 00000 n 0000008730 00000 n 0000008814 00000 n 0000008879 00000 n 0000016126 00000 n 0000016191 00000 n 0000023526 00000 n 0000023591 00000 n 0000030772 00000 n 0000030856 00000 n 0000036010 00000 n 0000036138 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 36233 %%EOF