%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 21 0 R 23 0 R 25 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140722061223+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140722061223+01'00') /Title (Left Book Club Anthology) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 1772 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Left Book Club Anthology)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(261)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 30 November, 2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul Laity)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780575072213)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(285pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gollancz)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.orionbooks.co.uk)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Matt Perry)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 4003 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In 1936, the world seemed precariously poised between peace and war, fascism and communism, democracy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and dictatorship, hope and despair. Each international event ? Spanish and French Popular Front election )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(victories, the continued Italian campaign in Abysinnia, the factory occupations in France, civil war and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foreign intervention in Spain - confirmed this instability. In Britain, mass unemployment and Mosley )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brought home this uncertainty. Domestic official politics consisted of three-cornered contest between a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conservative \(nominally National\) government, an agonising faction-riven Liberal Party and a Labour Party )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(still reeling from the ?great betrayal? of 1931. Into this political situation, Victor Gollancz, the left-wing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publisher with his allies the Marxist writer John Strachey and the Labour left Stafford Cripps, struck on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(idea of the Left Book Club. Their goal was to revive the left and inject a greater popular awareness of world )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(events. Club membership would oblige each participant to buy a monthly book from the Club?s list of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publications. This method guaranteed demand and subsidised sales to members who were committed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remaining with the Club for at least six months. The Left Book Club also lay a considerable network of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion groups and within months had a mass membership. The editors selected books on a range of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subjects: the Spanish civil war, unemployment, the Soviet Union, nazism and international events and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relations. The Club brought together some of the most important authors and political figures of the day: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(George Orwell, John Strachey, Arthur Koestler, Stephen Spender, Ellen Wilkinson, Clement Attlee, Andr )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Malraux, R.H. Tawney, Leon Blum and J.B.S. Haldane.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Left Book Anthology)] TJ ET BT 153.680 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( brings together a number of extracts from Left Book Club titles. Paul Laity?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introductory essay \(he is the senior editor of )] TJ ET BT 248.648 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The London Review of Books)] TJ ET BT 388.640 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) sets the Left Book Club in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context. He outlines the personalities of the principal characters, especially the editorial triumvirate. Victor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gollancz?s energy and tremendous editorial skills are balanced against his intellectual crankiness and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elitism. Harold Laski is presented as a highly respected the Christian socialist Professor from the LSE and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Strachey as a snobbish upper-class Marxist with an undoubted gift for popular writing. Laity also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(charts the startling success of the Club: by the end of 1936 it had 40,000 members, three years later it peaked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at 57,000 members, organised in 1,200 groups. Millions of LBC books were disseminated. But there was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much more to the fortunes of the Club than the mesh of personalities.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 19 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 8943 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The selection of extracts must have been extraordinarily difficult but Laity has done an admirable job. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opening extracts from )] TJ ET BT 142.328 770.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Road to Wigan Pier)] TJ ET BT 258.992 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( summed up the paradox of the LBC with a subtle economy. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Laity purposely includes both Gollancz?s foreword to alongside the extract from )] TJ ET BT 424.280 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Road to Wigan Pier)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Gollancz tried with some discomfort to explain away. )] TJ ET BT 315.980 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Road to Wigan Pier)] TJ ET BT 432.644 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was one of the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(titles of the LBC. George Orwell toured the depressed north to make the case against unemployment and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(means test \(and to explain the situation of the miners who were likely to take national strike action\). )] TJ ET BT 516.956 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Road to Wigan Pier)] TJ ET BT 129.680 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a classic literary portrayal of the slump and the very best exemplar of a genre at which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the LBC excelled with such titles as Ellen Wilkinson?s elegy to Jarrow )] TJ ET BT 377.984 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Town That Was Murdered)] TJ ET BT 525.320 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Wal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hannington?s angry hard-hitting polemic )] TJ ET BT 235.328 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Problems of the Distressed Areas)] TJ ET BT 416.984 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Max Cohen?s personal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memoir )] TJ ET BT 74.348 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(I Was One of the Unemployed)] TJ ET BT 218.648 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and G.D.H. Cole scholarly investigation, )] TJ ET BT 420.632 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Condition of Britain)] TJ ET BT 538.988 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(More revealing is the way that Orwell?s piece identified the dilemma at the very centre of the LBC project. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second part of the book was a treatise on socialism in Britain. It was one of the most controversial and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(self-critical pieces of left-wing writing. He famously described middle-class socialists as ?all that dreary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tribe of high-minded women and sandal-wearers and bearded fruit-juice drinkers who come flocking towards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the "smell" of progress like bluebottles to a dead cat.? Orwell stressed \(and caricatured\) the lamentable gap )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in British socialism between the cranky middle-class ?intellectual, book-trained? socialist and ?the warm-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hearted unthinking Socialist, the typical working-class Socialist?. Given this \(somewhat exaggerated\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(situation, the LBC could in principle either entrench or bridge the divide. In practice, the Club did both. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the introduction, Laity celebrates the penetration of LBC ideas into working-class circles in South Wales and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Glasgow. On the whole, however, the LBC membership was largely middle class as its geographical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preponderance in the South confirms. Elsewhere Gary McCulloch viewed Gollancz?s educational approach )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as preaching to and forging an educated elite and has even described the domination of middle-class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectuals over the network as ?an agency of social control over the aspirations of the working class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through middle class cultural hegemony?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 234.992 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 234.992 455.187 m 248.984 455.187 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Two further extracts exemplify the large number of LBC volumes that sought to comment on aspects of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British society. )] TJ ET BT 109.688 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Walls Have Mouths)] TJ ET BT 225.344 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was an insider?s sensationalist account of life inside Pankhurst )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prison. The author, Wilfred Macartney, had been imprisoned for spying for the Soviet Union. The selections )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reveal two aspects of prisoners? world: homosexuality and the escape legend. Opening the prison-doors to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the scrutiny of the reading public was intended to be a powerful spur to prison reform, and indeed the editor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attributed the permission of tobacco in British jails as resulting from the book. L.B. Coombes?s )] TJ ET BT 495.332 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(These Poor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hands)] TJ ET BT 65.348 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was an account of life in the South Wales coalfield. The extracts paint scenes of everyday life: the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(night shift, the silicosis sufferer, pay day and the lack of privacy bathing in lodgings. The book was one of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the most popular monthly choices and sold 80,000 copies. It stands alongside other important working-class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(novels relating the 1930s experience such as Walter Greenwood?s )] TJ ET BT 354.932 302.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Love on the Dole)] TJ ET BT 437.252 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and Walter Brierley?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Means Test Man)] TJ ET BT 114.008 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. It was one of a few examples that lived up to Gollancz?s hope to cultivate working-class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(novelists and writers through the Club.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The choice of extracts from novels, plays and the )] TJ ET BT 273.296 247.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Left Song Book)] TJ ET BT 346.628 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( illustrate that the LBC was not confined to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political manifestos, social commentary and international reportage. The Club also generated a range of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural activities: travel, rambling, choirs, theatre groups and discussion circles. Clifford Odets?s )] TJ ET BT 505.952 218.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Waiting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(for Lefty)] TJ ET BT 75.020 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( a play about a New York cab strike had been a considerable box office hit capturing the mood of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the America of the depression and the sit-down strikes. As Paul Laity?s words of introduction indicate, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later political trajectory of some American left intellectuals strongly contrasts the play?s strong sense of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(solidarity. For Odetts along with Elia Kazan named names during the McCarthy witch-hunt. Herman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Muller?s )] TJ ET BT 79.676 147.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Out of the Night)] TJ ET BT 157.352 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is an interesting reminder of popular science writing of the 1930s. The LBC )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(produced volumes on the atom, evolution, public health and chemistry. It also recalls the fact that eugenics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had a general acceptance across the political spectrum and were not the exclusive property of the right. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proposed selective breeding through the use of clinical techniques. Muller?s views are an unpleasant blend )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Stalinism, social engineering and eugenics.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(International affairs were the largest single category of LBC publications. Laity selects titles on Spain, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(China, Nazi Germany and appeasement. Arthur Koestler?s )] TJ ET BT 318.944 49.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Spanish Testament)] TJ ET BT 409.280 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is perhaps as important and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 20 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 234.9917 455.5015 248.9837 467.3815 ] >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 8803 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poignant a selection as that of Orwell. Again its subject, Spain, like unemployment, was a )] TJ ET BT 468.308 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(cause clbre)] TJ ET BT 533.948 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Club. It also offers us another piece of the LBC puzzle given Koestler?s eventual odyssey from CP )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(membership \(1931-38\) to author of the anti-Stalinist novel about the show trials )] TJ ET BT 420.656 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Darkness at Noon)] TJ ET BT 507.320 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1940\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and contributor to the Cold War renunciation of communism, )] TJ ET BT 331.988 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The God That Failed)] TJ ET BT 432.992 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1950\). A generation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectuals trod Koestler?s path from communist infatuation to disillusioned anti-Stalinism. This was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(principle reason that posterity was so hard a judge on the LBC. Edgar Snow?s )] TJ ET BT 411.632 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Red Star over China)] TJ ET BT 509.960 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the LBC?s most popular titles; Gollancz commenting that it was finest recruiter to the Club. It detailed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Red Army?s long march and the social character of the ?liberated? territory. The book became the launch )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pad for a campaign against Japanese intervention in China. The extract tells of his journey into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communist held north west with the goal of interviewing Mao. Central to the vivid narrative were the stories )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and attitudes of the young communist soldiers that he encountered. Jan Petersen?s )] TJ ET BT 430.964 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Our Street)] TJ ET BT 481.292 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a partly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fictional memoir of a communist resistor to the Nazis about the first years of their rule. It is a remarkable and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moving testament about the effects of that take-over on a single working-class street and implicitly makes a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compelling case to oppose the rise of fascism elsewhere in Europe. It examines the difficulties of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maintaining morale and clandestine organisations in the face of arrests, deaths in custody, and surveillance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of comrades and loved ones as well as the impact of this on the family, neighbourhood and political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(networks of class. G.E.R. Gedye?s )] TJ ET BT 203.648 568.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fallen Bastions)] TJ ET BT 279.320 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is an account of the fascist conquest of democracy in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Austria and Czechoslovakia. As such it addresses one of the principal themes of the LBC ? the appeasement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the fascist powers. Gedye was the )] TJ ET BT 212.636 539.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(New York Times)] TJ ET BT 291.308 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 314.636 539.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Daily Telegraph)] TJ ET BT 393.632 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( correspondent for Eastern Europe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stationed first in Austria and then Prague. His work revealed the corrosive effects on Austrian independence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Czech democracy of Nazi intrigues and the false friendship of Anglo-French diplomats, which sapped )] TJ ET BT 34.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the will to fight and made the unacceptable seem inevitable. Gedye was not a leftwinger but a liberal who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could see the treachery and disingenuity of appeasement. He related the claustrophobic atmosphere in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Austria at the time of the )] TJ ET BT 156.668 468.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Anschluss)] TJ ET BT 204.668 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and Czechoslovakia in the summer whilst Hitler sought to dismember )] TJ ET BT 34.016 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the country with the sanction of Britain and France.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The editor also includes extracts from two treatises on political theory. John Strachey?s )] TJ ET BT 456.620 428.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Theory and Practice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(of Socialism)] TJ ET BT 93.020 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was a centrepiece of the LBC project, an attempt to write the case for communism in popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(idiom in the pressing historical circumstance of approaching world war. The extract describes the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contradictions and disordered priorities faced by all under capitalism: ?For why should we build targets for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bombs, prevent the tubercle bacillus from destroying the lungs destined for poison gas, or administer with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sterling probity the affairs of a city which may soon be uninhabited?? It appealed to ?the best men and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women of every class? to embrace communism. This marked a sharp contrast with the Comintern?s ?class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against class? approach of the early 1930s when specifically soliciting ?architects, scientists, doctors and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civil servants? would have been unthinkable. The search for intellectuals, professionals, experts, artists was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intrinsic to the Popular Front project and the LBC experience. Stephen Spender, who at the time was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fashionable young poet, epitomises the ?Auden generation? of intellectuals who were temporarily infatuated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with Soviet Russia and its brand of communism. )] TJ ET BT 270.356 271.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Forward from Liberalism)] TJ ET BT 393.704 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was aimed at converting young )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(left-leaning liberals to this cause. It sought to delineate the limitations of liberal democracy. For Spender, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world crisis and approaching war demonstrated that the age of parliamentary democracy was drawing to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(close. Communism, he argued, did not reject the idealistic goals of liberalism of equality, democracy and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(freedom but would realise them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final extract comes from )] TJ ET BT 176.312 187.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Betrayal of the Left)] TJ ET BT 290.312 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which was a collection of essays written in 1940 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(signalling Gollancz?s break with his former friends in the Communist Party. The Hitler-Stalin pact of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(August 1939 reversed the Soviet Union?s stated foreign policy. It was too much for many of the fellow-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(travellers like Gollancz who had put their faith in a strategy of construction Popular Front governments and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the peace bloc between Russia, Britain and France. )] TJ ET BT 281.960 130.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Betrayal of the Left)] TJ ET BT 395.960 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( once again teamed up Gollancz )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Orwell, whose essay ?Patriots and revolutionaries? is selected for the anthology. This piece is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remarkable witness to the metamorphosis on popular consciousness that followed the fall of France and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evacuation of Dunkirk. This was one of the most acute crises faced by a British government. Orwell believed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that there would be a revolutionary conclusion to the crisis and called on the left to embrace patriotism to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effectively capture this mood of popular defiance in the face of threatened invasion and ruling-class )] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 6423 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treachery. Though there was no British revolution, the implication is that the conditions that Orwell )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(described underpinned Labour victory in 1945.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Two connected controversies have dogged the memory of the Left Book Club: its relationship to Stalinism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the Left?s romanticisation of the LBC and the 1930s in general. The Club has been the subject of long-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(running criticism of being a communist front. Laity describes the evolving relationship between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Communist Party and the LBC. His frank admission of communist influence left little room for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accusation that he glossed over the uncomfortable truths. Many key figures in the network of clubs were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(party members as well. The Communist Party sought to recruit via these discussion groups and assumed that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the LBC would inculcate communist perspectives amongst a wider audience. Although none of the editors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(the ?Holy Trinity?\) were card-carrying members of the Communist Party, they shared an admiration for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Soviet Union and the two administrators in the LBC?s Henrietta Street HQ were party members. Their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stalinism is reflected in the fact that the editors rejected manuscripts that criticised the Soviet Union, such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Orwell?s work on Spain. Much of the left subscribed to these illusions about the Soviet Union and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commitment to the strategy of the Popular Front against fascism. Even the ageing Fabians Sidney and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Beatrice Webb eulogised Stalin?s Russia in )] TJ ET BT 245.996 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Soviet Communism: a New Civilisation)] TJ ET BT 434.672 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Many of the Club?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(books engaged in apologetics on behalf of world communism. Leon Feuchtwanger?s )] TJ ET BT 444.620 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Moscow 1937)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whitewashed the show trials and the many books on Spain conveyed a guilty silence over communist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(repression of Spanish revolutionaries. But the relationship was not a simple transmission belt of communist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(directives. Although Gollancz?s foreword clumsily ?corrected? parts of Orwell?s )] TJ ET BT 426.584 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Road to Wigan Pier)] TJ ET BT 543.248 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the publisher ignored communist party objections to its publication.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The LBC conformed to the Popular Front vision of the Comintern, which proposed an alliance between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberals, social democrats and communists. Like the gap between the propaganda and reality of the Popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Front, the decision-making in the Club was much narrower. Hugh Dalton had asked for two Labour Party )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representatives on the editorial team but Gollancz turned this down. Many titles, like those of Maurice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thorez, the leader of the French Communist Party, and G.D.H. Cole, made the case for the Popular Front, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which was a strategy for centre-left electoral victory, a domestic bulwark against fascism and the means to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(draw together a diplomatic alliance against the fascist powers and war. In reality, Stalin cynically used this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy as an instrument of his foreign policy interests and its value on other counts is highly questionable.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the whole, the anthology ably demonstrates the range of LBC work whilst still choosing some of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most popular and enduring titles. The pedantic temptation to suggest alternative selections is great. My )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quibble would be that with the inclusion of a play, novel and songbook the impression of the Club is skewed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towards cultural works. Of the 250 or so titles only a handful of titles were of this character. As a result, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there is no room, for instance, for any of the historical works of the LBC. A number of these ? A.L. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Morton?s )] TJ ET BT 83.012 290.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A People?s History of England)] TJ ET BT 232.340 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the Hammonds? )] TJ ET BT 319.664 290.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Town Labourer)] TJ ET BT 415.676 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and Petergorsky?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Left-wing Democracy in the English Civil War)] TJ ET BT 258.008 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( - anticipated themes and changes in the writing of social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history after the war. Whilst the editor does make great efforts to make these seven decades-old texts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accessible to the reading public, the drawback of interspersing the extracts with introductory editorial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comment breaks up the flow of the anthology. The sequence of these extracts, which is neither chronological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nor thematic, adds to this sense of fragmentation. Nevertheless, the anthology presents a fascinating insight )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the ideas of the time for the general reader and an important undergraduate text for those studying the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1930s.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 27 0 R 29 0 R 31 0 R ] /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 4287 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Some critics will no doubt charge that the book resurrects the red fable of the 1930s: the legend of a devil?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decade that was concocted in part in the comfortable offices and studies of Gollancz and his co-conspirators. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The revisionist account of the 1930s has, I believe, been considerably overstated though it is not the place to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tackle this issue here. Others will liken that the LBC to a grimy and uninteresting back alley of intellectual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and cultural history, rather like the ones Orwell happened upon in Wigan and Sheffield, and one that is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entirely overtaken by the corrupting stench of Stalinism. This criticism is not entirely fair, as it is easy to see )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through the illusions of an age with hindsight. Despite the Stalinist errors, there is much of interest and even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary relevance that can be salvaged. Casual allusions to appeasement of the present, for example, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might be better informed by a second look at some of the LBC volumes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This anthology collects together a well-selected sample of a complex and highly charged intellectual climate. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The life of the LBC coincided with one of the British left?s most notable periods beginning in Spain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culminating in the first majority Labour government. Crucial to that period was an intellectual zeal ? though )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they certainly got things wrong ? that tried to measure up to big events and big ideas. It is easy to be wise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after the fact. The careful selection of authors and the introductions to each of the extracts acts as a kind of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collective biography to explain the subsequent decline of the left. Laity also believes that some of these ideas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bear a contemporary relevance ?perhaps the following extracts will spark a few more?. The anthology acts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also a gentle reminder of how an energetic and left-wing Labour Party with a broad consensus of welfarism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and full employment made its most significant historical inroads into ?middle England?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 495.219 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 464.602 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 464.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gary McCulloch, ?Teachers and missionaries: the Left Book Club as an educational agency?, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 450.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History of Education)] TJ ET BT 164.684 450.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, vol.14, no.2, 1985, p.150.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 294.020 450.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 294.020 448.947 m 348.008 448.947 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 424.085 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 409.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Observer)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 395.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.guardian.co.uk/education/2001/jul/29/highereducation.news)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 394.179 m 379.988 394.179 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 382.988 395.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 390.847 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 373.067 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 373.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/261)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 371.673 m 322.316 371.673 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 346.696 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.296 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2542)] TJ ET BT 34.016 317.896 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.guardian.co.uk/education/2001/jul/29/highereducation.news)] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 294.0197 449.2615 348.0077 461.1415 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 18 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 394.4935 379.9877 406.3735 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.guardian.co.uk/education/2001/jul/29/highereducation.news) >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 371.9875 322.3157 383.8675 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/261) >> endobj xref 0 33 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000541 00000 n 0000000623 00000 n 0000002447 00000 n 0000002556 00000 n 0000002666 00000 n 0000002775 00000 n 0000006336 00000 n 0000006464 00000 n 0000006548 00000 n 0000006613 00000 n 0000010669 00000 n 0000010753 00000 n 0000019749 00000 n 0000019779 00000 n 0000019907 00000 n 0000019943 00000 n 0000020008 00000 n 0000028864 00000 n 0000028929 00000 n 0000035405 00000 n 0000035503 00000 n 0000039843 00000 n 0000039971 00000 n 0000040026 00000 n 0000040153 00000 n 0000040273 00000 n 0000040401 00000 n trailer << /Size 33 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 40496 %%EOF