%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R ] /Count 3 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140728155427+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140728155427+01'00') /Title (France: The Dark Years, 1940-1944) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3998 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(France: The Dark Years, 1940-1944)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Julian Jackson?s monumental history of Vichy is a powerful contribution to the historiography. No one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knows more about this subject than he: every book, article, memoir and dissertation on it seems to have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(located, analysed and woven into this account. Despite the thickness of the work it is also a pleasurable read: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(judicious, well crafted, always with an eye for the telling quotation or anecdote.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jackson starts with a considerable run-up. A quarter of the book is devoted to the pre-history of Vichy: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural anxieties after the nightmare of the Great War, the ongoing debate over reform of the Republic, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(threat of class war and civil war in the 1930s, and the shadow of Germany that never seemed to lift. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Daladier government of 1938-40 is reinvestigated, highlighting a number of repressive policies that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prefigured those of Vichy. Yet Jackson reminds us sharply of the power of contingency, that nothing was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inevitable about Vichy. Without the defeat of 1940 it would simply not have happened.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When Vichy does make its appearance we are told that there was little black and white about it. What )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intrigues Jackson is its ambiguities, its complexities, its contradictions. It was a regime that believed in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national renewal, and as such attracted people from all political persuasions who had faith in its possibilities. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Many who later joined the resistance were long seduced by its message: these included Emmanuel Mounier )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(262)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 28 February, 2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Julian Jackson)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780198207061)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(62.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(684pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ukcatalogue.oup.com/product/9780198207061.do)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert Gildea)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7652 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Hubert Beuve-Mry, later founder of )] TJ ET BT 234.956 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Le Monde, )] TJ ET BT 289.280 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both of whom helped to run the Vichy leadership )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(school at Uriage in the Alps. It is instructive, says Jackson, that Charles Pguy, republican and socialist, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholic and patriot, was claimed as an inspiration both by Vichy and the Resistance. At the level of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(mystique )] TJ ET BT 79.676 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(if not of )] TJ ET BT 121.340 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(politique)] TJ ET BT 164.012 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Vichy was a broad church.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jackson also points out that choices were not easy under the German Occupation. The right and wrong that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seemed so clear at the Liberation were by no means obvious at the time. When Franois Mauriac was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consulted late in 1941 about the propriety of contributing to )] TJ ET BT 323.996 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(La Nouvelle Revue Franaise)] TJ ET BT 466.304 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( he said that he did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not agree with the views of its fascist editor Drieu de la Rochelle, but observed ?Such is the position of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France today that no one has the right to cast a stone at anybody? \(p. 275\). I have found a similar comment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from Michel Debr, )] TJ ET BT 132.656 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(commissaire de la Rpublique )] TJ ET BT 280.640 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the Angers region, who asked a meeting in Cholet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(protesting at the acquittal of an alleged collaborator early in 1945, ?Who, in this room, has done nothing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worthy of blame from the patriotic point of view since 1939??)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Of course this period is impossible to approach Vichy with a blind faith that the truth will out. Views have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been bent and distorted both by collective memory and by historical controversy. Since Henry Rousso )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published his )] TJ ET BT 100.688 572.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vichy Syndrome )] TJ ET BT 182.000 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1991 historians have had to pick their way gingerly between the battle-lines )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of rival camps. Jackson does this with his usual good judgement, framing the book with the debates of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians at the beginning and the construction of collective memories at the end. His conclusion, wisely if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tentatively, is that ?the French past must be faced in all its contradictions and complexity? \(p. 632\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Notwithstanding this magnificent achievement, attention should be drawn to one or two shortcomings in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work. First, despite the insistence on complexity, Jackson is reasonably happy with the conventional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(categories of resistance and collaboration. Jean Moulin, prefect of the Eure-et-Loir in 1940, before he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became de Gaulle?s man uniting the resistance movements in occupied France, is introduced as ?Jean )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moulin: collaborator?. A little later Jackson concedes that the function of French officials was to serve as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mediators between the German authorities and the French people, protecting French sovereignty and French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resources as far as possible. This suggests that someone like Moulin cannot be seen as either collaborator or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resister and that the old categories may be in want of revision. Likewise Jackson describes drinking with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germans in posh Paris night clubs as collaborationism, ?transgressing traditional moral codes? \(p. 190\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elsewhere however he suggests that there were no clear rules of conduct under the Occupation, that how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French should relate to Germans was governed by codes that were constructed, fluid and negotiable. At one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(point, after dealing with the case of Frdric Joliot conducting experiments in Paris with the approval of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germans, he asks whether ?it might be more useful to jettison these categories of resistance and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collaboration for all but the small activist minorities? \(p. 242\). In the end, however, he decides to hold on to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the concept of collaboration as far too useful, wrestling only with problems of definition.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Second, the story Jackson tells is very ?top down?, political, diplomatic and intellectual. Public opinion is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduced by way of discussions relating to the )] TJ ET BT 266.660 263.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nouvelle Revue Franaise)] TJ ET BT 393.296 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, cited above. By 1942, we learn, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the people had largely parted company with the regime, but ?the people? is treated very much as a single )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entity. The exception to this is the chapter on the Liberation, where we are treated to ?micro-histories? which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unfolded very differently from place to place, according to local conditions, the balance of resistance forces, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the proximity of the Germans or Allies, and so on. It is a pity that this kind of micro-history is not used more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(readily for the Vichy period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final question is this: what is there left to say about Vichy and the Occupation? In a sense it is all in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book, which will become the standard manual for students and teachers alike. And yet there are other angles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and approaches which may yield different results.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The picture of the Occupation painted here is very much that of German exploitation and French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collaboration. The Germans, we are told, ?embarked on a systematic milking of the French economy? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(186\). And yet German contracts for ships, planes, locomotives, electrical goods, leather goods and textiles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ended the unemployment that had bedevilled France after the defeat and stimulated a boom in the French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economy. The importance of French manufacture and manpower for the German war machine inclined the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 18 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 5629 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germans to take account of French opinion. When a communist squad shot the Feldkommandant of Nantes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in October 1941 Hitler demanded the execution of a hundred French hostages, but Otto von Stlpnagel, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military commander in France, denounced ?Polish methods? and managed to limit the figure to 48. He is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quoted by Jackson as saying ?If one wants the cow to give milk, it must be fed? \(p. 171\). Maybe the German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Occupation needs to be seen less as merely exploitation and repression, at least in the early years, and more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a system of negotiation between authorities, reaching compromise where appropriate. After all, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germans did need the French to remain on side for both economic and strategic reasons.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The role of French authorities and French notables must also be looked at carefully. Jackson suggests that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(officials acted as mediators between the German authorities and the French people, but also speaks of ?the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(destruction of local democracy? \(p. 266\). Local democracy was in fact far from being destroyed under )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vichy: municipalities were combed to check mayors and councillors for loyalty, but radical and even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(socialist municipalities stayed on if they were deemed to have ?rallied?. )] TJ ET BT 381.956 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Conseils gnraux )] TJ ET BT 473.948 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abolished in 1940 but were brought back by Laval as appointed )] TJ ET BT 341.636 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(conseils dpartementaux )] TJ ET BT 463.616 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1942 in order to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rebuild bridges to the political class. Local notables had a great knack of survival, so long as they trimmed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the regime in power, because no regime - whether Third Republic, Vichy or Fourth Republic - could do )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without their influence in the localities. This was one of the major factors limiting the extent of purges at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liberation. Local government, however unexciting it may seem, in fact holds the key to much of how Vichy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(operated, and just how powerful or weak a regime it was.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lastly, Jackson observes that ?the more is known about the social history of totalitarian societies, the more it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is clear how unsuccessful they were in transforming civil society, even when people did not resist in any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organized or political way? \(p. 244\). In fact he says very little about civil society. Other research shows how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rich associative life was, even under the Occupation, from local fundraising projects to send food-parcels to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(POWs and networks of relations between town and country folk to improve food supply, to clandestine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dancing \(despite the ban on dancing imposed by Vichy, not the Germans\) and a revival of pilgrimages and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(saint-worship, which many saw as a surer path to deliverance than armed resistance or waiting for an Allied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(landing that was very slow to come. Jackson has given us ?the social history of the Resistance? \(p. 20\), but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the social history of the Occupation has yet to be written.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Guardian)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2003/mar/22/featuresreviews.guardianreview22)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 345.651 m 427.952 345.651 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 430.952 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Google Books)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://books.google.co.uk/books)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 317.139 m 188.360 317.139 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 191.360 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 313.807 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 296.027 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 296.027 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/262)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 294.633 m 322.316 294.633 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 269.656 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 255.256 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2547)] TJ ET BT 34.016 240.856 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2003/mar/22/featuresreviews.guardianreview22)] TJ ET BT 34.016 226.456 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=CWC0l3xmB9wC&sitesec=reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 345.9655 427.9517 357.8455 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2003/mar/22/featuresreviews.guardianreview22) >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 317.4535 188.3597 329.3335 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=CWC0l3xmB9wC&sitesec=reviews) >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 294.9475 322.3157 306.8275 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/262) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000335 00000 n 0000000372 00000 n 0000000529 00000 n 0000000611 00000 n 0000004661 00000 n 0000004770 00000 n 0000004880 00000 n 0000004989 00000 n 0000008550 00000 n 0000008678 00000 n 0000008762 00000 n 0000008827 00000 n 0000016532 00000 n 0000016630 00000 n 0000022312 00000 n 0000022439 00000 n 0000022567 00000 n 0000022694 00000 n 0000022809 00000 n 0000022937 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 23032 %%EOF