%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R 32 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140820222124+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140820222124+01'00') /Title (Israeli-Egyptian Relations, 1980-2000) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3330 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Israeli-Egyptian Relations, 1980-2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Though in terms of global importance Egypt cannot compare to either China or the Soviet Union, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subjects of other recent works published by Frank Cass in which former senior Israeli officials have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chronicled their experiences representing the Jewish state in the diplomatic arena,)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 426.260 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 426.260 229.161 m 440.252 229.161 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 440.252 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the importance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Egypt as a ?pivotal state? in the Near East cannot be exaggerated. This is particularly so for Israel which has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(viewed Egypt as both its leading opponent and then, after Sadat?s historic visit to Jerusalem in November )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1977 which culminated in the signing of a peace treaty in 1979, its leading \(and until recently only\) partner )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the Arab world. As such, Ephraim Dowek?s comprehensive study of the last two decades of Egyptian-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Israeli diplomatic relations is most welcome.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(264)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 1 March, 2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ephraim Dowek)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780714651620)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(95.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(376pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frank Cass)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.taylorandfrancis.com/shopping_cart/products/product_detail.asp?sku=&isbn=9780714651620)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London & Portland, OR)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rory Miller)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 426.2597 229.4755 440.2517 241.3555 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 6653 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dowek examines his subject from a unique vantage point. Not only was he Israel?s minister plenipotentiary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the fledgling Israeli embassy from 1980-1983 and then, between 1990 and 1992, Israel?s fourth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ambassador to Egypt, but he was also born and educated in Egypt and Cairo was the city of his youth. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Before the peace his return to the land of his birth, even in a private capacity, would have been unimaginable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(indeed the author poignantly recollects how on his departure to Israel in 1949, the Egyptian authorities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stamped his passport "Exit: No Return"\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thus the intensely personal nature of the author?s return after three decades combined with his fluency in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Egyptian Arabic, customs and culture \(that allowed him to pass easily as a local\), make his general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(observations fascinating.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 632.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Especially touching is his portrait of Egypt?s once proud Jewish community. This provides a timely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reminder of the forgotten victims of the Jewish ?Arab conflict, the once vibrant Jewish communities of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Arab world. While Dowek admits that both assimilation and emigration have taken their toll he also shows )] TJ ET BT 34.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how the official Egyptian policy of reducing community morale and cohesiveness through the strangulation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of communal assets and property and the tight control over its social activities, personal freedoms and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dignity have decimated his old community.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, this work is not primarily a personal memoir. Rather it is an in-depth, if, as the author himself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(admits, an informal and anecdotal rather than scholarly, examination of two decades of relations. Dowek )] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examines the policies and attitudes of his three predecessors as Israeli Ambassador to Egypt, as well other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 491.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Israeli politicians and diplomats and provides illuminating pen portraits of the small group of Egyptian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(officials in the Israel department of the Foreign Ministry and in the Egyptian Embassy in Tel Aviv. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular his frank evaluation of Mohamed Bassiuni, Egypt?s long-time ambassador to Israel, who has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominated the diplomatic relationship between the two countries since the early 1980?s, is both informative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and entertaining.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 408.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Less entertaining but just as informative is the description of the conditions that he and his colleagues had to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 394.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(endure from the opening of the embassy in Cairo. Indeed, those chapters entitled ?Settling Down?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Security? and ?Ambassadors and Staff? will be an eye-opener for those who believe that the diplomat?s life )] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is glamorous. Others may find such drawn-out recollections monotonous. But by refusing to spare the reader )] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from his detailed exposition on the drudgery of every day life Dowek manages to evoke the sense of siege, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(isolation and loneliness that quickly set in amongst staff at the Cairo embassy \(and even more so in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alexandria Consulate\), who were marginalized, ignored and ostracised by their Egyptian partners in peace.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 296.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite the general euphoria, excitement and optimism of the early days of the peace, Israel?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representatives on the ground, hampered by severe restrictions, struggled to succeed in even such mundane )] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tasks as finding accommodation. Indeed the intensive security provided by the Egyptian authorities was only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(partly intended to protect Israelis from attack. Its second objective was to prevent them from establishing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(normal contact with average Egyptians. For Dowek \(a man completely at home in the Egyptian "street"\) this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was hugely disappointing because on the few occasions that the security services allowed him contact with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ordinary Egyptians he found them to be hospitable and supportive of the peace process.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 184.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The same, however, cannot be said about the Egyptian elites in the professions, the media and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 170.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(universities where anti-peace resolutions and outright hostility towards Israel and her representatives was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 156.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(norm. Even members of the Israel department of the Egyptian Foreign ministry, responsible for nurturing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and developing diplomatic ties with Israel, kept clear of Israelis unless protocol or superiors gave them little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 127.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(choice. This was also true of Egyptian representatives overseas. Dowek, who became ambassador to India )] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after Egypt, compares his non-existent social relationship with his Egyptian counterpart in New Delhi with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the good-natured and mutually beneficial ties he developed with the Jordanian ambassador to India.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The almost universal ?coarse behaviour and social boycott? \(p.66\) of the Egyptian elite combined with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 58.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(security service?s policy of minimising Israeli contacts with ordinary Egyptians meant that within months of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7268 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arriving in Cairo embassy morale had been completely eroded and any change from the norm of obstruction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and isolation, such as an increase in those residents of Cairo whom the authorities allowed receive the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(embassy?s \(non-political\) cultural bulletin, attained major diplomatic significance.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After two decades of formal peace little has changed. There has been no improvement from the ?ground )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(level of peace? \(p.123\) that Dowek and his colleagues encountered on first arriving in Egypt. The bulk of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this book is an explanation of why this is the case. His thesis is straightforward. Since the Sadat era Egypt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has been sincere in its absolute commitment to peace. However, for Egypt peace had nothing to do with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(desire to improve Israel?s place in the region or to help Israel achieve her ultimate objective - full legitimacy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the Arab world, but has been a decisive attempt to end the ?vicious circle of military confrontation?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p.111\) that had retarded her development, damaged her relations with the United States and proved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ineffective in defeating Israel. It was also viewed as the only way that the territory of Sinai, lost to Israel in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1967 war, could be regained.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dowek argues that Egypt only pursued a policy of normalisation when it was politically necessary to do so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to achieve its objectives, as on the eve of Israel?s complete withdrawal from Sinai. Nor does he believe that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Egypt ever had any intention of turning the formal peace into a normal peace, and he is convinced that that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this decision came from the top: ?all our difficulties and the stalemate in the normalization process were, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beyond any doubt, the result of an overall strategic decision taken at the highest level and whose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implementation was supervised at the highest level? \(p. 52\). Dowek is adamant that President Mubarak, who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has ruled Egypt longer than anyone since Muhammed Ali, has followed a peace policy similar to that which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sadat would have pursued if he had not been assassinated in 1981. Perhaps Sadat would have been more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flexible in some non-critical areas such as development co-operation but there would have been little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difference in the overall strategy, or as Dowek puts it ?after Sadat came another Sadat \(Mubarak\)? \(p.333\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Israeli position could hardly have been more different. Israel viewed the treaty as a launch pad for full )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legitimacy, first with Egypt, and then throughout the Arab world. As such, it spared no effort, expertise or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expense in attempting to achieve normalisation. In the face of Egyptian intransigence successive Israeli )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governments developed a policy of denial based on one hope: that by ignoring Egypt?s strategy the situation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would improve. Dowek speaks at his most emotive and bitter when recalling the degrading lengths Israeli )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representatives, including himself, had to go to in order to initiate and maintain even the most basic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diplomatic relationships while in Cairo: ?when doors were slammed in our faces, we tried to come in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through the windows but, to our great sorrow, the windows too were hermetically sealed? \(p.67\). He feels )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that such an obsequious Israeli policy, was wrong, not simply because of its impact on pride, self respect and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(morale but because it allowed Egypt to hold out the faintest prospect of normalisation \(or even improved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(embassy privileges!\) as a lever to exert much more significant Israeli concessions both bilaterally and in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Arab world in general.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author was one of the few intimately involved in the bilateral relationship who from an early stage \(in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(April 1982 one day after Israel?s withdrawal from Sinai\), argued forcefully with his superiors in Jerusalem )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that to continue the policy of appeasing Egypt in the hope of minor improvements in normalisation was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politically nave and strategically misconceived. But he also admits that Israel was in a difficult position. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Egypt was fully aware that Israel would take almost any humiliations rather than lose its only formal peace. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By the time that Dowek returned to Cairo as Ambassador in 1990 diplomatic relations common in all other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(states were practically non-existent between the Cairo authorities and the embassy; the social boycott of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Israeli diplomats was worse than ever; cultural contacts had ceased; exist visas were still needed to visit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Israel and practically no Egyptians bothered to apply for them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While Dowek?s experience, intimate knowledge of Egyptian-Israeli relations and the sheer volume of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence he brings forward to support his case makes it impossible for any but the most nave or partisan to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question the substance of his arguments one can take issue with his style and approach. He first presents his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(central thesis in a fine chapter entitled ?The Struggle for Normalisation? but this is followed by several over-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(long and, at times, repetitive chapters dealing with every conceivable aspect of the bilateral relationship and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drawing on endless examples of Israeli goodwill and Egyptian intransigence to drive home his argument. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R 27 0 R 30 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 8225 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While this relentless approach can be welcomed for setting the historical record straight, it does not add )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much to the overall argument and may even overwhelm the reader in what the author himself admits is an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?ocean of detail? \(p.332\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The same cannot be said about Dowek?s ?short stroll into the intricacies of the Egyptian information )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apparatus? \(p.91\). This is a vitally important chapter that shows how the Egyptian media has not only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(refused to partake in normalisation but has led, what Dowek rightly calls, an ?unrestrained and slanderous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(onslaught [against] Israel, Israelis and the Jewish people?\(p.85\). These vile anti-Semitic writings \(accusing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jews of blood libel and denigrating the Holocaust among other things\) and the horrendous caricatures of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jews that would not have been out of place in Nazi propaganda are as likely to be found in such leading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(papers as )] TJ ET BT 81.332 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Al-Ahram)] TJ ET BT 128.660 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 151.988 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Al-Akhbar)] TJ ET BT 201.980 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, as on the margins of the publishing world. Hardly surprising when one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considers that as late as 1984 one could find copies of Hitler?s )] TJ ET BT 336.632 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mein Kampf)] TJ ET BT 396.296 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 419.624 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Protocols of the Elders )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(of Zion)] TJ ET BT 68.360 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( on the official stand of the government Information Agency at the Cairo international book fair.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dowek dismisses as contemptible the official Egyptian defence of media anti-Semitism- that to restrict the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(views of the press would breach freedom of expression in a democratic society. As he notes there is no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(genuine press freedom in Egypt \(outside the freedom to besmirch Israel and world Jewry\), and the media is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominated by the ? formidable Egyptian information and propaganda machine? \(p.85\) under the supervision )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the all powerful Ministry of Information and the President?s Office. The Egyptian authorities have the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capacity to eradicate anti-Jewish incitement at any time they choose and the fact that they do not means )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simply that ?whatever we, and the Egyptian people, read in the newspapers, hear on the radio or see on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(television screens is exactly what the Egyptian government wants us to read, hear and see? \(p. 91\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is not just a matter of living up to the spirit as well as the letter of peace. It can be argued that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultivation of extreme anti-Semitism among educated Egyptians \(the main audience of the written media\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has almost completely negated one of the most positive achievements of the formal peace - that with every )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(year a growing percentage of the Egyptian upper-classes do not remember what it was like before Israel and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Egypt had a treaty. Indeed, only last year, Zvi Mazel \(who was Israel?s ambassador in Egypt when this book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was written\) publicly despaired that the anti-Semitism of the Egyptian press was sowing the ?seeds of hatred )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the next fifty years?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 149.648 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 149.648 388.419 m 163.640 388.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 163.640 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( That the authorities recognise this is clear from the fact that, as Dowek notes, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neither Sadat or Mubarak permitted the same ferocity in attacks against Israel or Jews in the visual media, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which provides information for the seventy percent of the)] TJ ET BT 313.628 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Egyptian population that are illiterate or near )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illiterate, in fear that to do so would not only incite the masses but build up expectations of war \(p.96\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the most interesting issues that Dowek raises relates to the Egyptian determination to oppose any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(normalisation on the grounds that to open full relations with Israel would result in Israel?s complete )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domination of Egypt?s economic and cultural life. Dowek argues that this widespread belief is based on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conviction that world-Jewry co-ordinate its actions, ?making them a mighty force that rules the world and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lead the west in general and the USA in particular by the nose? \(p.123\).)] TJ ET BT 380.612 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In support of this he recalls how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Yusef Wali, Egyptian deputy-prime minister and a leading advocate of peace with Israel, told him )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personally how he was sure that the Jews caused the Los Angeles riots of the early 1990?s to punish the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bush administration because of differences over loan guarantees for the absorption of Soviet immigrants.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It should be noted that this Egyptian attitude to Jews predates the birth of Israel. It was, for example, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Egypt during the Great War that Sir Ronald Storrs, future British Governor of Jerusalem, first heard a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proverb that he was often to repeat: ?tread on his [the Jew?s] tail in Cairo and he barks in China?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 501.920 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 501.920 164.835 m 515.912 164.835 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 515.912 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should also be noted that there are those within Egyptian society, such as the acclaimed Egyptian playwright )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ali Salem, a vocal supporter of normalisation with Israel, who was expelled from the Union of Egyptian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Writers in May 2001 for visiting Israel and for writing in support of improved relations, who have long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rejected the sincerity of those who raise the spectre of cultural invasion. Indeed, Salem argues that this ?has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(become the white flag raised by those who can?t defeat the peace movement by their old rhetoric?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 508.232 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 508.232 93.555 m 522.224 93.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While I am hesitant to take issue with an author who was born and grew up in Egypt and who, on his return )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Egypt as Ambassador in 1990, became the primary focus of this ?bitter venom? \(p. xiv\), it is difficult to )] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 149.6477 388.7335 163.6397 400.6135 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 501.9197 165.1495 515.9117 177.0295 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 508.2317 93.8695 522.2237 105.7495 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R ] /Contents 33 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Length 5407 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agree with Dowek?s assertion that the Egyptian belief that ?the assumptions underlying )] TJ ET BT 457.292 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Protocols of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Elders of Zion )] TJ ET BT 105.692 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are basically true?, \(p.123\) should not be interpreted as sheer anti-Semitism, but rather as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequence of a genuine admiration for the Jewish people?s national character. Indeed it hard to see how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this view of the Jews as Spengler?s ?magical nation?, can be interpreted as anything other than a textbook )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(case \(perhaps the leading contemporary example\) of state sponsored anti-Semitism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dowek has provided students of Egyptian-Israeli relations with an important and indispensable source. His )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explanation as to why after two decades of formal relations there is nothing more than a ?ground level of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peace? is all too convincing. The author?s ?profound grief? \(p.123\) and ?great sorrow? \(p. 333\) at this state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of affairs are palpable. Nevertheless, Dowek believes that the formal peace, for all its failings, has been ?a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wonderful achievement? \(p.125\) and is irreversible. No doubt he is correct in his view that any alternative is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(better than constant war. But he is also correct in his view that the status quo is ?fraught with danger? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p.125\) and as such Israel should alter its policy of accepting Egyptian intransigence as the unavoidable price )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of peace. It is a testament to the difficulty that this entails that a man as expert and experienced on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject as Dowek is at his least convincing when discussing how Israel can achieve normalisation in the face )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Egypt?s strategic world view and the deep-seated antipathy to the normal existence of a Jewish state in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the region.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 535.731 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 505.114 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See E Zev Sufott?s, )] TJ ET BT 161.672 505.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A China Diary Towards the Establishment of China-Israel Diplomatic Relations)] TJ ET BT 548.024 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London, Frank Cass, 1997; Yosef Govrin?s, )] TJ ET BT 278.996 490.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Israeli-Soviet Relations, 1953-1967: From Confrontation )] TJ ET BT 64.016 476.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(to Disruption)] TJ ET BT 128.360 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, London, Frank Cass, 1998.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 264.356 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 264.356 475.203 m 318.344 475.203 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 462.346 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Egypt?s, Al-Akhbar: Thanks to Hitler', )] TJ ET BT 259.148 462.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Associated Press)] TJ ET BT 340.808 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 7 February 2002.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 429.128 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 429.128 460.947 m 483.116 460.947 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 448.090 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(MS Diary of Sir Ronald Storrs, 20 January 1945, Box 6/6, Storrs Private Papers, Pembroke College, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 120.344 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 120.344 432.435 m 174.332 432.435 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 419.578 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See excerpts from Ali Salem, )] TJ ET BT 207.992 419.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(My Drive to Israel)] TJ ET BT 296.972 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(translated by Robert Silverman\), )] TJ ET BT 466.616 419.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Middle East )] TJ ET BT 64.016 405.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Quarterly)] TJ ET BT 111.344 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Winter 2002, p.51.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 207.668 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 207.668 403.923 m 261.656 403.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 379.061 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 360.079 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 342.299 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 342.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf 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