%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818071639+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818071639+01'00') /Title (The Voices of Morebath: Reformation and Rebellion in an English Village) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4171 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Voices of Morebath: Reformation and Rebellion in an English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Village)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eamon Duffy?s )] TJ ET BT 112.664 237.683 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Stripping of the Altars )] TJ ET BT 243.680 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Yale, 1992\) provided a broad, compelling account of popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religion in England before and during the Reformation, and was a book which undoubtedly changed the way )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we think about late medieval Catholicism and the popular experience of religious change. )] TJ ET BT 467.276 209.171 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Voices of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Morebath)] TJ ET BT 81.344 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is, as the author admits in the preface, in part a ?pendant? to that larger work, and the metaphor is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a good one. This book is a gem: small, colourful, many-faceted. It is based for the most part upon a single )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(source, namely the parish accounts from Morebath, a remote Devonshire village twenty-five miles north of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Exeter. For fifty-four years the man responsible for keeping these accounts was Christopher Trychay, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(village priest from 1520 to 1574. The records he kept were more than mere accounting: the life of the parish, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the preoccupations of its priest and the material consequences of religious change appear in vivid detail, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meticulously noted. The result is one man?s careful record of the English Reformation at parish level.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Morebath accounts have long been known as a valuable source. A version was published in 1904 by J. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Erskine Binney, who had himself been vicar of Morebath. Duffy, however, makes these records speak as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(never before, whilst incidentally clearing up some of the errors made by the first transcriber. He extracts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(266)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 31 December, 2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eamon Duffy)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780300091854)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(232pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yale University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://yalepress.yale.edu/yupbooks/book.asp?isbn=9780300091854)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Haven, Connecticut)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lucy Wooding)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7693 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from them an account of how this Tudor parish functioned in the 1520s, and how it survived the vicissitudes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the mid-Tudor period. The gradual erosion of traditional practice under Henry VIII gives way to the more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(radical initiatives of Edward VI?s reign, where the manuscript ?positively breathes a sense of crisis?, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular with the startling inclusion in the parish accounts of payments to equip the five Morebath men )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who joined the 1549 rebellion. These accounts also bear witness to the flurry of activity which greeted the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marian restoration, and the slow adaptation to conformity in the first sixteen years of Elizabeth?s reign. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book is in one sense a biography of Christopher Trychay?s working life, and it concludes with his death. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another sense it could be seen as a biography of Morebath?s Tudor Catholicism, which also, by the end, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seems dead and gone.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Voices of Morebath)] TJ ET BT 149.672 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a highly personal account on two levels. Perhaps the chief highlight of the book is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the immediate acquaintance it gives with Christopher Trychay, whom Duffy refers to throughout as ?Sir )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christopher?, according him the usual honorific title given to priests at that time. He emerges as a strong, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sometimes pedantic, occasionally difficult man, with a pithy and powerful turn of phrase. He had definite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideas about how his parishioners should behave, and he encouraged them to cooperate, not least by being as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meticulous in his records of those who failed to contribute to parish expenses as he was in recording those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who were more generous. Duffy argues that some, at least, of the written record was meant to be read aloud, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and this seems probable. So we get to see Sir Christopher standing in the church as he addresses the parish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the subject of the four large flagstones ?that lay here be fore the quyre dore?: he is standing in front of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chancel screen as he speaks. We can even hear his voice with its Devon accent that renders ?font? as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?vawnte?, or can describe someone as a ?nonest? woman. The fragments of Latin that drop into his accounts, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mingled together with English, support Duffy?s argument that church Latin may not have been as alien to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular understanding as we sometimes think. As he gives account of his parishioners obligations and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bequests, he provides a map of his community, a ?beating of the bounds? by the written and spoken word. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(His determination to dedicate the side altar to the local saint, St. Sidwell, and encourage her cult, is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successful, and it is interesting to note that he baptizes a girl called Sidwell after the saint as late as 1570. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When the book concludes with his last will and testament, there is something very touching in the admission )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that ?at the making of this will I have but little money and but one quick beast?, and when this feisty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(octogenarian dies, and is symbolically laid to rest between the old altar place and the new communion table, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it is hard not to mourn.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet this is in part because Christopher Trychay?s evident personal involvement in the fortunes of his parish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is clearly matched by that of the author. )] TJ ET BT 227.648 344.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Stripping of the Altars)] TJ ET BT 355.664 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was a very moving book, written with an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intense and imaginative appreciation of religion as a social and personal experience. )] TJ ET BT 440.924 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Voices of Morebath)] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has some of the same quality, and reiterates some of the same conclusions. It lovingly illustrates the extent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of communal involvement in the small and precious rituals of the church year, drawing out enormous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significance from the minutiae of tiny bequests and careful purchases. In 1529 one female parishioner leaves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her silver wedding ring which is melted down to make a little silver shoe for the figure of St. Sidwell, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local saint. Five years later, a thief breaks in and takes the silver shoe, along with a chalice, and the sense of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outrage is immediate. And when the young people of the parish club together and voluntarily produce the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(money for a new chalice, Duffy is in no doubt that the priest?s entry in the accounts concerning their effort )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(must have been ?recorded with pride.? Equally, when Christopher Trychay finally achieves the purchase of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new set of black vestments for requiem masses, the crowning achievement of twenty years painstaking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effort, it is hard not to rejoice with him. The sense of loss is palpable, therefore, when the images, vestments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and traditional trappings are removed under the new Protestant order. In many ways this book is an elegy on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the loss of our Catholic past. When describing how the country parishes dutifully responded to the death of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mary I in 1558 with the appropriate ceremonies, for Duffy these were ?the funeral rites of Catholic England.?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet the emotional force of this vision of the Reformation can sometimes be as misleading as it is beguiling. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pre-Reformation religion was undoubtedly the focus for great popular piety which bore fruit in communal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involvement in parish ritual, and had its material expression in church decorations, particularly the images of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the saints. Yet to call this level of communal participation ?staggering? seems over-emphatic, and fails to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(take account that this kind of engagement was equally present after the Reformation, albeit in different )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7439 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forms. Parish religion constantly alters and adapts to changing circumstances, and Reformation changes may )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not have seemed as radical at the time as they have appeared subsequently. The Henrician Reformation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which began to encroach upon the old ways, especially in its restrictions on the use of images, is portrayed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as an ineluctable slide towards Protestantism, yet there no conclusive proof that contemporaries saw it that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way; in fact it is clear that denied one form of devotional expression, the Morebath parishioners turned to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another, and fulfilled the 1538 Injunctions more speedily than many parishes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The difficulty with Duffy?s interpretation is that it has a tendency to describe the popular experience of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reformation in terms of triumph and tragedy, when there was also so much that was mundane, and so much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that remained the same. His is a vision of the Reformation as an assault upon a whole way of life, or as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author describes it in the preface, ?the most decisive revolution in English history.? This vision can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undoubtedly be inspirational, but it can also fail to take account of some of the complexities of the process, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and some of the obvious continuities in parish religion despite the Reformation. It can also ascribe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questionable symbolic importance to inanimate objects. The sources are all about material objects and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monetary value; the question of what those objects symbolized is fascinating, but must remain speculative. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When royal injunctions stripped the churches of their ornamentation, for Duffy this was an assault upon the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(belief structures underlying that church decoration. Yet we cannot be sure that the statues and vestments had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this much symbolic value for all the inhabitants of Morebath, any more than we can be sure that the new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English Bible was not equally precious to them. The one thing we can be sure of, is that the monetary value )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of all these different items was carefully recorded and husbanded.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Duffy seems to take it for granted that the symbolic value of all these church ornaments was immense, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the network of parish organization that helped to sustain the finances of the parish was about ?the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(construction of community.? This may indeed be true. It seems to have been the view of Sir Christopher, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the way in which he wrote the parish records; but can we be sure that his parishioners thought exactly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the same way? The author has to conclude, reluctantly, that in fact his sources cannot tell us anything about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the piety of the Morebath parishioners; they reveal only the facts of parish expenditure. The clear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implication, however, is that for them, as for Duffy, the symbolism of these material objects was self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evident. The black vestments for requiem masses are described as if they were a physical manifestation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Catholic doctrines concerning death and salvation. Duffy makes little distinction between monetary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bequests to the images of the saints, and a belief in the intercessionary powers of those saints. But the reader )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is left wondering whether these connections would have been as clear to the parishioners as they were to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their priest, or to the author telling their story. Were these parishioners demonstrating an impressive level of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious devotion, or were they merely following the usual custom?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are strong suggestions that reactions to religious change were more complicated than straightforward )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholic loyalism. Reformation may have seemed like revolution to some, but clearly not to all. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dissolution of the monasteries, we are told, was a terrible shock to the populace. Yet although some religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(houses, like the priory of St. Nicholas in Exeter, noted for its charity, were defended by the populace, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dissolution of Morebath?s more tight-fisted local monastery seems to have gone unlamented. The 1549 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rebellion may have had strong religious overtones, but the Morebath records indicate how much it was also a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(protest at the financial exactions of the regime. The book gives a vivid impression of the economic problems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the time, without which the new Book of Common Prayer might not have been single-handedly capable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of sparking rebellion. Rebellions cannot be reduced to single causes, as the author is keen to point out with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reference to the traditionally more ?Protestant? disturbances in East Anglia. But Duffy cannot have it both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ways: if, as he argues, the Protestantism of the East Anglian rebels may have been only skin-deep, adopted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for political purposes and at the behest of rebel leaders, then the same may be true of the Catholic loyalism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the western rebels.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Furthermore, even if the loss of the old system of parish organization did indeed ?cut deep into the living )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tissue of Morebath?s communal life?, the evidence suggests that the wound may nonetheless have healed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quite quickly. One reason that Duffy?s argument can at times seem a little overstated, is that he also provides )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so much evidence of how the village community adapted to change, redirecting its vitality through different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(channels. The parishioners who contributed the money for the parish?s Catholic devotions before the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7365 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reformation were frequently the same people who were quite willing to pay for the acquisition of Protestant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trappings after 1547 or 1558. We cannot be sure that they rated the value of the old above that of the new. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When the Catholic vestments were kept secretly during Edward?s reign, it could perhaps be construed as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mark of devotion, a clinging to the old ways. But it could equally be construed in financial terms, as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prudent conservation of valuable articles by the parish that had paid for them. Undoubtedly Sir Christopher )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mourned the ?decay? in religion during Edward VI?s time, but we cannot be sure that his parishioners all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thought as he did. ?All the voices of Morebath are one voice?, concludes Duffy, but it is a conclusion that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can work two ways. We cannot be sure that the dominance of Sir Christopher?s voice indicates that it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representative of his parishioners: his voice may have just been the loudest. This is by no means to suggest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Duffy?s preferred interpretation is inaccurate: it remains extremely persuasive. Yet there are other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possibilities to be explored.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This point is driven home by the central problem of conformity, particularly that of Sir Christopher Trychay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(himself. It is important to emphasize that this priest, who for much of the book is portrayed as a bastion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholic piety, nonetheless conformed for sixteen years under Elizabeth. Indeed, as Duffy points out, his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conformity was ?more than a grudging minimalism?. He was noted, and presumably therefore accepted, by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Elizabethan visitation of 1561, as being a regular preacher. ?There is no easy accounting for it,? says )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Duffy. Yet much of the evidence deployed in this book suggests that there is an explanation. The parish, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its priest, had conformed to every single change brought in by the authorities over the course of four )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different reigns, with the single exception of the five men who joined the rebellion of 1549. Whatever his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(private judgement, Sir Christopher obeyed orders. The duty of obedience was as powerfully felt, perhaps, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more obviously religious obligations, and it may have been as pious in intent. And his duty of service to his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parishioners may have had a moral weight which went above and beyond issues of Catholic or Protestant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doctrine.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Obedience can be hard to interpret, a problem which has long frustrated Reformation historians, who find it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so difficult to determine if a religious act is motivated by genuine piety or grudging compliance. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(response of the Morebath parishioners to clerical exhortation also perhaps deserves closer consideration. If )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Morebath?s conformity to a Protestant regime may have been based on duty rather than genuine conviction, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we ought at least to allow the possibility that so might earlier conformity to pre-Reformation religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expectations. The parishioners accepted the Elizabethan changes just as they had accepted Sir Christopher?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insistence in the 1520s that they subscribe to the fund for the black vestments. If their obedience after the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reformation was far from heartfelt, might their conformity in the 1520s not also have been a response to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authority?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book takes full account of the pressures brought to bear by higher authorities, but it could take a sterner )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(line with Sir Christopher?s own authority in Morebath. In fact, the weight of clerical authority in general is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps not given the attention it merits, considering that elsewhere in the realm it provoked a level of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anticlerical feeling which was an important contribution to the Reformation. The sources clearly demonstrate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sir Christopher?s dominant role in the village. The long-drawn out controversy in the 1530s over the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(payment of the parish clerk, who was appointed by Sir Christopher, and whose wages some in the parish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(refused to pay, might be held to hint at some resentment of the priest?s authority. This was, after all, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(valuable post, one to which Sir Christopher was later to appoint his nephew and godson. In this, as in so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many episodes, we see the priest directing affairs, recording his disapproval or satisfaction, applying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pressure to his flock. It must remain questionable whether his parishioners followed his wishes out of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(devotion or constraint. This kind of clerical influence could be found too on the wider stage. During the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1549 ?Prayer-Book Rebellion?, the articles submitted by the rebels seemed to make a powerful case for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strength of popular Catholicism, and the widespread popular outrage at the break with tradition. Yet we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cannot be sure that these articles truly reflected popular opinion, or whether the rebels? own motives were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more complicated, given straightforward religious expression only because the articles were written by their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(priests. Duffy thinks that the Morebath men ?believed that they too were behaving like "honest good and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(godlie men" defending the traditions of their fathers and the well-being of their community?. We cannot be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sure. It is tempting to identify people with their priest, not least because Sir Christopher as priest so )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 6565 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obviously identified with his people, but it is not the only possible interpretation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Duffy?s argument could perhaps take more account of the likelihood that Morebath?s devotion to St. Sidwell )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may have been as much a question of obedience as its dutiful purchase of an English Bible. These carefully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(documented religious changes may thus have felt less like a revolution, therefore, and at points Duffy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(himself suggests as much. He allows that the piecemeal changes, dragged out over four decades, were not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessarily interpreted by the parishioners in terms of the larger confrontation between Protestantism and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholicism which exercized governments and intellectuals. Looking at how the Elizabethan Settlement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have appeared to the parishioners of Morebath, Duffy notes a number of continuities that would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presumably have made Elizabethan Protestantism easier to swallow than its Edwardian equivalent. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(churching of women, the parish ales, and the rogation tide processions all continued, all important symbols )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as well as ceremonies. And clearly the fact that Sir Christopher was still officiating, albeit from a slightly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different part of the church, must have lessened the sense of revolution. The symbolism of the ?stripping of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the altars? may have been less significant than the symbolism of Sir Christopher?s continuing ministry.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book is at its most successful as a chronicle of the small concerns of the parish. If it works slightly less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well when it seeks to engage with certain wider debates, this is purely because the evidence is too slender to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sustain any very broad conclusions. There is a useful modification to the arguments of Clive Burgess )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerning the limitations of churchwardens? accounts as historical sources: the Morebath accounts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certainly seem to suggest a rather different, more prosaic purpose than the more ostentatious records of big )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(city churches. The contribution to the now very sophisticated debate concerning the 1549 rebellions is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perforce delicate, but undoubtedly thought-provoking. The fact that Morebath acquired a cucking-stool in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1557, which was repaired in 1569 and remade in 1570, is too slight to contribute much to David )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Underdown?s arguments about a shift in gender relations. Duffy?s suggestion that women were perhaps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treated better in an era where the Virgin and St. Sidwell were widely venerated is an interesting speculation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but it cannot go further than that.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As a contribution to the debate on the English Reformation, however, )] TJ ET BT 370.976 418.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Voices of Morebath)] TJ ET BT 486.632 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is invaluable. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The evidence deployed in this book is fascinating, and the central figure of Sir Christopher Trychay a great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addition to the personalities which throng the sixteenth century. The source material is carefully and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sensitively handled to produce a beautifully detailed understanding of the Reformation as it happened in one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(small parish. There perhaps remains some underlying tension between two different interpretations, between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the emphasis on radical change and the evidence of obvious continuity. No doubt the English Reformation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contained both, and in varying quantities according to which of the thousands of different parishes we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examine. In the past Duffy has given most eloquent testimony of how the Reformation was a violation of all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the ordinary people held dear, and this is where )] TJ ET BT 285.632 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Voices of Morebath)] TJ ET BT 401.288 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( begins, with the Reformation as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social revolution. But by the end of the book the suggestion is that ?the sharp distinctions between Catholic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Protestant, traditionalist and reformed, may look more straightforward and clear-cut to the historian than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they did to those immersed in the press of events.? The evidence so painstakingly explored in this book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggests that there was a willingness to embrace change and a level of religious adaptability, in at least one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English village, which we would do well not to underestimate. It almost appears as if some of the author?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own views have been gently reconfigured as the book progresses, even perhaps as Sir Christopher Trychay?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(views were modified by fifty-four years of experience. It is in this exploration of the complexities of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious change that we find the greatest strengths of this book. The gradual readjustments in the intricate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious life of this one parish stand as a useful warning against adopting too straightforward an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretation of the Reformation.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R 26 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 1819 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(JSTOR)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.jstor.org/stable/4054525)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 766.563 m 208.688 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 211.688 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Google Books)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://books.google.co.uk/books)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 738.051 m 188.360 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 191.360 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Telegraph)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/books/3592367/Paperbacks.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 709.539 m 362.660 709.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 365.660 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 706.207 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 688.427 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 688.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/266)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 687.033 m 322.316 687.033 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 662.056 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 647.656 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2556)] TJ ET BT 34.016 633.256 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.jstor.org/stable/4054525?seq=1)] TJ ET BT 34.016 618.856 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=E45TQd678hYC&sitesec=reviews)] TJ ET BT 34.016 604.456 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4] http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/books/3592367/Paperbacks.html)] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 766.8775 208.6877 778.7575 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.jstor.org/stable/4054525?seq=1) >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 738.3655 188.3597 750.2455 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=E45TQd678hYC&sitesec=reviews) >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 709.8535 362.6597 721.7335 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/books/3592367/Paperbacks.html) >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 687.3475 322.3157 699.2275 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/266) >> endobj xref 0 32 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000588 00000 n 0000000670 00000 n 0000004893 00000 n 0000005002 00000 n 0000005112 00000 n 0000005221 00000 n 0000008782 00000 n 0000008910 00000 n 0000008994 00000 n 0000009059 00000 n 0000016805 00000 n 0000016870 00000 n 0000024362 00000 n 0000024427 00000 n 0000031845 00000 n 0000031910 00000 n 0000038528 00000 n 0000038633 00000 n 0000040505 00000 n 0000040632 00000 n 0000040725 00000 n 0000040852 00000 n 0000040967 00000 n 0000041094 00000 n 0000041210 00000 n 0000041338 00000 n trailer << /Size 32 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 41433 %%EOF