%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140930074535+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140930074535+01'00') /Title (Milan since the Miracle. City, Culture and Identity) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4202 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Milan since the Miracle. City, Culture and Identity)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book is a fascinating collection of chapters which partly analyse and partly evoke different periods, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spaces and above all images of Milan since the 1950s. It does not fit into a neat academic category or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discipline, beyond its being loosely a historical overview of the city. History, in this case, is neither social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nor economic or political - nor is it a combinations of these. Rather, the primary focus is cultural, and the leit-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(motif throughout the book is the transformation of Milan from an industrial city divided primarily into a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bourgeoisie occupying the historic centre and a working class, as well as marginalised strata, living in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peripheries, to a post-industrial metropolis dominated by and emblematic of mass consumerism, immaterial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(goods, and a composite, multi-ethnic population. In this 'new' city, the old fault line between centre and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(periphery has lost its meaning, to be increasingly replaced by a continuum of urban spaces and urbanised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(countryside, extending well beyond the city's boundary. The shift is looked at primarily through an analysis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the different images of the city constructed by film-makers, television producers, photographers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(designers and politicians. The underlying approach considers a city to be made up of a variety of spaces, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interests, symbols, conflicts and lifestyles, where power is unevenly distributed and different social groups )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and actors produce images which are 'mediated through language, mass media, memory, photographs, films )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the environment' \(p. 159\). As Foot clarifies, such images 'are never fixed and are continually being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(267)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 1 April, 2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Foot)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781859735459)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(45.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(240pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Berg)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.bergpublishers.com/Default.aspx?tabid=1439)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anna Cento Bull)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7689 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reformed and deconstructed'; furthermore, they are the product of contested ' physical and moral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constructions' \(p. 159\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What kind of images, then, does the book analyse and what is their conflictual nature? Most are negative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(images, as portrayed specifically in films: Milan as the impersonal and exploitative industrial city which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(depends on migrants for its wealth yet offers them only exclusion and segregation, or Milan as the capitalist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(city dominated by profit-making, cold human relations and, increasingly, by violence. The Milanese )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(periphery was portrayed recurrently, the author reminds us, as the Bronx. This image of exploitation and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violence, of inhumanity, was often contrasted with a mythical image of a pre-industrial, rural society for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whose destruction cities like Milan were directly responsible. A more positive image was that constructed by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the left parties, which presented the peripheries as places where a working-class collective and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communitarian \(sub\)culture was able to counter the exploitative culture of 'capitalist' Milan. Both were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(myths, Foot warns us, even though at times the author appears to accept that such subcultures did exist, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(albeit only in some 'old' peripheries. They later disappeared under the onslaught of consumerism and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individualism, symbolised by the decreasing importance of public, shared spaces and the increasing role )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(played by private spaces, and in particular by the family living rooms where television occupied a place of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(honour. 'Within the home, the )] TJ ET BT 180.500 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(salotto)] TJ ET BT 213.176 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( or )] TJ ET BT 229.172 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(soggiorno)] TJ ET BT 277.844 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(living room\) began to be seen as the television room, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(used solely or largely for the activity of television watching [.] Where there was no )] TJ ET BT 435.932 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(salotto)] TJ ET BT 468.608 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in the home, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(set was usually placed in the kitchen/dining room, where it inevitably began to dominate the semi-sacred )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meal times of the Italian family' \(p. 90\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Television, to which Foot reserves an entire chapter, brought mass culture to Italy \(and Milan\). Its effects )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were widely condemned for fostering cultural uniformity and standardisation, as well as for bringing down )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(average levels of knowledge and culture. But Foot is extremely careful not to subscribe to a simplistic view )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of mass popular culture and consumerism as being inherently bad, in the same way as he rejects the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(automatic assumption that television inevitably shapes viewers' outlooks and values in ways which are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(totally beyond their control. In addition, there was an early, 'collective' phase of television viewing, during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which social, gender and generational barriers were at least temporarily broken down \(pp. 86-90\). This was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(followed by a retreat to private viewing and the re-erection of barriers, albeit of a different kind. In Milan, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the peripheral estate of Comasina was one of the first to register a mass diffusion of television sets: '90 per )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cent of families had bought a set \(presumably on credit\) by 1962' \(p. 89\). As Foot remarks, 'the very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(isolation of Comasina from the centre of Milan - with its glittering attractions, cinemas, dance halls and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theatres - encouraged this process of television purchase and use' \(p. 89\). This new phase marked but the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beginning of a process which culminated in the 1980s with Berlusconi's commercial television and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(triumph of American-style glamour and lifestyles.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The spectacular rise of Berlusconi's media empire and the success of his exclusively middle-class, purpose-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(built residential areas coincided with a new image of the city being promoted by designers and politicians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alike, which best symbolised the transition to a post-industrial city: 'Milano da bere', or 'city to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consumed', was 'an advertising slogan for an after-dinner drink which became the symbol \(at first positive, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later negative\) of a whole epoch and political style' \(p. 165\). Milan was transformed into and re-launched as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a city of fashion, media, luxury goods, new entrepreneurs, extravagance and glamour. The new image )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coincided with the period in which a revamped Socialist Party, headed by Bettino Craxi, dominated local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics, and corrupt practices became an acceptable way of life - at least until the Tangentopoli scandal, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during which the image of Milan became one of unscrupulous business people and politicians bent on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(promoting their own interests in defiance of the law and of any sense of public spiritedness. Tangentopoli )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Milan is reconstructed with great care, especially the link between the rise of new immaterial industries - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(typically fashion, which revolves around egotism, appearance, frivolity, and glamour - and the parallel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emerging images of self-gratification, hedonism, conspicuous consumption. Foot does not hide his own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distaste for the 'Milano da bere' image and even more for the social reality that underpinned that image and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clearly sees the legacy of that period continuing to exercise profound effects upon the city. The conclusion to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his book is pessimistic: 'The rampant individualism of the modern metropolis has crushed any kind of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collective civic culture able to organize society in a rational fashion [.] If Milan ever had a civic culture, it )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 8020 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has one no longer' \( pp. 182-3\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I have some sympathy with this conclusion, even though the picture it paints is perhaps too black. I also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concur with much of the author's reading and interpretation of a city in which I was born and lived between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1951 and 1959, and again between 1978 and 1985. It was easy for me to relate to the personal involvement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Foot into his subject-matter, which is referred to openly and with a hint of irony in the book: among the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical photographs of the city included in the volume, two show the author in the area where he lived. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This same involvement may, however, have led Foot to focus on certain aspects only, and to neglect others. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are some significant omissions, as well as a disconcerting sense of a silent city with plenty of images )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but very few 'voices'. The two aspects are connected, since the inclusion of certain cultural processes and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(events could have brought more voices into Milan. As it is, one gets the impression that the images that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counted were increasingly constructed by people in power and/or with power and imposed upon the city )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with few or no pockets of resistance. The only exception appears to be that of the 'classic' working-class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neighbourhoods during the economic miracle, which successfully constructed the myth of class solidarity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and socialist/communist subcultures, and voted for the left parties at successive elections in the 1960s and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('70s. As Amalia Signorelli, following Bourdieu, pointed out in her book on urban anthropology, such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neighbourhoods were able to accumulate 'considerable symbolic capital, which could then be employed in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the struggles for power which took place at the political level' \()] TJ ET BT 337.124 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Antropologia urbana. Introduzione alla )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ricerca in Italia)] TJ ET BT 110.012 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Milan, Edizioni Guerini, 1996, p. 132\). The myth of working-class solidaristic culture was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(therefore a resource, it was a form of capital which, together with social capital, could be used to empower )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the socially weak and dispossessed. It created powerful counter-images and facilitated the socio-political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(integration of migrants. What happened when these forms of symbolic capital all but disappeared? Foot )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggests that they were not replaced by any new forms so that the dominant images of recent decades )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coincided exclusively with the images produced by the dominant social groups. This may or may not have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been the case, however. It could be simply an impression created by the omission of other, no less important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspects of city life and culture.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I would like to spend some time discussing some of these omissions. The first is that of local radio stations, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly Radio Popolare, which gave the citizens a chance to express their opinions on the politics and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture of the city and became an important focus of opposition to Craxi's Milan. When I lived in Milan in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1980s, Radio Popolare had a large audience among the young \(admittedly the young within the left\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who constantly discussed among themselves and directly contributed to the diffusion of the issues it raised. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The station started to operate in 1976; indeed it has just celebrated 25 years of uninterrupted broadcasting. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has been written that Radio Popolare was born with the precise intention of 'giving voice, through the active )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(participation of the public and cooperation with the different social realities, to the most marginal groups in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(official communication, such as students, ethnic minorities and immigrants, gay people, prisoners and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pacifist movements' \(G. Cesareo and B. Scifo, '"Ecco Milano!." Sviluppo e contraddizioni del sistema )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(radiotelevisivo in Lombardia', in D. Bigazzi and M. Meriggi, eds, )] TJ ET BT 351.812 273.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Storia d'Italia. Le Regioni dall'Unit a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(oggi)] TJ ET BT 55.352 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. )] TJ ET BT 61.352 259.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(La Lombardia)] TJ ET BT 130.364 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Turin, Einaudi, p. 1094\). The authors appear convinced that the station has by and large )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fulfilled its original aim, succeeding both in establishing stable roots in the city and in playing a strongly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critical and oppositional role. Another omission is that of popular music. Admittedly, Milan is not Naples, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and music does not have such an encompassing influence upon the culture \(and the image\) of the city. Yet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Milan has a strong musical tradition, quite apart from the one associated with Verdi and La Scala. In the old )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(days of the economic miracle, 'cantautori' or writers/singers such as Gaber and Iannacci created powerful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(images of the city's peripheries, and the )] TJ ET BT 226.808 173.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(balere)] TJ ET BT 257.468 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( were popular places in which music was produced and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consumed. Some cantautori were also showmen and cabaret singers, such as Nanni Svampa. Their shows )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(included songs but also sketches, sometimes involving the audience, often with political and satirical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(content. From the 1970s onward mass popular music occupied central stage and Milan became an important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centre for pop music consumption and production, developing yet another 'immaterial' industry out of a pre-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existing, but relatively modest, discographic sector. The exclusion from the book of radio, music and theatre )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(particularly Giorgio Strehler's Piccolo Teatro, Dario Fo's La Comune experiment, and all the other theatrical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cooperatives set up in the 1970s\) in favour of cinema and television leads to an inevitable overrepresentation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of leisure and free time in terms of isolated, individual activities and a corresponding underrepresentation of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7732 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what has been termed 'conviviality', that is, 'the element of sociable pleasure in many kinds of purposeful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activities and [.] the variety of ways in which people together make and remake the world. Conviviality in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this broad sense is represented not only by cheerful activities like singing in pubs or street dancing at a block )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(party, but also by the small-group rituals and social bonding in serious collective action [.]' \(L. Peattie, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Convivial Cities', in J. Friedmann and M. Douglass, eds., )] TJ ET BT 313.340 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cities for Citizens. Planning and the Rise of Civil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Society in a Global Age)] TJ ET BT 148.004 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Chichester, John Wiley and Sons, 1998, p. 247\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps the exclusion of theatre can be explained by the fact that it is an activity largely restricted to the city )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centre and to the middle classes, two other underrepresented protagonists of Milan before the 1980s. We are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(told by John Foot, for example, that the old bourgeoisie has largely disappeared, replaced by a new, yuppy-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(style, nouveau-riche, aggressive and extravagant middle class, but the process is not analysed in any depth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nor does it produce 'voices', apart from those of Berlusconi and his acolytes. What happened to the old )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bourgeoisie? Did it sink without trace? Did it put up a fight, opposing images to images and symbols to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(symbols? Was it simply bought off? Did it retreat into splendid \(but sterile\) isolation? How much trading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and negotiating went on behind closed doors in the most secluded 'palazzi'? Milan, after all, was the city )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where Enrico Cuccia, Italy's financial 'minence grise' operated as the undiscussed boss of Mediobanca, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most powerful Italian merchant bank which acted as a powerhouse for the country's major industrial groups. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Milan is also the city where the Banco Ambrosiano operated for years before it collapsed in 1982 amid a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gigantic scandal of political and economic corruption, long before Tangentopoli and even before the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Socialist Party's period of political dominance. Calvi, Sindona, Gelli, P2, the IOR, the Vatican and the Mafia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were some of the protagonists of the scandal, and their enemies were the Bank of Italy, Cuccia himself, La )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Malfa and many honest and brave public servants and magistrates. Milan's prestigious newspaper, )] TJ ET BT 507.764 499.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Corriere )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(della Sera)] TJ ET BT 83.012 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, fell for a time under control of Calvi and P2.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is no mention of the scandal or any of its protagonists in Foot's book, yet their inclusion might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguably have had the effect of changing the author's reading of the socio-economic transformation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(city. Clearly the rise of Craxi and Berlusconi was preceded by a widening web of shady financial dealings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and underhand alliances with corrupt and/or criminal groups which shook at its foundations the old Milanese )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bourgeoisie. In this context, how useful is a periodisation which largely separates the 1960s and '70s from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1980s and '90s, associating the latter period with widespread corruption and a 'clientelist and nepotistic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture' \(p. 165\)? The dark side of Italian capitalism became visible in the city well before the end of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industrial phase, even though the prevailing images were still those linked to 'another' Milan: a bleak, hard-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working, conflict-ridden, highly politicised place, but also a place of economic legality. What I am trying to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(say is that the images of the city and its socio-economic transformation may not have proceeded necessarily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in unison, as the book seems to suggest. While Tangentopoli and its images \(at first positive, later negative\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fit in well with the loss of traditional industry and an industrial proletariat and the triumph of 'immaterial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(goods', the Sindona-Calvi undertakings, the growth of Banco Ambrosiano, the illegal exports of capital )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which marked 1970s Milan had profound socio-economic effects upon the city but do not appear to have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(produced memorable or durable images. This raises the question whether they are not discussed precisely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because they were not mediated by images. In other words, the 'constructivist' approach adopted by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author runs the risk of overlooking any social processes which are not reflected through the prism of cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representations: what is not captured in images sinks into oblivion. This is why it would have been desirable, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in my view, to reproduce voices alongside images.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is possible, however, that the 1970s events referred to above were left out \(together with mass political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrations and terrorism\) because they would have detracted from the main purpose of the book, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is to compare and contrast the period of the economic miracle with the boom of the 1980s and its aftermath. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In one telling sentence, Foot comments that, seen against the enthusiasm with which television was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(welcomed in Milan even in the early days, '1968 seems more of a blip than the proof of any real revolt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against capitalist values' \(p. 107\). As an extension of 1968, the 1970s may therefore have been relegated to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the margins of the narrative. This certainly has the merit of allowing the author to focus on those aspects that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(really interest him and to make a strong case for tracing consumerism and individualism \(mainly through his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis of television\) back to the period when collectivism and a mass proletariat appeared dominant. My )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 3025 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reservation remains the one outlined above, that is, that the choice of certain types of media and leisure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(television and cinema\) at the expense of, say, music and theatre, may have influenced an interpretation that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stretches individualist values back to the early 1960s, rather than extending collective behaviour - or at least )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('conviviality' - well into the 1980s and beyond.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lastly, the book contains some very interesting discussions of theoretical debates which were either )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influential in Italy in the past \(such as the debate around consumerism and cultural assimilation\), or inform )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studies of cities and urban spaces today. Foot approaches these theories in a refreshing manner. Rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appearing in a separate section at the beginning of the volume, they are interspersed with the historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrative, allowing for a seamless continuum of empirical observation, analysis of events and theoretical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion. All in all, quite apart from any perceived omissions, this is a hugely enjoyable work, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brought back many memories of a city which seems to attract and repulse in equal measures. I left Milan in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the middle of the '80s vowing never to go back, yet I have since been drawn to it again and again for both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work and pleasure. I have seen its transformation into a multi-ethnic city, described vividly in the book, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(together with the outward signs of multiculturalism, if not \(yet\) with real social integration. As well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(making fascinating reading, the book stimulates new ideas and offers new incentives for research, and I do )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not think more could be asked of it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 525.391 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 507.611 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 507.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/267)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 506.217 m 322.316 506.217 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 481.240 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 466.840 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2558)] TJ ET BT 34.016 452.440 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 506.5315 322.3157 518.4115 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/267) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000561 00000 n 0000000643 00000 n 0000004897 00000 n 0000005006 00000 n 0000005116 00000 n 0000005225 00000 n 0000008786 00000 n 0000008914 00000 n 0000008998 00000 n 0000009063 00000 n 0000016805 00000 n 0000016870 00000 n 0000024943 00000 n 0000025008 00000 n 0000032793 00000 n 0000032877 00000 n 0000035955 00000 n 0000036083 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 36178 %%EOF