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0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Recent Cold War Studies)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(267)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 1 April, 2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Klaus Larres)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ann Lane)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(0631207066)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(88.89)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(256pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Blackwell)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://bookshop.blackwell.co.uk/jsp/id/The_Cold_War/9780631207054)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gregory Mitrovich)] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.811 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(0801437113)] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.299 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.787 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(29.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.275 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(235pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.763 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cornell University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.251 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.cornellpress.cornell.edu/book/?GCOI=80140100973270)] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.739 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 71.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ithaca)] TJ ET BT 34.016 57.227 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 42.971 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John McNay)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> 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?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 4973 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Gosh, I miss the Cold War', Bill Clinton reputedly claimed. Clearly for reasons other than historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarship as the demise of the Cold War has certainly not stemmed the ever-increasing proliferation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(books about a subject that has been exhaustively analysed and passionately debated. Even allowing for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Arthur Marwick's legitimate observation that history is a constant re-writing and re-interpretation, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cumulative development, do we really need yet more student texts and a seemingly endless flow of research )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monographs? Judging by the output, the answer of the publishing industry is a resounding yes. Indeed, Ann )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lane and Klaus Larres claim that the process of accumulating knowledge and assessing the significance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new findings in the context of previous Cold War scholarship 'is still very much in its infancy'. \(p.16\) Access )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to new sources, the constant revision of old sources, plus the different insights opened up by other fields, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially at present cultural history, mean that Cold War history is continually being enriched. Certainly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there have been some significant developments in the last two decades of Cold War historiography. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European scholarship flourished in the 1980s following the opening of the archives. The emerging European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perspective laid open a far more elaborate pattern of relations in the international arena than had previously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been recognised. It not only challenged existing scholarship, it revealed the valuable contribution external )] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources make to a nuanced and fuller appreciation of the US foreign policy making process. Perhaps the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most significant development has been the opening of the Russian and East European archives that followed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 100.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ending of the Cold War. A great deal of excitement has been generated by the 'new' Cold War history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coming out of these recently opened archives.\(1\) This is reflected by Klarres' and Lane's inclusion in their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 71.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excellent collection of classic essays, entitled simply The Cold War, of an extract from Vladislav Zubok's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 57.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Constantine Pleshakov's jointly-authored Inside the Kremlin's Cold War: From Stalin to Khrushchev )] TJ ET BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(0826213448)] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(39.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(219pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of Missouri Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://press.umsystem.edu/product/Acheson-and-Empire,573.aspx)] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fraser Harbutt)] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781577180517)] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(88.89)] TJ ET BT 34.016 482.837 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(384pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 454.325 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Blackwell)] TJ ET BT 34.016 425.813 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 411.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://bookshop.blackwell.co.uk/jsp/id/The_Cold_War_Era/9781577180517)] TJ ET BT 34.016 397.301 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 383.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 368.789 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 354.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dianne Kirby)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 8059 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Harvard University Press; Cambridge, 1996\). Addressing the most critical point of the Cold War, the Cuban )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Missile Crisis, Zubok and Pleshakov use Soviet archives to delve into the influences and events that shaped )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Khrushchev's thinking as the world teetered on the edge of potential nuclear annihilation. In 'Khrushchev )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Kennedy: The taming of the Cold War', the two authors present some fascinating revelations about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Soviet premier, his perceptions of Kennedy and the high hopes he had of the new president. They also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disclose how valid public fears were at the time and just how close to catastrophe the world actually came, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revealing that at the time the US Chiefs of Staff proposed a preventative strike on the Soviet installations in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cuba, the head of the provisional Soviet troops there, General I. A. Pliyev, had a nuclear option at his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discretion. The extract provides a detailed exegesis of the trail of events, already explored by American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians in relation to J.F. Kennedy, which led the Soviet premier and the American president to seek more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(careful containment and management of the East-West conflict. While material from the Soviet archives is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of incalculable value, it should not be forgotten that much remains to be learned from the Western side, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where far too much still remains classified. An excellent example of effective and objective use of what is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(available in the newly declassified sources comes from Gregory Mitrovich, Undermining the Kremlin: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(America's Strategy to subvert the Soviet Bloc, 1947 - 1956. A notable contribution to the Cornell Studies in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Security Affairs series, the book is distinguished by meticulous research, measured argument and penetrating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis. Mitrovich develops a proposition that has recently gained currency, that liberation was implicit in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the policy of containment as formulated during the Truman era. W. L. Hixson, in his much-praised ground-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(breaking cultural study Parting the Curtain: Propaganda, Culture and the Cold War \(Houndmills; New York, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1997\), had previously argued that the American aim was to avoid direct military conflict through the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(application of external and internal pressures aimed at promoting instability in the Soviet bloc.\(2\) Mitrovich )] TJ ET BT 34.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contends that the United States initiated offensive action against the Soviet bloc independently of and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simultaneously with the inauguration of containment. Mitrovich is not suggesting that American national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(security elites planned global economic hegemony. Rather, he posits that the desire to create a world without )] TJ ET BT 34.016 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(competing blocs, taken together with Soviet policies in Eastern Europe, 'required that the cold war be a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(struggle for world supremacy with one system ultimately emerging as victor . as indeed has happened.' \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 425.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(181\) Mitrovich uses recently declassified intelligence files to argue that the Cold War struggle, especially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 411.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from 1948 to 1956, was in reality a true war with a victor and a loser. He notes, however, that post-war US )] TJ ET BT 34.016 397.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policymakers did not intend nor foresee the long commitment that ensued. In fact, they feared that a long-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 383.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(term division of the world would make economic depression and world war inevitable, whereas an open )] TJ ET BT 34.016 368.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international economic system without competing political-economic blocs would be a guarantor of peace )] TJ ET BT 34.016 354.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and stability. These beliefs predisposed US policy-makers to favour the expeditious elimination of the Soviet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 340.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(threat, thus allowing the construction of a global political-economic order that included the Soviet Union and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 326.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eastern Europe. In effect, what we have today. The war was to be fought by non-military methods, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 311.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(psychological warfare and covert action in particular, highly influenced, however, by the military balance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 297.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power, which in the final analysis decided the outcome. Ironically, it was the developing nuclear stalemate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 283.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that came to provide the sought for stability, constraining American efforts directed toward a quick win. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mitrovich presents an intricate outline of the sharp bureaucratic friction and rivalry that pervaded the policy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(process in Washington. Although there appears to be a consensus from 1948 about the need for covert )] TJ ET BT 34.016 240.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(operations and political warfare against the Soviet Union, there was little agreement on what should be done )] TJ ET BT 34.016 226.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or who should be in charge. The State Department, the CIA, the Pentagon and the PSB \(Psychological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Strategy Board\), a sub-committee of the National Security Council, held differing views on Soviet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 197.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vulnerabilities and capabilities, leading to different policy offerings. Naturally, this resulted in programmes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 183.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that, during both the Truman and Eisenhower administrations, lacked clear and consistent guidance and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 169.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(objectives, were inadequately co-ordinated and were without proper accountability. Although the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eisenhower administration is credited with slightly better organisation and success in developing political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(warfare, Mitrovich identifies an inherent contradiction between propaganda and policy. Despite calls for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 126.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberation and 'roll-back', the Eisenhower administration was in actuality exceedingly cautious in terms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 112.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implementation, deterred in the main by the Soviet Union's perceived nuclear capabilities. Eventually, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eisenhower administration emulated the more moderate policies to which Truman had succumbed and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which the Republicans had vehemently indicted, retreat from over-pressurising the Soviets and inadvertently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 69.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provoking a nuclear response. Mitrovich's book joins a growing body of scholarship that has challenged the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 55.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditional view that it was the Soviet Union that was the master of propaganda and political warfare during )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 8038 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Cold War.\(3\) However, gauging the success of covert and propaganda activities is not easy. Mitrovich )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subscribes to the view that American advocacy of liberation drew the Hungarians into an imprudent and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unfortunate uprising. But impetus also came from internal factors, not least a domestic power struggle that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(escalated from demonstration to insurrection. Nonetheless, this book offers an invaluable exegesis of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notoriously difficult-to-research dimension of Cold Was history. Mitrovich's scholarship is not only highly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commendable, but also testimony to the continuing value of American-based archival research. The same is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(true of the work of John McNay whose book Acheson and Empire: The British Accent in American Foreign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Policy is based on rigorous research in archival sources that include the Truman Library, the National )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Archives, the Public Record Office in London and Acheson's personal papers at Yale. McNay presents a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persuasive and compelling argument that is not only a reassessment of Dean Acheson and a challenging )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revision of a crucial period in Cold War history, but also highlights the personal dimension as being of much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more significance than it is usually accorded in the historical record. It is McNay's contention that 'Human )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agency is an especially key factor in foreign policy making'. On this basis he has undertaken a study of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ambiguities and complexities of US foreign policy in the context of one man's personal history, Dean )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Acheson. Acheson was one of the main architects of the Cold War as Secretary of State from 1949 to 1953 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the administration of President Harry Truman. Acheson was, according to McNay, 'more responsible for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the foreign policy of the United States during his tenure in office than the president he served.' McNay posits )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that to understand the substance of American foreign policy in these crucial early Cold War years, it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Acheson rather than Truman who needs to be studied. And to understand Acheson, according to McNay's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(central argument, it is critical to appreciate the way in which his policy choices were influenced by his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('world-view'. According to McNay, Acheson's world-view, to which he adhered throughout his life, 'not only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grew out of his Ulster heritage but also encouraged him to see international relations generally, and US )] TJ ET BT 34.016 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy specifically, in terms derived from traditional style British imperialism.' \(p. 2\) McNay's argument )] TJ ET BT 34.016 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deserves serious consideration, not least owing to the consequential outcomes for the United States and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain that he perceives as deriving from Acheson's polices in these years. The British were encouraged to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(devote more resources than they could afford to often hopeless situations because they mistook the support )] TJ ET BT 34.016 425.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and sympathy of one man as indicative of general American favour and long-term and assistance. Nor were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 411.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Acheson's policies good for America. Support for Britain in these years brought unwelcome repercussions, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 397.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generating bitterness and criticism, even hostility, from Third World nations that saw the United States as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 383.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('little better than a front for British interests'. \(p. 4\) McNay tests his hypothesis with a close examination of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 368.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the responses from the United States and Britain to four nations, India, Ireland, Iran and Egypt, all seeking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 354.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independence from British control during Acheson's secretaryship. In the process of testing his own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 340.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusions, McNay challenges the widely accepted view that Acheson was a foreign policy realist. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 326.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contends that this is a view that requires modification in the light of the 'imperial paradigm' to which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 311.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Acheson was subject. Most importantly, McNay argues that historians have overstressed the continuity of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 297.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(US foreign policy during the Cold War era. He claims that there were significant changes in US foreign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 283.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy between when Acheson entered and left high office and that historians have missed these owing to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Acheson's success in masking his imperial paradigm behind a veil of realist rhetoric. Certainly the case )] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studies that McNay presents for consideration provide persuasive insights that support his interpretation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 240.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Acheson's motivation. Each one is a worthwhile study on its own account, showing a masterly grasp of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 226.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(minutiae and nuances of unfolding event in the countries examined, not to mention equally profound insights )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the evolution of Anglo-American relations and the interaction of individual British and American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 197.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(officials. McNay convincingly shows that human agency matters. In demonstrating this point, however, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 183.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(raises the difficulties, particularly pertinent to the study of Cold War diplomacy, in discerning the influence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 169.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the policy-making process between pragmatic realism and romantic idealism. In arguing that historians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have not simply overlooked the nostalgic, romantic admiration for empire incorporated into Acheson's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diplomacy, but have mistaken it for realism, McNay raises a significant problem at the heart of Cold War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 126.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history. Realism as a philosophy is notoriously hard to define. The problem is compounded by the complex )] TJ ET BT 34.016 112.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(phenomenon of the Cold War, the very nature of which remains contested, especially the degree to which it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was an ideological conflict as opposed to a pure power struggle. And it is this same difficulty that makes it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impossible for McNay to prove his thesis. He himself recognises that a key objection to his study is that it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 69.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ignores the perceived necessity at the time of preserving the Anglo-American alliance in the Cold War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 55.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world. McNay's evidence is persuasive, but it does not displace the other cogent explanations provided by )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 8066 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(realism. What it does do effectively is to illustrate the importance of the ideals, beliefs and values of key )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leaders in the international arena. The distinguished Cold War historian Melvyn Leffler has elsewhere drawn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention to how the new historians of the Cold War stress the significance of ideas and beliefs. However, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while focusing on the importance of ideology and culture, the new scholarship tends to be preoccupied with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communist ideology rather than that of the West. \(4\) The trend is discernible in We Now Know: Rethinking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cold War History by John Lewis Gaddis \(Oxford University Press: Oxford, 1997\), the best known historian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Cold War and foremost proponent of a school of interpretation -- post-revisionism -- that stresses the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance of geo-politics and power balances. \(5\) Gaddis's new work is distinctive owing to the extent that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it abandons post-revisionism and returns to a more traditional interpretation of the Cold War, blaming the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cold War on Stalin's personality, on authoritarian government and on Communist ideology.\(6\) American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideas and the actions they inspired have been rather marginalised in the new literature, which conveys an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(image of a passive Washington.\(7\) In reality, as McNay shows, American officials held powerful beliefs that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influenced their approach to policy-making. And, as McNay again shows, these beliefs were more than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simply about the superiority of American institutions, culture and way of life. Thus, while McNay might not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persuade everyone to accept his central contention about Acheson's motivations, he raises profound )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions about the role of individual beliefs and values in the policy-making process. For students newly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(embarking on the study of the Cold War there are two excellent new texts from Blackwell. The prize-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(winning author of The Iron Curtain: Churchill, America, and the Origins of the Cold War \(Oxford )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University Press: Oxford, 1986\), Fraser J. Harbutt, reveals a firm grasp of the period from the Yalta )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conference in 1945 to the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 in The Cold War Era. A first class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribution to Blackwell's useful series 'Problems in American History', the text is more than an important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduction to the Cold War, it is an outstanding overview of a complex and critical period in which the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cold War was sometimes the key player and sometimes simply the backdrop. In addition to being a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comprehensive survey, the book is distinguished by perceptive insights into the historiographical debates, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which Harbutt not only shrewdly assesses, but to which he also makes significant contributions. A key )] TJ ET BT 34.016 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feature of this book is that the reader derives a sense of the ways in which historians, academic, journalist, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 425.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(novelists and others, have defined and explained compelling Cold War issues, while simultaneously being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 411.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treated to Harbutt's own distinctive approach to the period. Harbutt's judicious insinuation of his particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 397.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notions provides an original and stimulating outlook that brings fresh perspectives to material that can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 383.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(otherwise seem deceptively familiar. For example, Harbutt views American diplomacy as in the main the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 368.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expression, not of a warrior or imperial culture, but of a compulsively managerial ethos. Harbutt is 'intrigued )] TJ ET BT 34.016 354.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the uneasy co-existence of a conservative political structure and a private realm of techno-business )] TJ ET BT 34.016 340.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volatility and radical popular culture'. \(p. ix\) Additional insights are derived from Harbutt's invoking the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 326.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neglected concept of generational change to supplement the hallowed trinity of class, race and gender. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 311.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Above all, Harbutt's multi-dimensional treatment of the era provides rich insights into and telling analyses of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 297.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American society and the way in which the Cold War was at all times a formidable cultural and intellectual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 283.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presence. He also writes with a flair and clarity that make the book a pleasure to read. Equally pleasurable to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(read, well presented and discerning is The Cold War: The Essential Readings. The editors, Klaus Larres and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ann Lane, are to be commended on a selection that provides not only an introduction to the period, but also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 240.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an introduction to some of the very best scholars and scholarship in the field. The essays are solicitously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 226.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arranged into four thematic sections that provide a logical and coherent overview of the period: 'Cold War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Origins', 'First Attempts at Conflict Management, 'War and Dtente' and 'The End of the Cold War'. Each )] TJ ET BT 34.016 197.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(section is introduced by an informative summary of the period, including an erudite and astute review of its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 183.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography. While the value of the Melvyn P. Leffler survey \(see note 4\) lay in its authorial overview, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 169.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(value of this book is very much in the diversity of views presented. The two texts are extraordinarily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complementary and students would certainly profit from studying the two together. From Larres and Lane, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in particular, students will learn to appreciate the opposing scholarly views and different interpretations that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 126.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are the essence of Cold War historiography. For example, to illustrate how the debate about Cold War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 112.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(origins is one about perceptions and intentions, the selection begins with two of the most eminent Cold War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians, Leffler and Gaddis. While both authors express reservations about Soviet intentions, Gaddis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues that the US was ultimately a reactive power and that the primary element in bringing about the Cold )] TJ ET BT 34.016 69.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(War was the personality of Josef Stalin. Leffler, on the other hand, is rather more equivocal about American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 55.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foreign policy. The end of the Cold War took scholars completely by surprise. Insightful, cogent )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 4701 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commentaries on this unpredicted event come from two doyens of Cold War history, Arthur Schlesinger, Jr )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and H. W. Brands. Other important contributions on key Cold War episodes come from Richard Crockatt, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Raymond L. Garthoff and Klaus Larres himself, not to mention the important essay from Vladislav Zubok )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Constantine Pleshakov discussed above. Lane and Larres are to be congratulated on bringing together )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this wide range of excellent scholarship into a coherent whole that makes a first class contribution to our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of the era and the ceaseless debates surrounding it. And in the crisis climate of the present, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the ominous resonance of the 'War on Terror' increasingly redolent of America's Cold War past, these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debates are of more than just historical merit. Bill Clinton missed the Cold War because anti-communism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provided a more potent rationale for American interventionism than did humanitarian missions and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(promoting democracy in the eyes of the all-important American electorate. Michael Ignatieff is not alone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(among political commentators in discerning the degree to which the political and intellectual climate of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('War on Terror' now resembles that of the Cold War. \(8\) David Blight reminds us that 'All memory is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prelude.' \(9\) Therefore, keeping in mind George Orwell's famous epigraph, 'Who controls the past, controls )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the future', the fact is that we need more books of the calibre of those discussed here. More research, more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debate, more understanding of the Cold War is today an urgent imperative. April 2002 Notes: 1. John Lewis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gaddis, We Now Know: Rethinking Cold War History, \(Oxford University Press: Oxford, 1997\). 2. I make )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the same point in a study of how religious forces were mobilised to create dissent and contribute to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instability behind the Iron Curtain, 'Harry Truman's religious legacy: the holy alliance, containment and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cold War', in D. Kirby, ed., Religion and the Cold War \(Palgrave: Basingstoke, 2002\). 3. Scott Lucas, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Freedom's War: The US Crusade Against the Soviet Union, 1945-1956 \(New York University Press; New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(York, 1999\). 4. Melvyn P. Leffler, 'The Cold War: what do "We Now Know"?', American Historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Review, 104 \(1999\), 501-24. 5. Gaddis, We Now Know. 6. Leffler, 'The Cold War'. 7. Ibid. 8. Michael )] TJ ET BT 34.016 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ignatieff, 'Is the human rights era ending?', New York Times, 5 February 2002. 9. David Blight, Race and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reunion: The Civil War in American Memory \(Harvard University Press: Cambridge, 2001\), p. 397. Klaus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Larres and Ann Lane are happy to accept the review of The Cold War: The Essential Readings.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 409.087 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 391.307 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 391.307 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/267a)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 389.913 m 327.644 389.913 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 364.936 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 350.536 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4363)] TJ ET BT 34.016 336.136 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4364)] TJ ET BT 34.016 321.736 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4365)] TJ ET BT 34.016 307.336 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4366)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.936 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 390.2275 327.6437 402.1075 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/267a) >> endobj xref 0 26 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000540 00000 n 0000000622 00000 n 0000003579 00000 n 0000003688 00000 n 0000003798 00000 n 0000003907 00000 n 0000007468 00000 n 0000007596 00000 n 0000007680 00000 n 0000007745 00000 n 0000012771 00000 n 0000012836 00000 n 0000020948 00000 n 0000021013 00000 n 0000029104 00000 n 0000029169 00000 n 0000037288 00000 n 0000037372 00000 n 0000042126 00000 n 0000042254 00000 n trailer << /Size 26 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 42350 %%EOF