%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 27 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141123050708+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141123050708+00'00') /Title (A History of Iraq) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4028 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(A History of Iraq)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is probably no other region in today's world whose domestic and international politics have been more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personalised than the Middle East. Not only have absolute leaders dominated the regional political scene for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decades, superseding state institutions and personalising the national interest, but quite a few states have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been established to satisfy the personal ambitions of local rulers. The independent state of the Hijaz, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instance, was created to reward Hussein Ibn Ali, the Sharif of Mecca, for instigating the 'Arab Revolt' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against the Ottoman Empire during the First World War, only to be subsumed in the 1920s by Saudi Arabia: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(yet another personal creation by a local potentate, Abd al-Aziz Ibn Saud. The Emirate of Transjordan, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(latterly the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, was established by the British to placate Sharif Hussein's son, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Abdallah, while the formation of the larger and more powerful Iraqi state \(in 1921\) from the Ottoman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(velayets)] TJ ET BT 72.668 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of Basra, Baghdad, and Mosul was designed to compensate Abdallah's younger brother, Faisal, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(following his expulsion from Syria by the French.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is, however, another side to the ledger. Middle Eastern rulers are no less the product of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environment than its shapers. Islam's millenarian legacy, the precarious and uncertain nature of Arab )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalism, and the abundance of conflicting loyalties, disputed boundaries, religious, and ethnic and tribal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(268)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 September, 2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charles Tripp)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780521554046)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(58.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(311pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.cambridge.org/uk/catalogue/catalogue.asp?isbn=9780521878234)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Efraim Karsh)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7130 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(schisms, have all left an indelible mark on ruled and rulers alike.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the great virtues of Tripp's book, by far the best and most serious history of Iraq to date, is that it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(captures so well not simply the consequences of this intricate interrelationship, but also the social and moral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worlds in which it exists and thrives. Resisting the simplistic, if fashionable fad of 'writing history from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(below', which all too often places an undue emphasis on society's marginal and esoteric aspects to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exclusion of its real driving forces, Tripp has produced a subtle interpretation of Iraq that is at once sensitive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to both views from 'above' and 'below', and which casts Iraqi rulers as being forged by their society even as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they sought to reforge it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This, to be sure, is no mean task. For Iraq is a land of rival ambitions and contradictions that make the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(creation of a unified national narrative a daunting task indeed. It is a country with a glorious imperial past, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stretching back thousands of years, and far-reaching dreams for the future, and yet, geopolitically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(handicapped: virtually landlocked and surrounded by six neighbours, with at least two - Turkey and Iran - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(larger and irredentist. It is a country that aspires to champion the cause of Arab nationalism while at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same time being, in the words of its first modern ruler, King Faisal I, no more than 'unimaginable masses of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(human beings, devoid of any patriotic idea, imbued with religious traditions and absurdities... and prone to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anarchy'.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 77.156 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 77.156 557.235 m 91.148 557.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 91.148 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It is a land torn by ethnic and religious divisions, a land where the main non-Arab community, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Kurds, has been constantly suppressed, and where the majority of the population, the Shi'ites, have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ruled since the inception of the Iraqi state as an underprivileged class by a minority group, the Sunnis, less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than one third their size.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This wide gap between dreams of grandeur and the grim realities of weakness has generated a political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legacy of frustration and insecurity, so aptly captured by Tripp's book. Confronted with a roiling domestic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cauldron, as well as formidable external challenges, the ruling oligarchy in Iraq - from the monarchy, to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ba'th party, to Saddam Hussein - has been condemned to a constant rearguard action for political legitimacy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and personal survival. The outcome has been the all-too-familiar politics of violence plaguing Iraq for most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the twentieth century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By way of weaving this troubled national narrative into a unified whole, Tripp focuses on three interrelated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(factors, denoting different spheres of social and political actions. The first is patrimonialism's extraordinary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resilience, and the attendant consequences of this phenomenon for the organisation of power and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship between social formations and the forms of state power. Drawing on a wide range of original )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources, and writing in crisp prose, Tripp meticulously documents the decisive impact of the networks of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patrons and clients throughout Iraqi society on the country's political history, from the people who associated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves with the Hashemite monarchy in the early years to the groupings now clustered around Saddam's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personal rule.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tripp convincingly argues that given the origins of the Iraqi state, as well as the processes attending its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(creation, certain social groupings, mainly Sunni Arabs associated with the defunct Ottoman Empire, have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(always been favoured over others. This has, in turn, allowed them to use the power thus acquired to protect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(privilege and to give it dimensions of property, status, and position. Yet this has not spared the Sunni )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community of its own internal rivalries, conflicts, and struggles, which have at times been no less intense )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than the attempt to exclude the 'other' on the basis of sect, ethnic grouping, gender or economic position. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, as shown by Tripp, there has been much more to this process than the mere jockeying for power and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its trappings: it has been inextricably linked with such social developments as the fortunes of 'tribal' politics, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as well as the demographic shift from countryside to city and the consequent 'ruralizing' of the political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(universe.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These processes have been greatly enhanced by the second factor noted by Tripp: the shifting basis of Iraq's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political economy, notably the increasing importance of oil revenues and the unprecedented financial power )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they have delivered into the hands of those at the helm. Yet this development has been a double-edged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sword. On the one hand, it has enhanced the autonomy of the state in Iraq. On the other, it has reinforced the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular conceptions of the state held by those who have used these resources to shape the state itself, from )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 77.1557 557.5495 91.1477 569.4295 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 25 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7851 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Hashemites to Saddam. Most importantly, the economic foundations of power have augmented the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different forms of patrimonialism which have ensured the dependence of the majority of the Iraqi population )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the minority controlling the nation's foremost resources.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The third factor is similarly linked to the other two: the prevalence of violence in Iraqi history. To be sure, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any state is to some extent an organisation that disciplines and coerces, with the importance of coercion as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disciplinary means shifting in accordance with the degree of regime openness. Yet even by the unforgiving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(standards of Middle Eastern politics, Iraqi violence has been a league of its own. When in the summer of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1933 the Iraqi army slaughtered some 3,000 members of the tiny Assyrian community, in response to their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demand for ethnic and religious recognition, celebrations were held throughout the country in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('triumphant arches were set up, decorated with melons stained with blood and with daggers stuck into them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([to represent heads of slain Assyrians]'.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 222.800 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 222.800 640.515 m 236.792 640.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 236.792 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( When in July 1958 the Hashemite dynasty, which had ruled Iraq )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(since its inception in 1921, was overthrown by a military coup, headed by General Abd al-Karim Qassem, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the mutilated body of the Iraqi regent, Abd al-Ilah, was dragged by a raging mob through the streets of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Baghdad before being hung at the gate of the Ministry of Defence. Similarly, Saddam Hussein's ascent to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presidency in July 1979 was accompanied by a horrendous bloodbath, in which hundreds of party officials )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and military officers, some of whom were close friends and associates, perished.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(According to Tripp, this violent legacy has made the armed forces a pre-eminent part of Iraqi society from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the onset of the state, thus creating the very conditions which have perpetuated this pre-eminence and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forcing would be opponents to operate along very similar lines. No less importantly, the primacy of military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(force has coupled with the oligarchic nature of Iraqi politics and the massive influx of oil revenues to create )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominant narratives marked by powerful, authoritarian leadership, for whom political participation is little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more than unquestioning submission. This has in turn faced many Iraqis with the choice between submission )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and flight: for Assyrians, Kurds, and Yazidis, migration and exile seemed at times to be the only way to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(escape the pull of the state and the sometimes murderous zeal of those its rulers; so it was for those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independently minded intellectuals and artists who would not have their voiced numbed. For many Shi'ites, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the example of those )] TJ ET BT 136.664 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(mujtahids)] TJ ET BT 184.004 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( who had performed an inner, spiritual migration has been a powerful one, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(causing them to turn their backs on a political world which had so little to offer them; if they tried to change )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it, as some have done, the reaction was so harsh that physical flight and exile seemed to be the only safe path )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Never have these processes been so pronounced as during the two-and-a-half decades of Saddam's personal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rule. In the permanently beleaguered mind of Saddam, politics is a ceaseless struggle for survival. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ultimate goal of staying alive, and in power, justifies all means. Plots lurk around every corner. Nobody is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trustworthy. Everybody is an actual or potential enemy. One must remain constantly on the alert, making )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others cower so that they do not attack, always ready to kill before being killed. 'I know that there are scores )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of people plotting to kill me', Saddam told a personal guest of his shortly after assuming the presidency in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the summer of 1979, 'and this is not difficult to understand. After all, did we not seize power by plotting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against our predecessors'? 'However', he added, 'I am far cleverer than they are. I know that they are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conspiring to kill me long before they actually start planning to do it. This enables me to get them before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they have the faintest chance of striking at me'.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 259.796 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 259.796 217.347 m 273.788 217.347 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This stark worldview can be explained in part by Saddam's troublesome childhood, which seldom afforded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(him the trusting bonds of close, family relationships, but taught him instead the cruel law of the survival of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the fittest, a law he was to cherish throughout his entire political career. But to no less an extent his outlook )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is the product of the ruthless political system in which he has operated, and in which naked force has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constituted the sole agent of political change. If anything, Saddam has reinforced certain trends in Iraqi )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history, building up a formidable apparatus that brooks no opposition and provides no space for political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activity other than on terms set by him. In doing so, he has substantially reinforced the social networks of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kinship buttressing his regime by using them as channels of reward and punishment, sustaining a certain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kind of patrimonial system and strengthening the positions of the designated patriarchal leaders vis--vis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their followers and tenants. So effective has this process been that, reciprocally, increasing numbers of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individuals, far removed from the obvious 'traditional' tribal identity, have sought to associate themselves )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 222.7997 640.8295 236.7917 652.7095 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 259.7957 217.6615 273.7877 229.5415 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 4081 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the recognised sheikhs of certain tribal groups to benefit from the protection and security this is thought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to bring.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At the same time, as aptly noted by Tripp, the networks of patronage which have sustained the regime and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the state it has helped to create, have contributed both to its isolation in the region and to the alienation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(large sectors of Iraqi society which have not benefited from its fruits. There is thus a possibility that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apparent conformity of the Iraqi population will endure only as long as the centre holds - and given the key )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part played in this by the physical survival of one man, that must always be precarious. This is perhaps why )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tripp concludes his excellent survey of one of the Middle East's more troubled histories on a rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(optimistic note:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The political history of the Iraqi state is a continuing one. However dominant the present order in Iraq has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been during the past thirty years and however much it has exerted itself to eliminate possible alternatives, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time will erode and destroy it. With its passing new spaces will open up and possibilities will be created for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other narratives to assert themselves in the shaping of Iraqi history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 566.499 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 535.882 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 535.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Abd al-Razaq al-Hasani, )] TJ ET BT 185.312 535.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ta'rikh al-Wizarat al-Iraqiyya, Part 3)] TJ ET BT 367.544 535.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Sidon, Matba'at al-Ifran, 1939, pp. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 521.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(189-95.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 101.012 521.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 101.012 520.227 m 155.000 520.227 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 507.370 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 507.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(S. al-Khalil, )] TJ ET BT 125.348 507.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Republic of Fear: The Politics of Modern Iraq)] TJ ET BT 348.332 507.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, London, Hutchinson, 1989, p. 169.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 521.996 507.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 521.996 505.971 m 549.656 505.971 l S BT 64.016 493.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 491.715 m 90.344 491.715 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 478.858 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 478.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Efraim Karsh and Inari Rautsi, )] TJ ET BT 214.652 478.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Saddam Hussein: A Political Biography)] TJ ET BT 407.312 478.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, New York, The Free Press, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 464.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1991, p. 2.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 115.016 464.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 115.016 463.203 m 169.004 463.203 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 438.341 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 424.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 419.359 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 401.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 401.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/268)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 400.185 m 322.316 400.185 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 375.208 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 360.808 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2561)] TJ ET BT 34.016 346.408 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 101.0117 520.5415 154.9997 532.4215 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 521.9957 506.2855 549.6557 518.1655 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 492.0295 90.3437 503.9095 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 115.0157 463.5175 169.0037 475.3975 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 400.4995 322.3157 412.3795 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/268) >> endobj xref 0 39 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000520 00000 n 0000000602 00000 n 0000004682 00000 n 0000004791 00000 n 0000004901 00000 n 0000005010 00000 n 0000008571 00000 n 0000008699 00000 n 0000008783 00000 n 0000008867 00000 n 0000016050 00000 n 0000016080 00000 n 0000016206 00000 n 0000016242 00000 n 0000016333 00000 n 0000024237 00000 n 0000024267 00000 n 0000024395 00000 n 0000024431 00000 n 0000024461 00000 n 0000024589 00000 n 0000024625 00000 n 0000024737 00000 n 0000028871 00000 n 0000028999 00000 n 0000029054 00000 n 0000029182 00000 n 0000029237 00000 n 0000029363 00000 n 0000029418 00000 n 0000029546 00000 n 0000029601 00000 n 0000029729 00000 n trailer << /Size 39 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 29824 %%EOF