%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818071418+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818071418+01'00') /Title (Masters of Bedlam. The Transformation of the Mad-Doctoring Trade) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4093 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Masters of Bedlam. The Transformation of the Mad-Doctoring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Trade)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Given the efflorescence in the history of psychiatry over the course of the last quarter century, it is surprising )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that so few of the new generation of psychiatric historians have ventured into biography. However, largely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a consequence of an historiographical heritage where biographical studies of past figures in medicine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were mostly stories of the great and the good and their achievements ? the profession's own self-generating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hagiography ? historical biographies have generally fallen into disrepute. This is a shame, for it is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frequently rather celebratory, self-congratulatory and antiquarian approaches made to biography that have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been wanting, rather than something germane to the discipline of historical biography itself. And given that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we still lack high quality biographical studies of many of the major players who have shaped psychiatry's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(past and present, one can only welcome the arrival of )] TJ ET BT 292.952 123.635 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Masters of Bedlam)] TJ ET BT 383.612 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. For, in the main, it represents a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highly successful attempt to locate the lives and works of some of the most prominent members of Victorian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(psychiatry's elite in Britain against a broad cultural, contextual and structural background.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book is divided into nine chapters, the core seven \(framed against a brief general introduction and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusion\) dealing with seven specialists in insanity, four English and three Scottish. These subjects are, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(27)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 1 March, 1997)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrew Scull)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charlotte MacKenzie)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nicholas Hervey)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780691034119)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1996)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(408pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Princeton University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://press.princeton.edu/titles/5938.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Princeton, New Jersey)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jonathan Andrews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7789 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(namely: John Haslam, notorious for his public office as the Apothecary of Bethlem Hospital, but relatively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(esteemed for his authorship on insanity; John Conolly, onetime Superintendent of Hanwell Asylum in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Middlesex, and long distinguished as the pioneer of non-restraint in the treatment of the insane; W. A. F. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Browne, Superintendent of Montrose Royal Asylum and latterly Crichton Royal Institution in Dumfries, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Commissioner in Lunacy for Scotland and asylum reformer par excellence; Sir Alexander Morison, Visiting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Physician to Bethlem, most notable however for his early development of a private consultancy practice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outside the asylum walls; Samuel Gaskell, Superintendent of Lancaster County Asylum and latterly an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English Lunacy Commissioner; Sir John Charles Bucknill, onetime Superintendent of Devon County )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Asylum, and a major proponent of non-institutional care of the insane in private dwellings; and finally, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Henry Maudsley, founder of the Maudsley Hospital, the archetypal insider-outsider, controversial editor of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the profession's primary mouthpiece, the )] TJ ET BT 232.148 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Mental Science)] TJ ET BT 358.460 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and an unrepentant critic of traditional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(asylumdom. If there is a problem in the representativeness of the figures selected, being members of the elite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than the more numerous 'rank and file' \(especially given what M. Jeanne Petersen has stressed was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(radical divide between medical professionals at the top of the pile, and those underneath\), the authors remain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acutely appreciative of this fact \(e.g. pp. 8, 61\). Indeed, they give full coverage both to those areas where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their subjects are reflective and revealing about the norms of contemporary psychiatry, as well as to where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they are innovative, unusual or eccentric. Moreover, with careers located on either sides of significant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(divides, working in both the private and public asylum sector, both within and outside the asylum walls, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pursuing endeavours in medical theory, clinical practice, and in legal and forensic medicine, and with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(profiles and postures adopted both for and against central administration in lunacy, these individuals provide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the authors with a welter of opportunity for commentary on a whole range of developments in psychiatry and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lunacy administration during this period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Considering his own background and sympathies as a sociologist tending to emphasise and be interested in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broad structural paradigms and discontinuities, above and beyond the influence of individuals on social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structures, causality and change, Scull is perhaps an odd advocate of the virtues of biography. And what we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have here seems as much an attempt to go beyond biography, as it does to persuade of its merits. On the one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hand, the apparent concern to transcend biography, and knit individuals to their contexts, their histories to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existing historiography, works beautifully to place mad-doctors' careers in the setting of macro and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exogenous shifts ? including the 'rise of professional society'; the increasing role of the central state in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lunacy provision; and the growth of a capitalist marketplace for medical and all kinds of other services. On )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the other hand, this sometimes leads to overlong and rather uncomfortable digressions in which the key )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject is lost, submerged or only marginally concerned. Thus, for example, while the rise and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professionalisation of psychiatry; the history of the professions in general; and the lunacy reform movement; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are obvious themes in which to locate the mad-doctors with which this book is concerned, we are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intermittently treated to extensive asides on these and a host of connected subjects \(e.g. pp. 22, 91?8\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is the usual preoccupation one has come to expect in Scull's writing with the ironies by which mad-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doctors rose to prominence, with the contradictions and numerous 'volte-faces' that punctuated their careers. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the whole, these are well observed and lead to some pointed analyses of the self-interest, prejudices and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professional imperialism that often underlay the strategies, opinions and actions of medical men with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspirations for pre-eminence. Conolly, for example, emerges as a most unlikely psychiatric patron-saint, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beginning as a 'stern critic of asylum treatment' and of the private trade in lunacy \(e.g. pp. 53?5, 65\), only to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(end up, in ways that \(too intimately for comfort\) reflected the changed pattern of his career path, as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(devoted champion of asylumdom and a defender of private institutions \(e.g. pp. 79, 82\). Conolly is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convincingly portrayed as, for much of his career, the wrong man in the wrong place, whose claims to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinction rested as much on a distortion of the historical record of non-restraint in which he was complicit, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as to his vision as a moral therapist or talents as an asylum administrator \(pp. 70?72\). Yet one cannot escape )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the impression that there is something rather hobbyhorse-like about some of this. Indeed, the authors' lens is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps too gleefully focused on exposing the ulterior motives of medical men, on cutting them down to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(size, rather than simply and concisely demythologising the 'pantheon of [psychiatric] heroes' \(pp. 48, 158\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before moving on to other, equally rich pastures. Occasionally, as a result, the tone of the account is too )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(begrudging, and some interpretations appear narrow, exaggerated and over cynical, as when concerns with )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7459 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being dismissed, losing licenses and income, and safeguarding 'professional standing and privileges', are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(portrayed as the only motivations for pauper asylum superintendents and their private-sector colleagues' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feeling 'beholden' to the new Lunacy Commission \(p.7\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Taking their lead from sociological and historical studies of professionalisation, from Magali Larson and M. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jeanne Peterson to Harold Perkin, the authors generally portray mad-doctors as rather directed, self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(promoting and calculating in their words and deeds, engaged in a 'project of collective [and, indeed, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(competitive, individual] social mobility' \(e.g. p.6\). One is prompted to ask whether there is not a natural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enough tendency for all existing or nascent professions \(academics included\) to seek to further and to protect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their own interests? Nor, perhaps, in so doing, should a profession be too uniformly portrayed as being either )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(calculating, or necessarily at odds with more widely shared concerns, let alone so self-consciously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(determined, or able to subordinate other interests, even when they were in competition. While, often, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authors are appreciative of the limits to psychiatric power and self-interest \(it is fully conceded, for example, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Conolly was a poor strategist when it came to constructing a medical career, although compromised by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his social origins, and that Maudsley's stance on asylumdom was, at the very least, a rather maverick, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(damaging course to chart\), sometimes they seem to want to have it both ways. Overall they appear to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neglect, or simply not to credit or be interested in, the place of altruistic, or less selfish motivations for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common good \(as mad-doctors saw it\), as well as the influence of chance, experience, opportunism, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adjustment to circumstances and wider forces of change, as important or motivating factors \(e.g. p. 82\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bearing in mind the ongoing debate Scull has had with Gerald Grob \(amongst others\) as to judging historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actors by their declared intentions \(Scull typically and wisely stressing the gap between intention and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outcome, and importance of unconscious motivations\), the preoccupation with underlying intent and dubious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(results should not surprise us. But the analysis does intermittently seem to fall into the trap of always )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seeking to unearth the darker, more egotistic sides of human conduct.. Ultimately, of course, and this once )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(again emphasises the distance at which some more traditional biographical approaches are put, this survey is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not about good or bad intentions. Far from it, it is concerned with the consequences of individual's words )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and deeds; their impact on and foundations in social structures; their signification as indices of shifting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professional, moral and cultural ideologies; and their pertinence to the forces and structures dominating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professional formation, status and aspirations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Overall, however, the authors portray both the ambitions and the disappointments of their subjects with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remarkable fairness, objectivity and insight, assessing their personal biases and rivalries, and the ambiguities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of their achievements to great effect. More often than not, credit is given where credit seems due, as when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Haslam is acknowledged to have been, at least in part, inequitably scapegoated by the 1815-16 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Madhouses Committee \(pp. 18, 33\); and is recognised for integrating \(at least in theory\) the new ethos of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moral therapy into older doctrines of the management of the insane \(pp. 27?8\), as well as for becoming an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(internationally acknowledged authority on insanity \(pp. 22?3\). At the same time, obvious and less than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obvious failings are unflinchingly exposed, as with Haslam's intransigence, conservatism and arrogance in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the face of the lunacy reformers and all other opponents \(pp. 37, 44?7\), and his derogatory, dismissive and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imprudent treatment of his patients, James Tilly Matthews especially \(pp. 34?5\). While other criticisms in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such areas might arise, Scull and his co-authors are normally sufficiently subtle and perspicacious to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anticipate and out-flank such \(as on p.28, where distancing themselves from historiographical tendencies 'to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assume a correspondence between someone's published work and their clinical practice'\). Indeed, it is a sign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the significant accomplishment these various portraits represent in that they remain so persuasive and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appreciative of the complexities of personal motivations, actions and career paths, while sustaining such a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regular responsiveness to their various meanings as against the broader transitions in contemporary culture )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and social structures.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is some particularly impressive and well-researched analysis of the links mad-doctors forged with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other interest groups, both lay and medical, central and local, as well as of the social and intellectual origins )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of each individual subject and the ways in which, whether by hook or crook, they established themselves as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(members of the medical elite. The authors show themselves very sensitive to the social and economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disadvantages and stigmas of 'trade' with which mad-doctoring was long associated \(e.g. pp. 6, 11?14, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7742 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(49?51\), and highly appreciative of the various routes and means taken by such doctors to carve out their own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(niches and clienteles, to shore up their income and status, and consolidate their speciality. There are also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some revealing insights into the ideological, practical, social and economic consequences of the religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(backgrounds of these doctors \(e.g. pp. 128, 164?5\), as well as of their respective allegiances in political and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patronage terms \(e.g. p. 154\). This account presents no simple, or linear picture of progression to repute and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(success, paying meticulous attention to the many reversals and ambiguities that punctuated its subjects' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(careers, and covering both the acquisition and the loss, both the regaining and the costs, of social and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professional cachet.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One might question the amount of rehashed material in this book; the chapter on Browne being a virtual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identikit of Scull's introduction )] TJ ET BT 186.188 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(to The Asylum as Utopia)] TJ ET BT 304.856 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1991\), and the chapter on Conolly lifted almost )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entirely from previous articles by Scull already published elsewhere. In essence, in fact, this book is ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(somewhat inevitably, given its structure ? more like a series of articles and conference papers gathered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(together, than it is a seamless monographic whole. While Scull's is the dominant guiding hand, MacKenzie )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did much of the original work on Bucknill and much of the material on Morison and Gaskell belongs to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hervey. Given what is said about professional advancement in this book, an irony may appear in the fact that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it is made so transparently clear in the acknowledgements and on the front cover to whom most of the credit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should accrue, yet academics too must be careful to secure their due recognition. Nevertheless, it is at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very least a testimony to the authors' stylistic sensitivity and a good degree of sympathy and happy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compromise on conceptual issues that the book's seam shows as little as it does. A more salient criticism, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might be that the book, despite its generally admirable exploitation of a bewildering array of sources, is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sometimes too exclusively focused on alienists and their writings, and on printed sources, to the exclusion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the views of other players, patients and local authorities in particular, and also to the neglect of case )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(materials. The major exceptions are a short interlude on Morison's attendance on private patients in single )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lodgings, utilising extracts from his diaries \(pp. 146?8\), and an even briefer but equally fascinating section )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on Bucknill's advice to patients as a Lord Chancellor's Visitor \(pp. 218?9\). The view of the interests of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parochial authorities, and their attitudes to and links with the doctors under consideration, as well as with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other medical specialists and with central government, is especially cursory and specialist-centred.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One doubts whether the authors' portrait of Gaskell really manages to persuade that he represents the kind of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(major influence they claim he was in transforming mad-doctoring during this period, and it seems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impossible to dismiss as lightly as one is asked to his decided lack of publications and of therapeutic and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administrative originality \(p. 161\). Indeed, this would seem to account for the disproportionate way in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his career is summed up by the authors in just 26 pages, by far the shortest profile in the book and one that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sets a query against his inclusion. Nevertheless, the only seriously unsatisfactory chapter is that on Browne. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The latter is, I would argue, severely unbalanced, mostly being devoted to an analysis of his )] TJ ET BT 478.280 302.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(What Asylums )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Were, Are and Ought To Be)] TJ ET BT 167.996 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Relying on this text and Browne's annual reports as Superintendent of Crichton )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Royal Institution, little use is made of Browne's many other published writings, nor of the clinical records of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the asylum he superintended. Browne's thirteen year service as a Lunacy Commissioner is skipped over in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paragraph or so, while the authors barely refer to his rather controversial opposition to the cottage system )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and boarding out of the insane in private dwellings. \(Indeed, they seem unaware of the notorious article, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Gheel in the North', Browne allegedly penned anonymously in 1866, which raised a storm in the medical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(press, and continued to be regularly referred to by critics of boarding out for many years.\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One can only endorse many of their conclusions as to how the mad-doctoring trade had indeed 'transformed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(itself' by the turn of the century \(p. 273\). One must also concur that while critics of asylumdom like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Maudsley and Bucknill were allying themselves with an 'upper-class clientele and the medical elite', )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(antithetically they were 'diminishing the public standing of the profession as a whole' \(p. 272\). Yet, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusions also smack a little of jaundice, betraying Scull's recent preoccupation with the history of somatic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treatments and incongruously moving off into a wholly new digression on the subject of Freud and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(psychoanalysis, the relevance of which seems rather strained, and serves merely to reiterate Michael Clark's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument made some time ago about the inveterate hostility of nineteenth-century psychiatry in Britain to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(psychological approaches \(pp. 272?3\). The judgement that 'the men who aspired to form the profession's )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 5128 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elite sought ? to leave the institutional sector behind' and 'were led to adopt intellectual positions ? at odds )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the interests and outlooks of the rank and file' \(p. 274\), seems debatable and hyperbolic. Maudsley and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bucknill appear rather unusual, when one compares the careers of men like Clouston, Yellowlees, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Blandford, Conolly Norman, Mercer, Orange, Urquhart, Batty Tuke, Hack Tuke and even Savage, who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(retained loyal links to the asylum sector and the MPA. Institutional careers, as )] TJ ET BT 412.304 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Masters of Bedlam)] TJ ET BT 502.964 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( itself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confirms, often functioned as hotlines to lucrative private clienteles, while there were obvious incentives for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aging superintendents to make way for younger men, and to prefer the flexibility, variety and extra social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cachet offered by consultancy practice to the grind and routine of asylum work.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is a degree of unfortunate overlap and repetition between chapters, partly an ineluctable product of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(schema adopted and the regular return to contextual information that is common ground for most of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subjects \(e.g. pp. 84?88; 118?19 & 183; 68?9 & 192?\). There are also a few scanning problems; as when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concepts, like ?Christian phrenology? \(p. 242\), or individuals, like 'Dr. Sutherland' \(p. 134\) and Dr. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charlesworth \(p. 71\), are introduced without adequate or previous explication; or when Haslam is said to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('housed within the Hospital' of Bethlem, but later to be 'living at a considerable distance' \(pp. 15, 19\). And )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there are occasional typographical or factual errors, as when we have 'Mr Doury' for William Drury \(p. 134\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and 'humoural' for humoral \(pp. 90?91\). But, when one appreciates the scope of material and range of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical actors covered, it is remarkable that such problems are so scant. At the risk of, like Maudsley, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being declared 'humourless', one could question the appeal of some rather flat and inelegant jokes \(pp. 41, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(265\), and \(at the risk of self-implication\) the propensity towards mammoth-sized sentences, with excessive, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germanic sub-clauses \(e.g. pp. 10, 90?91\). One might also query the inordinate number and length of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(footnotes, which make up 75 pages \(over one fifth\) of the book. Indeed, the footnotes are more like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commentaries on the text, and however informative, often appear self-indulgent, particularly when one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflects on the regrettable lack of a bibliography.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These comments and criticisms aside, nonetheless, )] TJ ET BT 280.652 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Masters of Bedlam)] TJ ET BT 371.312 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( constitutes an expansive and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinguished attempt to wed the biographies of some of the most notable figures in nineteenth century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British psychiatry to the wider transformation of the mad-doctoring trade during the period. It is one that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should in many ways serve as a model for historians embarking on biographical studies of professional men, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and more generally for anyone concerned with the ways in which individuals both impacted on and reflected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wider historical patterns and changes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 328.063 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 310.283 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 310.283 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/27)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 308.889 m 316.316 308.889 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 283.912 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 269.512 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/259)] TJ ET BT 34.016 255.112 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 309.2035 316.3157 321.0835 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/27) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000574 00000 n 0000000656 00000 n 0000004801 00000 n 0000004910 00000 n 0000005020 00000 n 0000005129 00000 n 0000008690 00000 n 0000008818 00000 n 0000008902 00000 n 0000008967 00000 n 0000016809 00000 n 0000016874 00000 n 0000024386 00000 n 0000024451 00000 n 0000032246 00000 n 0000032330 00000 n 0000037511 00000 n 0000037639 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 37733 %%EOF