%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R 26 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140721061045+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140721061045+01'00') /Title (Suffrage and Power: The Women?s Movement 1918 - 1928) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4316 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Suffrage and Power: The Women?s Movement 1918 - 1928)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When she was interviewed by Dale Spender in 1983 for a book about early twentieth century feminists, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(veteran activist Mary Stott was probed in detail about her life. Spender was particularly interested in how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she filled her time in the years between the end of the First World War and the 1960s when the emergence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a discernible feminist consciousness and a tangible women?s movement were visible. ?What,? Stott was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(asked, ?did you do during the time when there was no women?s movement? to take up her time and energy. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stott considered this briefly before responding with the furious assertion that provided the title for Spender?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book. ?What do you mean?....There?s always been a women?s movement this century.?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 455.588 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 455.588 172.137 m 469.580 172.137 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite this, the years before 1918 still provide the subject for much British women?s history. Suffrage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continues to fascinate, and the recent reinterpretations of the British campaigns by June Purvis and Sandra )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Holton amongst others ensure that it remains in the public eye. Meanwhile beyond the realms of academic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history the public thirst for knowledge of all aspects of the First World War shows little signs of abating as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the war itself recedes into the previous century. Popular literature may have moved on a war, replacing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Birdsong)] TJ ET BT 78.020 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( with )] TJ ET BT 105.356 75.995 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Charlotte Grey)] TJ ET BT 178.352 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, but it is still largely the armistice of 1918 which is commemorated in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(newspapers, television broadcasts and radio features each November. The eagerness with which family )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(270)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 1 February, 2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cheryl Law)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781860642012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1997)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(39.50)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(224pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I B Tauris)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.ibtauris.com/display.asp?K=9781860642012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Krista Cowman)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 455.5877 172.4515 469.5797 184.3315 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7465 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians access the Commonwealth War Graves website and the public support for Lord Faulkner?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(campaign against Belgian plans to reroute the A19 through the Ypres salient witness the hold that the events )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of 1914 - 18 retain on our collective national consciousness. Women?s historians too frequently return to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(First World War. Whilst their conception of what constitutes a revision of ?war history? may differ from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(combatant focus of military historians, their contributions to First World War historiography have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(numerous. The ?Home Front? has been the focus of work by scholars including Deborah Thom and Angela )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Woollacott who have attempted to deduce the extent to which the enfranchisement of some British women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1918 can be seen as a reward for their war work. Other historians such as Jo Vellacott and Ann Wiltsher )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have concentrated on the discernible wave of feminist pacifism which emerged in response to what it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conceptualised as a masculine conflict. Their work identifies groups of women who drew on pre-war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discourses of difference feminism to argue particular claims for women as arbitrators and peacemakers. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Against this, women?s patriotism and their work in uniformed organisations has been reclaimed in a plethora )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of recent work including that of Susan Grayzel.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What each of these works hold in common is an acceptance that the chronology of the First World War and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its preceding decade also represents a significant period in women?s history. The years following the war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have received much less attention. So, although the actual participants of a post-First World War feminism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as Stott were adamant that they were involved in a discernible movement after 1918, its historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evaluation is sparse. Law?s book is therefore most welcome in its acknowledgement that the 1920s is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant period in the history of British feminism. Rather than offering an ending to pre-war campaigns in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which ?only a rump...limped into the post-war period,? [p. 1] she sees the 1920s as ?a time when women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were engaged in the transformative stage from wielding influence to exercising power.? [p. 9]. How they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achieved this power, and what they actually did must be a key question to anyone with an interest in earlier )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or later campaigns as it represents both the culmination of earlier parliamentary ambitions and also the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beginning of a more complex relationship between feminist politics and a political establishment in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women were no longer legally forced to remain on the margins of power and influence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is disappointing that with a crucial and virtually uncharted era at the centre of her narrative, Law appears )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to have found difficulty in breaking free of the earlier period. A proportion of the book remains concerned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with explaining the responses of the British women?s movement to the First World War and exploring the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war?s effect on feminism. This is most obvious in the second chapter, ?Setting the Scene.? Here, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complex relationships of a range of suffrage organisations are considered, and Law reminds us that amongst )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the grass roots membership there was anything but universal compliance with the decision of Emmeline and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christabel Pankhurst \(who led one of over fifty suffrage societies in 1914, albeit one of the three largest\) that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the demand for the vote should cease for the duration of the war, and women?s efforts be redirected towards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support for the endeavours of the British Expeditionary Force. Whilst a reassessment of feminist responses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the outbreak of war, especially one which recognises both their plurality and their diversity is in itself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(long overdue, a single chapter is possibly not the best forum for this. Events and responses to them are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessarily broadly sketched and important nuances can be missed. Law recognises this when she says that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her ?broad categorisation? of responses into ?those who worked for peace; those who "kept the suffrage flag )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flying" and those who supported the war effort through welfare and industrial work? fails to reflect the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?multiple involvement? of many participants. [p. 14]. Organising the chapter around precisely these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responses means it runs the risk of falling into exactly those approaches which it explicitly seeks to redress, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concentrating again on the war at the expense of its aftermath.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The war period also hangs over the third chapter devoted to ?Survival and Progress.? Here Law tackles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(amongst others\) the key theme of exactly what the organisations which had campaigned for the vote for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anything up to twenty years proposed to do with it now it had been partially achieved. She identifies this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period as laying the foundation for much of the next decade?s work. She draws out the complex )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(realignments of individuals and organisations as the franchise receded in importance. Her narrative shows )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how many of the other preoccupations of those who had primarily identified themselves as pro-suffrage were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allowed to come to the fore. Yet the book finds it difficult to move on from the enormity of the war years, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and returns continually to pre-armistice debates and decisions in order to explain things. It is not really until )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7277 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter four that Law finally breaks free of the shadow of the war in her investigation of women?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demobilisation and even here there are references to earlier events such as the 1915 National Conference on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(War Service for Women and the 1916 statement of the Standing Joint Committee of Industrial Women?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Organisations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A large proportion of the remaining two thirds of the book focuses on or around Parliament, either implicitly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through examining legislation or explicitly in investigations of women?s electoral campaigns and work as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(MPs. Given the status that the parliamentary vote held in the pre-war women?s movement, when the term )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?suffrage movement? had come to be used as a short-hand for many types of feminism, this is not surprising. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Since the final decade of the nineteenth century feminists from a variety of political traditions had come to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(see the vote as an essential precursor to any further woman-centred social reform. Now that partial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enfranchisement was achieved there was a tremendous pressure on the women?s movement to ensure that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the vote would deliver all that had been claimed for it. The most obvious problem that women faced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerned the actual mechanics of getting into parliament. Law describes in detail some of the many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficulties which candidates encountered. Implicit in all the accounts is an unresolved tension in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship between feminism and party politics. An attempt to form a ?Women?s Party? by the few )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feminists remaining in the Women?s Social and Political Union \(WSPU\) proved an electoral disaster. Some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women attempted to secure election as independent candidates but found themselves thwarted by a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(combination of conservatism \(with a small c\) within an electorate who would not give up party candidates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the impossibility of combating the full weight of party electoral machines. Law offers evidence for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempts of some feminist organisations to appeal to a gendered \(rather than a party-political\) electorate, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which largely failed. Against this, many feminists moved into \(or in some cases returned to\) party politics. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet here too Law demonstrates how they faced opposition. Her descriptions have a depressingly familiar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ring for those familiar with party selection procedures or the debates around them in the early twenty-first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century. For a variety of reasons, often unspecified, women found it almost impossible to be selected for safe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or winnable seats. The covert reasons, \(Law cites Eleanor Rathbone?s explanation that women were unable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to ?cultivate....the "come and have a drink"? attitudes essential to winning support within constituency )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parties\) had a more sinister outcome. One ex-candidate feared that the continuing trend to place women in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impossible contests was that ?it would tend to establish the legend that women never get in.? [p. 150]. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although Law offers one example of a woman who was selected on grounds of sex, she is not named and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appears to be an exception. [p. 157]. The overall impression conveyed is of a quite depressing scene of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(almost insurmountable difficulties.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Law also demonstrates that candidates who were selected could find their problems beginning. Their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?political baptism of fire? involved them being flung into a maelstrom of press and public attention. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although she does not dwell too much on this aspect of campaigning, it is clear that women?s dress, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deportment and conduct were of far greater interest to the electorate \(or at least the reporting media\) than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their policies. All aspects of their lives appear to have been fair game, with Ray Strachey being forced to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issue a leaflet assuring voters that her children were ?not neglected.? [p. 152]. Not surprisingly candidate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(numbers remained small and successes few. The 1918 election saw only one success in Constance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Markievicz who, as a Sinn Fein member, refused to take her seat. Law sees a ?cruel irony? in this given the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hopes that feminists had had for the vote. [p. 120]. It was not until 1919 that Nancy Astor was elected for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conservatives at a by-election, to be joined by Margaret Wintringham who came to represent the Liberal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Party by the same route. Interestingly, although Law does not dwell on this, both these elections offer an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ironic counterpoint to the pre-voting arguments of the anti-suffrage movement that women were adequately )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represented by their husbands, a married couple being one in the eyes of the law. Both Astor and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wintringham took over their husbands seats, Astor when her husband took the family title and seat in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lords and Wintringham as a widow. This familial relationship with the selection process was not one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(predicted by the suffrage movement.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Law?s discussion of Astor?s election also demonstrates the remarkable pragmatism of the post-war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women?s movement. The redoubtable Ray Strachey, a leading figure in the National Union of Women?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Suffrage Societies \(NUWSS\) and its successor the National Union of Societies for Equal Citizenship )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 7700 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(NUSEC \) who?s personal politics were of a more radical persuasion was nevertheless quick to offer her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(services to Astor as a parliamentary secretary. Presumably she acted on the assumption that even a Tory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(woman in parliament was better than no woman at all. Her confidence proved well-founded, however, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Astor, although not formally allied with feminist organisations before the election, proved a tireless worker )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on behalf of many women?s causes in Parliament.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Through her discussion of Astor, Law reminds us of just how bitter the path trodden by early women MPs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could be. Whilst the press fixated on her clothing, Astor found her position lonely with many men refusing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to communicate with her or even acknowledge her presence in the House. This and her feminism appear to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have facilitated the close working relationship she established first with Mrs Wintringham then later with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(labour women MPs such as Ellen Wilkinson with whom she campaigned on women? issues across party )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lines. This is an aspect of the work of early women MPs which could have been more thoroughly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investigated in the text. The small numbers of women elected made it impossible for them to achieve )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anything collectively within their parties. In 1922 only Astor and Wintringham were returned, despite the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(efforts of the women?s movement in 33 constituencies. Consequentially women remained largely in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(position they had been in before the vote, relying on sympathetic men to support their campaigns in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parliament \(although women voters did at least make male MPs more accountable in theory\). Brian Harrison )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revealed that Astor was attempting to break through the boundaries of party politics in her work, quoting her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(desire for ?women MPs to see themselves as women first and party members second.?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 448.604 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 448.604 540.723 m 462.596 540.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 462.596 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Whether she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(succeeded in this, or whether it was in any way supported by other party women remains opaque.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As well as an understandable concern with candidatures and elections, Law offers some interpretations of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how a partially enfranchised women?s movement used the legislative process to achieve its aim that the vote )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would become a key instigator of feminist change. Clear connections are described between the concerns of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(post-war activists and the pre-war feminist movement. In some instances the issues which emerged could not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been predicted. It was arguably impossible in 1914 to guess that one of the earliest legislative victories )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for enfranchised women would be concerned with state attitudes towards prostitution, but Law singles out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the campaign waged by the Association of Moral and Social Hygiene \(AMSH\) as the ?first protest? to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(succeed. [p. 68]. She also demonstrates how feminists were quick to ascribe this success \(which involved a u-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(turn by military authorities on their policy of British soldiers? visits to "tolerated brothels" in France\) to their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(newly enfranchised status, quoting from the )] TJ ET BT 247.652 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(International Women?s Suffrage News)] TJ ET BT 433.316 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of April 1918. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Josephine Butler has to work 17 years for the abolition of regulation in garrison and seaport towns. Now )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that women have votes, things move more quickly.? [p. 96]. Although enthusiastic in her chronicling of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(victories, Law is cautious in not over-estimating them, and her text is continually mindful of the difficulties )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women encountered when pressing for reforms. Changes such as those demanded to ensure equal legal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rights for mothers alongside those of fathers and attempts to guarantee maintenance to illegitimate children )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failed despite strong feminist pressure. Both demonstrated a concern for the welfare of mothers and children )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the type cited by pre-war feminists as typical of the problems a woman?s vote would solve, yet ultimately )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fell to parliamentary filibustering. As if this were not enough, Law reminds us that in many instances )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feminist were running to keep still, attempting to consolidate gains which were now put under threat. She )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uses a discussion of attitudes towards women?s police to exemplify this, outlining how their status remained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in question due to their classification as an ?experiment? which would be stopped if deemed to fail, although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?failure? was never defined. [p. 104]. The patrol?s successes in many areas of policing, especially those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dealing with women and children made it difficult to attack them working within any definition of failure. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Law then explains how the significant hostile elements within the police establishment attempted another )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach, classifying women?s patrols as being engaged in welfare work rather than policing. This opened )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the way for the 1922 Geddes Report to recommend their disbanding on economic grounds. Although an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(energetic feminist campaign saved the Patrols, it did little to advance feminist organisations, as the episode )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(serves to remind the reader that in many cases energies were diverted from new campaigns into supporting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earlier victories. Retrenchment was thus partially forced on the movement despite its attempts to move )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beyond its earlier work.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Amidst an understandable focus on parliament and legislation, Law?s text also reminds us that the campaign )] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 448.6037 541.0375 462.5957 552.9175 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R ] /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 6971 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the vote continued long beyond 1918. Overstretched feminist resources were also directed into working )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for equal enfranchisement. Law sketches out the smaller legal changes which resulted in women?s age-based )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(franchise looking increasingly anomalous when they could actually become MPs at 21 but not vote until 30. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 209\). Pressure grew within and without parliament, culminating in a large procession in 1926 which Law )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is careful to present as not simply a revival of pre-war tactics but also as evidence of ?the extraordinary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(network which women?s movement had created in less then 60 years? featuring ex-militant and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitutional suffragettes and suffragists, newer bodies such as the Six Point Group and occupational )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisations including the National Union of Women Teachers. This procession combined with the removal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of sexual inequality in many legal fields and the sustained attempts of enfranchised women left no doubt of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the strength of support for a totally equal franchise. Law is cautious in her attribution of success to purely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public displays. She explains the predicament that many women were in under the 1918 act. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enfranchisement of some and electoral success of others left those who sought a return to militancy in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficult position as they would, strictly speaking have been reacting against themselves or at least against a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feminised establishment. Nevertheless the text offers a tantalising glimpse of what might have been had the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1928 Act been withheld. The Young Suffragists, a group formed in 1926 to represent the disenfranchised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under-30s are described in action. They ?delivered a petition to the Prime Minister?s house..;;followed up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with a break in at Buckingham Palace in an attempt to present a letter to the King.? [p. 217]. Sadly no more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(details of their activities \(or reactions to them\) are provided, but the episode demonstrates that a plurality of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approaches continued to permeate post-war feminism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Laws narrative ranges over a wealth of campaigns and a somewhat bewildering number of organisations \(the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(list at the back is most helpful\) to offer a strong contradiction to the notion that the 1920s are a less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting period in the history of British feminism. It is unfortunate that the text does find it difficult to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remain confined within the 1920s, but displays a tendency to dwell on the slightly earlier war-years. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although some brief element of background explanation is undoubtedly useful, one has to be ruthless in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these days of constrictive word-lengths. More detail could have been afforded to certain aspects of the 1920s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(campaigns had the earlier period been omitted. There might also have been room to extend the analysis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beyond the understandable parliamentary/legislative focus to say something about grass toots campaigns. At )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(present these are largely missing from the narrative, with only a brief mention of the Women?s Citizens )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Associations which incorrectly identifies them as a post-war phenomenon and affords little space to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consideration of how their attempts to educate women into a sense of citizenship were received in different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parts of the country [p. 51]. Having said this, however, Law has still provided us with perhaps the fullest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exploration of post-1918 British feminism to date. The detail she does include, especially on parliament and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legislative campaigning, will be welcomed, and serve as a timely reminder that feminism did not stop in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1918 to be reactivated in the 1960s. This may not be a description of the whole women?s movement of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(twentieth century, but it certainly reclaims the 1920s from accusations that it was a time without a women?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 250.611 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 219.994 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 219.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dale Spender, )] TJ ET BT 134.996 219.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(There?s Always Been a Women?s Movement This Century)] TJ ET BT 415.292 219.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(London; Pandora, 1983\), p. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 205.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ii.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 73.688 205.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 73.688 204.339 m 127.676 204.339 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 191.482 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 191.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brian Harrison, )] TJ ET BT 141.668 191.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Prudent Revolutionaries)] TJ ET BT 259.328 191.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford; Clarendon, 1987\), p. 80.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 424.304 191.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 424.304 190.083 m 478.292 190.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 165.221 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 150.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 146.239 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 128.459 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 128.459 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/270)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 127.065 m 322.316 127.065 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 102.088 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.688 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2565)] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.288 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 73.6877 204.6535 127.6757 216.5335 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 424.3037 190.3975 478.2917 202.2775 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 23 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 127.3795 322.3157 139.2595 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/270) >> endobj xref 0 34 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000562 00000 n 0000000651 00000 n 0000005019 00000 n 0000005128 00000 n 0000005238 00000 n 0000005347 00000 n 0000008908 00000 n 0000009036 00000 n 0000009120 00000 n 0000009149 00000 n 0000009277 00000 n 0000009313 00000 n 0000009378 00000 n 0000016896 00000 n 0000016961 00000 n 0000024291 00000 n 0000024375 00000 n 0000032128 00000 n 0000032158 00000 n 0000032286 00000 n 0000032322 00000 n 0000032420 00000 n 0000039444 00000 n 0000039571 00000 n 0000039626 00000 n 0000039754 00000 n 0000039809 00000 n 0000039937 00000 n trailer << /Size 34 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 40032 %%EOF