%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140722005717+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140722005717+01'00') /Title (Poverty and Charity in Medieval Islam: Mamluk Egypt 1250-1517) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3969 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Poverty and Charity in Medieval Islam: Mamluk Egypt 1250-1517)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(N.B. Some older browsers may not render the accented characters which appear in the Arabic translations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correctly. They should display correctly in Internet Explorer 6 and Netscape 6. It has not been possible to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exactly replicate accents which appear below the text and where this has occurred and underline has been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(substituted.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although the writing of the social history of medieval and pre-modern Europe began in earnest several )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decades ago there has been no analogous development in Middle Eastern studies. Sabra's book, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represents the first monograph dealing with poverty and charity within the pre-modern Middle East, is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(move towards addressing this imbalance and is therefore to be heartily welcomed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is indeed immediately refreshing that the book does not focus on the political, military and educated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(classes whose activities form the subject of the majority of Middle Eastern histories - a case of all butter and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no bread. Clearly, there is a very good reason why history concerns itself with the elites, quite aside from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inherent interest in the formative role their positions allowed them to play, since it is these with whom the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources are primarily concerned and these who had access to recording their histories and concerns in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(durable form. The neglected classes of earlier times left few vestiges of their passing. The problem is, of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(271)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 January, 2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Adam Sabra)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780521772914)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(37.50)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(208pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.cambridge.org/uk/catalogue/catalogue.asp?isbn=9780521772914)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ron Buckley)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7812 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(course, that the more the historian moves away from the elites, the more complex the task of reconstructing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the past becomes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sabra's book, in intent at least, is a social study, a study of poverty, but it is also a historical work and as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such the kind of data he is required to handle is different from that which would be acquired by a social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scientist, and the means by which he gains access to that data is completely different. The social scientist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may conduct interviews, set up sophisticated apparatus for the verification of hypotheses, engage at first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hand with the subject matter and emerge with a statistical summation of the evidence. Historians, on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other hand, do not have direct access to their subject. The only questions which they can ask with any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expectation of receiving answers are those questions which happen to be dealt with in the surviving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(documents. The historian is frequently obliged to reconstruct partially hypothetical accounts from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fragmentary evidence. Rarely, if ever, does he have the kind of material that would satisfy the social scientist.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The fundamental value of approaching such problems, however, is in the speculative richness it adds to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical research and our understanding of societies in the past of the Middle East. The result may be that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the conclusions are more tentative and tenuous, but the effort is nonetheless to be applauded.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sabra has availed himself of a wide variety of sources through which he has often had to sift to arrive at a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coherent account. These sources range from the major historical works dealing with the period such as Ibn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Taghr?bird?'s )] TJ ET BT 102.488 532.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(al-Nuj?m al- Z?hira f? Mul?k Misr wa al-Q?hira)] TJ ET BT 339.500 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 362.828 532.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(al-Maqr?z?'s al-Maw?'iz wa al-I'tib?r )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(f? Dhikr al-Khitat wa al-Ath?r)] TJ ET BT 181.364 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to the manuals of the market inspector written by al-Shayzar?, Ibn al-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ukhuwwa and Ibn Bass?m. Many other minor works are also referred to, in addition to treatises on Islamic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theology such as al-Ghazz?l?'s )] TJ ET BT 184.136 489.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ihy?')] TJ ET BT 211.028 489.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [('Ul?m al-D?n )] TJ ET BT 280.256 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Ibn al-Jawz?'s )] TJ ET BT 371.384 489.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Talb?s Ibl?s)] TJ ET BT 431.060 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Also included are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(travelogues written by visitors to Cairo which contain personal observations and eyewitness accounts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relating to pious endowments which illustrate the services that the pious foundations \()] TJ ET BT 446.648 461.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(waqf)] TJ ET BT 469.988 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( pl. )] TJ ET BT 488.324 461.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(awq?f)] TJ ET BT 517.664 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offered to the poor, such as providing hospitals for free medical care, Islamic education, the provision of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(food and water, housing and the burial of the dead.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite the obvious industry of the author in collecting his data, he is necessarily often diverted from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study of the poor as a social phenomenon to theoretical discussions concerned with poverty. Like all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians, he is the servant of his evidence. Thus the concept of poverty is explored within medieval Islamic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious literature, particularly sufi. He identifies two basic schools of thought on the subject. The first may )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be typified by al-Ghazz?l? who considered that the poor are inherently more virtuous than the wealthy since )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their poverty enables them to avoid the distractions of wealth and to concentrate on acquiring knowledge of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(God. For al-Ghazz?l?, the satisfied poor were especially virtuous, and he quotes the Prophet as saying "No )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one is more virtuous than the poor, if he is content." The second school of thought may be typified by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hanbal? scholar Ibn al-Jawz? who wrote "Poverty is an illness. He who is afflicted with it must endure it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patiently and will be rewarded for his endurance. That is why the poor will enter Paradise five hundred years )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before the wealthy, due to the importance of their enduring the tribulation." These discussions are interesting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and informative, but are naturally limited in the information they provide on poverty as a social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(phenomenon. Poverty was for some a religious ideal and was adopted voluntarily in the service of God, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it goes without saying that not all the poor renounced material well being for religious purposes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The hiatus between ideas and measuring and demonstrating the influence of these ideas is indeed great, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sabra does show how such theoretical discussions influenced the way in which the poor were regarded, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the wealthy believed that by giving alms to the poor they could partake in some measure of their blessed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(status.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sabra also discusses two groups within the urban poor frequently referred to in the sources: the )] TJ ET BT 493.268 125.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(zu'r)] TJ ET BT 511.172 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( or )] TJ ET BT 527.168 125.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(zu')] TJ ET BT 540.404 125.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(?r)] TJ ET BT 551.072 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(loosely organized criminal gangs of neighbourhood "toughs", and the )] TJ ET BT 370.436 111.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(har?f?sh)] TJ ET BT 413.108 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( who seem to have been an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(equally unstable element within society and who latterly became an organized band devoted to begging.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In dealing with begging and almsgiving, the discussion once again largely concerns polemics within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious and literary works. Particular attention is paid to the sufi manuals which deal with the moral )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7345 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspects of these activities for sufis: whether alms should be given and who should receive them. Sabra does, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, also investigate the role of the state in collecting and distributing the alms tax during the Ayyubid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and early Mamluk periods. More colourful is the anecdotal material, for example that among the tricks that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beggars use to obtain alms are "swearing oaths which cause one's skin to crawl", impersonating preachers or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sufis and taking off their clothes and walking naked among the people so as to dupe them into believing that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they do not possess any clothes. A traveller to Cairo condemned "the importunity of their beggars, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(multitude of blind mendicants, the abundance of pestering paupers, lacking a member or paralyzed, one-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(handed or one-footed, showing various diseases, or . with grave wounds or sores." Sabra also enlivens the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrative with descriptions of the trickeries of the Ban? S?s?n, a name given to a collection of con-men, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professional beggars, tricksters and fake sufis dealt with in a variety of poetry and prose works and scripts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for shadow plays.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As regards those who disperse alms, Sabra shows how the Mamluk state itself was occasionally involved in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the care of the poor, for example by building the orphans' depository \()] TJ ET BT 370.448 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(mawdi' al-hukm)] TJ ET BT 447.344 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) to safeguard the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(property of orphans and by occasionally freeing persons imprisoned for debt and settling their debts. Most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acts of charity were, however, left to the consciences of individuals, and as might be expected the accounts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generally relate to the sultans, the military leaders, the wealthy and influential, and have little to say about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the charitable acts of the common man. Nonetheless, the discussion is informative and, in the case of acts of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(charity designed to ward off illnesses \(of oneself, a friend or family member\), particularly well documented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and rich in detail.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the more interesting chapters, to my mind at least, concerns standards of living. Here, Sabra attempts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to reconstruct the housing, clothing and food of the poor. To describe the housing conditions of the poor he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is forced to refer to data primarily applicable to periods prior to or after the Mamluk period. Once again, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary anecdotal evidence is evocative. For example, a European traveller to Cairo in 1482-3 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(observes, "It is not even possible to lodge all of the population in the city. One sees many people living )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outside of the city in tents, pavilions, holes in the ground and pits. The people cannot live in the city due to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lack of dwellings.")] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The problems due to the paucity of source material and surviving artefacts are even more acute when Sabra )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comes to describe the clothing worn by the urban poor. Thus, the author is obliged to rely principally on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(descriptions of clothing given to orphans and poor boys who studied at the Qur'?nic schools where they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(received a free education in addition to cash allowances, food and clothing. Regarding his description of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dress of poor females, this is extrapolated from inventories of items belonging to deceased poor women at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the end of the fourteenth century AD in Mamluk Jerusalem. This is supplemented with information )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regarding the estates of women peddlers active in Jerusalem during the same period. Thus Sabra is forced to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generalise on the basis of small samples. On the whole the data is very limited and fraught with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terminological difficulties. Whatever confidence one wishes to place in the conclusions, it does highlight the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems of dealing with social issues, and also the author's considerable efforts to make the sources speak. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As elsewhere, he can only show what was possibly the case, not prove it; he can only persuade us to accept )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the generalisations, not convince us.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sabra also attempts to estimate the purchasing power of the poor in medieval Cairo. Unfortunately, no data )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is available on the vast majority of the urban working population, but he is able to utilise new information )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contained in )] TJ ET BT 96.008 178.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(waqf)] TJ ET BT 119.348 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( documents which often state how much the employees \(doormen, guards, custodians and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so on\) of these charitable foundations \(such as mosques, sufi institutions and tombs\) were paid. The author )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(takes these salaries and compares them with the quoted prices of wheat, the bread from which formed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(staple diet.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are times when even the most assiduous historian must resign himself to his ignorance and admit it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(honestly, and as the author readily concedes, there are a number of inherent problems in his approach. These )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(include the fact that the )] TJ ET BT 149.660 80.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(waqf )] TJ ET BT 176.000 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(employees were probably better off than many other poor persons in Cairo in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that they received a regular monthly salary and sometimes a food allowance, and that the employees are all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men and thus no account is taken of the pay of women and children who would also have contributed to the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 4345 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(income of a poor family. Similarly problematic is verifying that the wages were actually paid, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(absence of a steady series of reliable quotations for the price of wheat for all periods. Nevertheless, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(results are consistent enough and lead one plausibly to conclude that at least the )] TJ ET BT 419.960 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(waqf )] TJ ET BT 446.300 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(servants received a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(salary sufficient to provide for their families.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The chapter on food shortages is interesting, though perhaps not always directly relevant except for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obvious implication that the poor must have suffered. Sabra examines the causes of food shortages by means )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of ten detailed and well-documented case studies of food shortage and famine between 1250 and 1517. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amount of detail he is able to provide illustrates the preoccupation of the sources with the prices and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shortages of wheat, which in turn illustrates the importance of the commodity. He examines the devastating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effect that these shortages could have on the poor. Once again, anecdotal evidence is supplied, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary chronicler Ibn al-Daw?d?r? remarking " [ I ] saw with my own eyes outside al-Barqiya gate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outside al-Q?hira, in a trench outside the walls, a large group which resembled savage beasts who had lost )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any sign of humanity." Sabra goes on to discuss the measures taken by the Mamluk state to prevent and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alleviate famine and the ways that the poor found to survive.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The historian of social history is forbidden from knowing anything that the past has not yielded to them. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thus, many aspects of the life of the poor in this period will forever remain unknown, many questions we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would like to ask will never receive an answer. Since, as the author frequently concedes, there is little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material available, one might suggest that the task never be started, that the history never be written. But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians should be able to produce sound and trustworthy history even when they are unable to see )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(everything. Sabra has indeed produced a sound and trustworthy history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While it must be acknowledged that the surviving material on Mamluk Egypt is particularly rich and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(includes historical works which often deal with social issues, the author's industry and success in identifying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relevant sources and making them bear witness for his social history should hopefully encourage others to do )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(likewise. As Sabra tantalisingly remarks, the sources for a study of the poor in the medieval Islamic world )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are in no way exhausted.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 373.087 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 355.307 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 355.307 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/271)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 353.913 m 322.316 353.913 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 328.936 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.536 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2567)] TJ ET BT 34.016 300.136 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 354.2275 322.3157 366.1075 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/271) >> endobj xref 0 22 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000564 00000 n 0000000646 00000 n 0000004667 00000 n 0000004776 00000 n 0000004886 00000 n 0000004995 00000 n 0000008556 00000 n 0000008684 00000 n 0000008768 00000 n 0000008833 00000 n 0000016698 00000 n 0000016763 00000 n 0000024161 00000 n 0000024245 00000 n 0000028643 00000 n 0000028771 00000 n trailer << /Size 22 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 28866 %%EOF