%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 22 0 R 30 0 R 42 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141128044158+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141128044158+00'00') /Title (The Politics of Religion in an Age of Revival) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3034 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Politics of Religion in an Age of Revival)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(NB. This review has been translated from the Spanish by Natalie Sobrevilla.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Nineteenth-Century Latin America Series directed by Eduardo Posada-Carb has made important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contributions to the new political history of Latin America. It now publishes the volume edited by Austen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ivereigh, )] TJ ET BT 80.000 204.299 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Politics of Religion in an Age of Revival)] TJ ET BT 293.996 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. This book attempts to compare the political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(participation of Catholics in the nineteenth century in different European and Latin-American countries. It is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indeed a relevant topic, considering that it has been usually assumed that the strong opposition between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Church and liberalism pushed Catholics to the margins of the system.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(272)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 January, 2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Austen Ivereigh)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781900039321)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(223pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Institute of Latin American Studies)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://americas.sas.ac.uk/publications/archive/pub_19c.htm)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carlos Malamud)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7127 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Amongst the European cases analysed are those of France and Spain, whilst the Latin American studies are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Mexico, Colombia, Argentina and Chile. As tends to happen in many collective works of this kind, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(final result is very uneven. This is due not only to the fact that the papers are diverse in focus, but also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because some of the studies have a pro-ecclesiastical slant that compromises some of the general conclusions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the book. Probably this is most clear in the introductory chapter by the editor Austen Ivereigh, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seems to be part of the old clericalism-anticlericalism polemic, siding openly with the traditional views of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the church and using some of the nineteenth century arguments.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The chapters by Austen Ivereigh \(?The shape of the state: Liberals and Catholics in the dispute over Law )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1420 of 1884 in Argentina?\), David Brading \(?Ultramontane intransigence and the Mexican reform: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clemente de Jess Mungua?\) and Frances Lannon \(?1898 and the politics of the Catholic identity in Spain?\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are, to some degree, in this same group. In my view, little can be achieved in the search of a greater and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deeper knowledge on the important topic of Catholic participation in the political life of their time through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such positions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The introductory chapter begins by describing the meeting between Fidel Castro and the Pope in Havana )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the papal visit to Cuba; this is used as a metaphor for the clash between the church and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enlightenment. It must be said that several current ?metaphors? could better illustrate the clash between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modernity and the transformation it has brought about. For instance the support given by the church to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anti-globalisation movement, in Geneva during the last G-8 meeting. That particular case is much more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reminiscent of the fight between the church and liberalism than the embrace between the Pope and Fidel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Castro.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James F. McMillan in his chapter \(?Religion and politics in nineteenth-century France: further reflections on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(why Catholics and Republicans couldn?t stand each other?\) makes another surprising comparison of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflict over clericalism, by comparing it to anti-Semitism: ?Republican anticlericalism was not a direct )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(response to "clerical" actions: it had its own internal logic and internal dynamics. A useful analogy may be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drawn with anti-Semitism, which is rarely the response to what Jews actually do.? There is a very important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(factor that the author seems to forget: the strength and presence of the church in nineteenth century in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe and Latin America was in no sense comparable to that of the Jews in any of the places where anti-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Semitism developed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ivereigh is clearly inspired by a revisionist message on the role of the catholic church in the nineteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, and that is why he compares the clashes of this period with the religious wars that raged Europe in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Modern Age - a comparison that is clearly exaggerated, illustrating his lack of distance with the problem. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(His pro-clerical angle can be seen once more in the following observation: ?What is now certain is that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth century did not witness a "Church" decline, but saw every sign, in its second half of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ecclesiastical restoration? \(p. 6\). A statement such as this might be true for some European countries, but it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is simply inadmissible for Latin America, at least for the majority of the countries in the region. After )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independence and Spain?s refusal to recognise the new republics, the Vatican played an ambivalent role for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decades, which left dioceses vacant, so that parish autonomy was great. It was necessary to wait until the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beginning of the twentieth century for the Vatican to re-impose order on different places so that its message )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could reach in a uniform manner all the national territories.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The way in which the Vatican regained control over the church in America can be seen clearly for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Argentine case in the excellent work of the Italian historian Loris Zanatta,)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 389.276 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 389.276 152.835 m 403.268 152.835 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 403.268 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( who presents a very different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretative line to Ivereigh?s. Not all the opposition to the implanting of the liberal project in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth century came from the church or from the Catholics. For example, in Guatemala a very active )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role was played by the indigenous communities, whose confrontation with the authorities that tried to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implement its liberal project can be seen in the work of Sonia Alda.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 358.304 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 358.304 95.811 m 372.296 95.811 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the problems with Ivereigh?s interpretation is that the Catholic Church is confused with the Catholics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to such extreme that he treats them as the same thing. The role of the Pope and the Vatican are thrown in the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 389.2757 153.1495 403.2677 165.0295 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 358.3037 96.1255 372.2957 108.0055 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R 28 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 8200 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same bag as part of a shapeless and hard to define )] TJ ET BT 276.284 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(totum revolutum. )] TJ ET BT 361.280 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Francis Lanon justifies Pius IX without )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considering the diverse response of the church. In its desire to study the attitude of the church throughout the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth century the book attempts to analyse the role played by Catholics in the building of democracy in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe and Latin America - through Catholic parties, confessional organisations and other means - reaching )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the conclusion that their political participation was a defining element.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Even if politics appears as the axis linking all the papers, only some of successfully address the role that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholic church really had in the nineteenth century?s politics. This can be clearly seen in the chapter by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Samuel Valenzuela and Erika Maza Valenzuela \(?The politics of religion in a Catholic country: Republican )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(democracy, )] TJ ET BT 92.660 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cristianismo Social )] TJ ET BT 190.676 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the Conservative party in Chile, 1850-1925?\) and that of Margaret )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lavinia Anderson \(?The divisions of the Pope: the Catholic revival and Europe?s transition to democracy?\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The very ?correct? work of Patricia Londoo \(?The politics of religion in a modernising society: Antoquia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Colombia\), 1850-1910?\) is centred on the problem of associationism and the importance that Catholic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(associations had in the process of modernisation in Antioquia.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A chapter that powerfully catches the attention for both its tone and its content is that by Eric Van Young )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(?Popular religion and the politics of insurgency: Mexico, 1810-1821?\), which has little in common with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rest of the chapters. His study does not really touch the problem of religion and even less on politics, at least )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the sense in which both concepts are usually understood. It begins by talking about the ?colonial state?, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very debatable concept that does not relate to any administrative reality of the Spanish Empire.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 489.608 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 489.608 528.723 m 503.600 528.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 503.600 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Such a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('state' is an invention of some historians that does nothing to help interpret the colonial society. Indeed, this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular reference responds to the need to link the building of the Mexican State with a previous past, of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which the present state would necessarily be the heir and would have the Virgin of Guadalupe as one of its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(key protagonists.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This explains the insistent references to a ?Creole nationalism?, even during the colonial period. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('nationalism' would become a nationalism without a nation unless the existence of a ?colonial state? is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(postulated. It also explains the need to detail the self-determination of the 'Mexican people' - a term that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seems excessive for the time of the dismantling of the colonial order. Van Young forgets that in the contract )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theory the sovereign is not the country but the ?people?. Ivereigh also refers to the contract theory, pointing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out that ?Creoles referred to the )] TJ ET BT 189.308 375.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(pactum translationis)] TJ ET BT 288.320 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and argued that power was invested in the community )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and reverted to it in the absence of the lawful ruler?. In the same article the excess of comparison with other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parts of the globe contrasts with the slight attention paid to the other areas of the Spanish empire, such as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(viceroyalties of Peru or the River Plate, )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 226.652 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 226.652 331.395 m 240.644 331.395 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 240.644 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( attention which would have allowed a tighter interpretation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the workings of the imperial apparatus and the colonial society in the Americas. Van Young's efforts to talk )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of ?nation-building?)] TJ ET BT 131.672 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(,)] TJ ET BT 134.672 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ?Creole nationalism?)] TJ ET BT 242.324 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and ?Mexican Nation?)] TJ ET BT 353.960 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is curious, considering that the documents )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he quotes talk of an ?American Nation? and not a ?Mexican Nation?. The ?American Nation? terminology )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(used at the time underlines the fact that the present Latin American republics did not exist, and that at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time of independence they were not present even in the minds of visionary ideologues.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The work on the history of the Iberian Peninsula also presents some serious problems of interpretation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(starting with the characteristics of the Spanish enlightenment. Most of the Mexicans that read the work of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Abb Raynal, quoted by van Young did not do so in the original French version but in the Spanish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(translation, which was in reality a very free re-creation, especially with regard to religion and the nobility. Its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(translator, a noble Spaniard, gives a clear idea of how the Peninsular Spaniards and the American Spaniards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understood the enlightenment. On the other hand, the period 1810-21 is presented in a one-sided fashion, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without considering the depth of the political changes in the Peninsula, which affected the process of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independence so much - the liberal Constitution of 1812, the absolutist restoration of the monarchy in 1814, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the three-year return of liberalism \(1820-23\). In reality, the process of American independence cannot be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clearly understood without considering the evolution of peninsular politics. There is one final linguistic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abuse I would like to point out - the use of the concept of ?village soviets? and ?people-as-soviets? to talk )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the indigenous communities during the independence process; these were the same communities that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did so much to create constitutional municipalities, as has been demonstrated by Antonio Annino.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 489.6077 529.0375 503.5997 540.9175 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 226.6517 331.7095 240.6437 343.5895 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R ] /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 7311 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A series of chapters deal directly with the topic of politics and make interesting points, especially if we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consider the lack of rigorous studies dealing with the role played by the church and the Catholics in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(construction of democracy during the nineteenth century. Margaret Lavinia Anderson defines the period as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the transition to democracy and treats the topic in a direct and clear way, which she combines with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(determinant variable: education. Did the church try to create citizens or was it only preoccupied in making )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sure that its faithful voted in defence of its particular interests? What can be concluded of the political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(participation of the church, as it has been presented, is that the priests mobilised the faithful when they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(needed to but were not interested in creating citizens. Anderson?s analysis is based on the argument in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Steven Fish's book )] TJ ET BT 127.184 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Democracy from Scratch)] TJ ET BT 247.820 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Princeton University Press: Princeton, 1996\) about post-soviet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russia and which can be reduced to the following dilemma: ?the existence of large numbers of people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(believing in democratic values, of laws permitting free association and of democratic elections have proved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Russia insufficient to establish effective representative government.?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ivereigh?s chapter also looks at the political question, even if the author?s description of the Argentine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(electoral system is clearly erroneous, motivated perhaps by his desire to justify the government?s tricks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against the interests of the church. He speaks of ?limited suffrage? \(pp. 172, 173, 176, 179 and 186\), when in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Argentina, according to the 1853 Constitution, there were no voting restrictions, neither educational \(it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not required to be able to read and write\), nor economic. All Argentine citizens could vote and it is quite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another issue whether a high percentage did so - but this also happened in other parts of the world where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representative governments existed. Ivereigh also defines the Partido Autonomista Nacional \(PAN\) as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(single)] TJ ET BT 65.684 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(party)] TJ ET BT 91.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which is relatively true for national politics but not for the provinces of the interior, in many of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which open electoral competition existed. There is finally a slightly surreal and even anti-democratic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument: Ivereigh criticises the fact there was no referendum to approve the 1420 law of free, obligatory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(non-religious education, pointing out that ?the true preferences of the Argentines must remain a matter for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speculation?, when the Argentine Constitution did not contemplate this kind of measure, nor did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representative democracy expect it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As mentioned before, one of the most serious and original chapters that goes to the crux of the question is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that by Samuel and Erika Valenzuela, which analyses the formation of the political identity of the Catholics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through the conservative party. This was not a confessional party, but it allowed Catholics to express their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political preferences clearly. In short, I think we have a book that tries to cover a necessary hole and that has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a polemical content. The objectives are achieved only partially and in some cases more clearly than in others.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 312.147 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 281.530 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 281.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Loris Zanatta, )] TJ ET BT 134.336 281.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Del Estado liberal a la Nacin Catlica, Iglesia y ejrcito en los origenes del )] TJ ET BT 64.016 267.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(peronismo, 1930-1943)] TJ ET BT 172.676 267.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Quilmes: Bernal, Argentina, 1996\); and Roberto di Stefano and Loris Zanatta, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 253.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historia de la Iglesia argentina. Desde la conquista hasta fines del siglo XIX)] TJ ET BT 434.348 253.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Mondadori: Buenos )] TJ ET BT 64.016 238.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aires, 2000\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 127.004 238.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 127.004 237.363 m 180.992 237.363 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 224.506 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 224.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(La participacin indigena en la construccin de la Repblica de Guatemala)] TJ ET BT 426.932 224.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Universidad Autonoma de )] TJ ET BT 64.016 210.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Madrid: Madrid, 2000\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 178.004 210.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 178.004 208.851 m 231.992 208.851 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 195.994 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 195.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See Carlos Malamud, ?Acerca del concepto de ?Estado Colonial? en la Amrica hispana?, )] TJ ET BT 500.240 195.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Revista de )] TJ ET BT 64.016 181.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Occidente)] TJ ET BT 112.664 181.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 116 \(1991\), 114-27.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 214.652 181.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 214.652 180.339 m 268.640 180.339 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 167.482 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See the work of Jos Carlos Chiaramonte and Franois-Xavier Guerra.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 403.268 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 403.268 166.083 m 457.256 166.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 141.221 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 126.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 122.239 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 104.459 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 104.459 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/272)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 103.065 m 322.316 103.065 l S endstream endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 127.0037 237.6775 180.9917 249.5575 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 178.0037 209.1655 231.9917 221.0455 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 214.6517 180.6535 268.6397 192.5335 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 403.2677 166.3975 457.2557 178.2775 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 27 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 103.3795 322.3157 115.2595 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/272) >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 43 0 R >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Length 306 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 784.354 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 769.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2569)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 44 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000555 00000 n 0000000637 00000 n 0000003723 00000 n 0000003832 00000 n 0000003942 00000 n 0000004051 00000 n 0000007612 00000 n 0000007740 00000 n 0000007824 00000 n 0000007915 00000 n 0000015095 00000 n 0000015125 00000 n 0000015253 00000 n 0000015289 00000 n 0000015319 00000 n 0000015446 00000 n 0000015482 00000 n 0000015573 00000 n 0000023826 00000 n 0000023856 00000 n 0000023984 00000 n 0000024020 00000 n 0000024050 00000 n 0000024178 00000 n 0000024214 00000 n 0000024326 00000 n 0000031690 00000 n 0000031818 00000 n 0000031873 00000 n 0000032001 00000 n 0000032056 00000 n 0000032184 00000 n 0000032239 00000 n 0000032367 00000 n 0000032422 00000 n 0000032550 00000 n 0000032645 00000 n 0000032710 00000 n trailer << /Size 44 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 33068 %%EOF