%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 24 0 R 29 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140902094607+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140902094607+01'00') /Title (The New Penguin History of Scotland: From the Earliest Times to the Present Day) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4271 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The New Penguin History of Scotland: From the Earliest Times to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(the Present Day)] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The cover is a view from Stirling Castle: in the foreground a carved lion rampant, in the background the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wallace Tower, the Scottish national monument, raised by public subscription in 1859; in the valley below, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stirling Bridge somewhere near the site of William Wallace's victory over the forces of Edward I in 1297; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(just out of the picture, the field of Bannockburn. It has not quite the cringe effect of Penguin's last excursion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into Scottish History, Tom Devine's )] TJ ET BT 209.516 166.403 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Scottish Nation)] TJ ET BT 283.196 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, on the cover of which a Scottish Saltire is being raised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the mountain top, with echoes of John Wayne in )] TJ ET BT 284.324 152.147 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sands of Iwo Jima)] TJ ET BT 372.656 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, but it comes close. It bodes yet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another post-devolution search for Scottish identity. Parts of the introduction by the editors do not reassure. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While so-called 'tartan history' is eschewed, 'telling Scotland's story as closely as possible to the "way it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was"' is from a world before postmodernism was ever thought of. It is true that there are not many signs that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(post-modern approaches have made inroads into Scottish history, but, on the whole, however, the fears of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(yet another search for the roots of the new Scotland are unfounded. What we have are eight highly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(competent essays, some exceptionally good, which try to present a rounded picture of economic, social, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural and political life in Scotland, with two blocks of nearly seventy illustrations of artefacts held by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(273)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 31 March, 2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. A. Houston)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(W. W. J. Knox)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780713991871)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(640pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Allen Lane, The Penguin Press in association with the National Museums of Scotland)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.penguin.co.uk)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(W. Hamish Fraser)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7676 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(National Museums of Scotland.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For the non-specialist, such as this reviewer, whose knowledge of pre-medieval Scotland is decades out of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(date, the two opening chapters, Ian Armit on 'Prehistory' and Thomas Clancy and Barbara Crawford on 'The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formation of the Scottish Kingdom', have much new to offer. A world of long journeys and complex )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationships, at least for a few, can be conjured from the Megalithic tombs, the longhouses and the ceramic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remnants that survive throughout what was to become Scotland, long before the place appears in the written )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(record with Tacitus's account of Agricola's invasion in AD 83. What has disappeared is the long-held view )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that a Celtic invasion brought new peoples to the land. For Ian Armit, the 'coming of the Celts' was a long-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drawn out process of absorption of culture and language 'not an explosive event'. The Romans came and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(soon departed behind Hadrian's wall and, by the fourth century AD, had provoked collaboration between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different groups north of the wall into those they called the Picts. With the departure of the Romans and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arrival of Gaels from Ireland and Angles from the south, Britons, Angles, Gaels and Picts shared the land. St )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ninian can no longer be confidently claimed to have brought Christianity to the south-west in the fourth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century; not until the sixth century is there clear evidence of Christian presence. After 563 Columba spread )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monastic settlements from Iona along the Gaelic west coast and embarked on the process of evangelising the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Picts. The Synod of Whitby in 664, once viewed as Roman Christianity overwhelming Celtic Christianity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(English )] TJ ET BT 77.684 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(versus)] TJ ET BT 108.344 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Scots\) around the issue of the date of Easter, proves to be much more complex. By the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighth century a remarkably stable Pictish kingdom had emerged, to which were added, over the next three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hundred years, Viking settlers. At the same time Gaelic language and culture from the west began to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overwhelm the Pictish lands of the east, with a new kingdom of Alba appearing under the descendants of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cinaed Mac Ailpn \(Kenneth MacAlpine\). By the early eleventh century, Malcolm Canmore and his saintly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Queen Margaret were presiding over a relatively peaceful kingdom with close ties with Anglo-Saxon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England. Scotland had been born.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Over the next 450 years a complex and variable relationship with its bigger southern neighbour was at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centre of Scottish politics. The tale is well told by David Ditchburn and Alistair MacDonald in their chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on medieval Scotland. But the chapter is especially good on the everyday life of the mass of the inhabitants. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There was still slavery as late as the twelfth century but by the fourteenth there seems to have been a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reasonably comfortable Scottish peasantry within a loose and patchy kind of feudalism. Certainly the lack of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peasants' revolts is remarkable, but they may, the authors suggest, have been checked by pretty brutal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(repression. As with so much of this period the evidence for firm conclusions is thin. To sophisticated French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(observers Scotland was a backward place populated by gluttons, vagrants and fighters. To outsiders there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was a national identity. To insiders there were numerous other identities that could take precedence. Hence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the complex and divided loyalties of the wars of independence at the end of the thirteenth and the beginning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the fourteenth centuries. Bannockburn solved little and centuries of Anglo-Scottish wars followed. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps the authors are right to see anglophobia as being the most enduring medieval legacy, after all the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hope of once again seeing off 'proud Edward's army' is still expected to rouse them at Murrayfield. Was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('innate conservatism', as they also suggest, another legacy? It is true that there were few challenges to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existing Stewart order, but fifteenth and sixteenth century Scotland was perhaps more outward looking and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more in touch with continental developments than they give credit to and the remarkable thing was to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(survive with relative unity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The problem with a chapter break at 1560 is that there is remarkably little on the causes of what is arguably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the most significant event, the Reformation. The previous chapter looks forward to it, Keith Brown's chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('From Reformation to Union' has more to say of its consequences. There is slightly more sympathy for Mary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stewart than one gets from a reading of Jenny Wormald )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 305.960 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 305.960 146.067 m 319.952 146.067 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 319.952 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and a recognition that seismic social and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political changes have to be set alongside Mary's flawed political and personal judgements. There is also a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(useful reassessment of James VI and I, pointing to a political shrewdness that belied his indolence. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Meanwhile, Presbyterianism gained hold and successive attempts to replace it with an episcopalian order led )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to bitter conflicts in the seventeenth century. The Covenanters' revolution of the 1640s was fatal for Charles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I and profoundly significant as an assertion of the right of rebellion against an ungodly ruler and of the right )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of relatively ordinary people to say something about politics. At the same time, it looked back to the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 305.9597 146.3815 319.9517 158.2615 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 5706 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sixteenth-century George Buchanan's arguments that royal power came from the people and, if rulers forgot )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that, could be withdrawn by the people. It was a belief that was to be picked up again in the late eighteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and early nineteenth centuries when the example of the Covenanters found their place in radical perceptions. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Marquis of Montrose's brutal attempts at repression with an army of Irish Catholic mercenaries were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also to feed into the Scottish consciousness. Like all the Stewarts, Charles II learned little from the past and, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while he survived, his brother paid the price of attempts to impose bishops and subsequently Catholicism. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William III, Glencoe apart, according to Brown, wisely 'left the Scots to govern themselves'. The nobility re-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tightened their grip.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brown's chapter is more heavily political than many of the others, but social and cultural changes are noted. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By the end of the sixteenth century there were five universities and a steady stream of students to European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(universities such as Leiden. The level of literacy among trades people was substantially more extensive than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in England. Scientific enquiry and legal debate began to interest the intellectuals, but the all-pervasive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obsession with religion was hard to challenge. A single paragraph on the subject of witchcraft hardly seems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adequate to encapsulate Scotland's abysmal record of legal and sometimes illegal, murder, mainly of women, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from 1590 until the last poor soul from Dornoch in 1727 who died for having turned her daughter into a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pony. The paradoxes of Scottish culture were already very apparent.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Union of 1707 was perfectly logical and reasonably lucrative for a cash-strapped Scots nobility who had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for some time looked longingly at the splendour of London and the royal court. Powerful elements of church )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and law were appeased and the old order was able to survive in power for another century and a quarter with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(little challenge. There is some recognition of the popular resistance to Union that Chris Whatley has recently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(documented )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.672 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.672 485.955 m 109.664 485.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 109.664 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( but to Brown the general acceptance of the Union shows 'a new level of political maturity', )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Bruce Lenman in the following chapter it was the )] TJ ET BT 287.312 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ancien rgime )] TJ ET BT 358.628 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pursuing its own selfish interests.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lenman's chapter is written with predictable flair, pointing up so many paradoxes of eighteenth-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scotland. We have a society going through massive economic and social change while the aristocratic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political system remained remarkably intact. The landed gentry pulled more power into their hands and away )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the church. A determined effort to raise income to match their new life-style in London led to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(squeeze on tenants and the start of the process of highland clearance and lowland 'improvement'. But, before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Napoleonic Wars, agricultural improvement rarely brought a profit and a snout in the political trough )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remained important. As Daniel Szechi has shown, even the Jacobite rebellions did not fully undermine )] TJ ET BT 529.616 361.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(loyalties and most Jacobite families were soon back in control of their forfeited lands. Lenman presents )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(balanced accounts of the rebellions - reflecting more Episcopalian than Catholic discontents - and he is good )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the remarkably resilient Highland culture that survived the predations on the Highlands in the aftermath )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Culloden. The multiplicity of ideas which went to make up the Enlightenment in eighteenth century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scotland is less easy to encapsulate in the few pages available, but Lenman brings out well the social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conservatism of so many of the Edinburgh literati, radical 'when they were sure that there was no chance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their ideas would be implemented', tied to and closely defensive of the landed order.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 95.6717 486.2695 109.6637 498.1495 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 27 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 7773 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bob Morris and Graeme Morton on the 1832-1914 period are right to start with the Disruption of 1843. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Religion remained central to any understanding of Scottish society and politics in at least the first half of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period, with sectarian rivalry )] TJ ET BT 175.652 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(within )] TJ ET BT 208.664 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Protestantism deepening. Not surprisingly, given the credentials of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authors, the chapter is good on the towns and the civil society that developed within them. The focus, alas, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(never gets much beyond the central belt, which is a pity because the other cities and the smaller towns of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Victorian Scotland not only have their own characteristics, but also provide the background for many of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those who actually ran Edinburgh and Glasgow. It was also the values and attitudes of such smaller towns )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that shaped Scotland's perception of itself well through the twentieth century. The Highlands and the land )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generally also receive rather short shrift. But it was land issues and a hostility to the landed class which kept )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liberalism dominant for much of the period and which emerging Labour was to pick up at the end of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century. But the politics are all rather thin. Where are the Liberals? Where is Liberal Unionism which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provided a welcome stepping stone to the Right for so many well-heeled Scots, for whom Conservatism was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(still a step too far and who gave Scotland an anti-Liberal majority in 1900? Where is the whole culture of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(municipal enterprise transmuted into municipal socialism?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The twentieth century gets two chapters: John Foster on 1914 until 1979, Christopher Harvie on the years )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(since 1979. Foster writes a brilliant essay on the tensions within Scottish society between modernisers and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defenders of vested interests, between radicals and conservatives within all groups of Scottish society, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(business people, trade unionists, artists as well as politicians. To Foster the militancy of 'Red Clydeside' built )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(up during the later years of the first World War and immediately afterwards was a symptom of profound )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social changes. Accompanying these was the quite sudden sharp move to the left by the Scottish working )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class. Scottish business leaders, like Lord Weir, Sir James Lithgow, Eric and Auckland Geddes at the heart )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of government, were prepared to generate a recession in order to try to re-impose discipline and regain the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industrial control which they had lost in the war years. Over the next fifteen years these same powerful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interests pursued a policy of rationalising the traditional heavy industries of shipbuilding and steel where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their interests lay and doing little to encourage the develop of new industries which might increase the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bargaining power of their labour forces. The result was the deep unemployment in the mining and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shipbuilding areas in the early 1930s. Despite it all, the amount of social protest in Scotland remained very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(small. Government action to control 'rough' activities, government resources to encourage 'rational )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recreation' and sectarian tensions all helped ensure that any challenge to the existing order was limited. An )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alliance of business and the emerging professional classes was built up by the Conservative and Unionist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Party. Once again, the theme of a socially conservative society emerges, beautifully illustrated by the parade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at the opening of the Empire Exhibition in Glasgow in 1938. After the royal party came cars carrying the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Earl of Elgin, then Sir James Lithgow and Sir Cecil Weir, then the general manager of the Union bank and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ship-owning Salvesen family. Not until the eleventh car did Glasgow's Labour Lord Provost appear. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(statement about the realities of power was plain to see.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It was after the second World War that the old order began to break as external forces came into play, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even then its influence did not entirely disappear and a wariness of too much encouragement of new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industries which might pull workers away from heavy industry remained. Foster convincingly paints a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(picture of the 1950s and 1960s as, once again, a struggle between modernises and the interests of heavy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industry. What was apparent to all, however, was the steady loss of Scottish control over their industries and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the loss of Scottish influence in Whitehall. It was most clearly obvious in the North Sea oil industry that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emerged after 1969, firmly under American domination and, in contrast to the pattern in Norway, committed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to speedy extraction. As others have shown, the gains for the Scottish economy even in the 'oil capital' of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aberdeen were limited.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 146.984 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 146.984 146.067 m 160.976 146.067 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 160.976 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Politically, however, the effect was to generate a new confidence and a new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demand for political change which was to build over the next decades. None of the above does justice to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(range and penetration of Foster's chapter, where the poems of McDiarmid and the novels of McIlvanney are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interwoven with the intricacies of deals between banks and businessmen behind the closed doors of the City )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of London and the smoke-filled rooms of the west of Scotland labour movement.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, Christopher Harvie, with his accustomed verve, takes us smack up to date to the re-election of Tony )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Blair in June 2001 and the first sign that Conservatism had not entirely disappeared in Scotland, with one )] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 146.9837 146.3815 160.9757 158.2615 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R 41 0 R 43 0 R ] /Contents 30 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Length 6680 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seat regained. In between were the Thatcher years, for many the single most important cause of the Scots )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(determination to reject Toryism. Harvie plays down Margaret Thatcher's significance compared with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic changes and their social effects which were making unionism less attractive. Also, as Foster )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shows, the significant changes and the advance of both socialism and nationalism were already underway in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the1970s. Thatcher's failure to understand the changes or almost anything about the Scottish mentality, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poor advice, according to Harvie, from an insensitive Malcolm Rifkind at the Scottish Office, merely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speeded up a trend to question the value of the existing political union, which came to a climax in the 1999 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(referendum and the opening of the Scottish Parliament.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Good essays, some brilliant, most a pleasure to read, but what is the book for? It is not at all clear at whom it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is aimed: too general for the specialist and student, too specialist and too large for the tourist. There are no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(references -- only bibliographical essays at the end of each chapter. Did we really need another general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history? In recent years we have had umpteen general histories of varying quality, television histories 'In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Search of Scotland', newspaper histories on 'The Struggle of a Nation' and essay collections. Yet, a look at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the bibliographies gives an indication of how limited the really new research has been on politics, on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industry and economy, on education, on gender, on welfare, on popular culture, on specific localities. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(editors, who provide the lengthy introduction, make the doubtful claim that there is a 'lack of informed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge of Scotland's past' and that the volume has the simple purpose of 'more fully and accurately )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([understanding] the place of Scotland the Scots in time'. Whether any of it will be achieved by the national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focus of such a work is debatable and whether it can be done without more research is even more open to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question. The early chapters with their broad sweep tend to place Scotland in a wider European context. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(From the Reformation years onwards, however, there is little attempt to compare Scotland's experience with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anywhere but England. The imperial dimension, so important financially and economically from at least the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth century and, certainly by the nineteenth century crucially important in how the Scots saw )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves, hardly features. The problem of one synthesis after another is that new questions tend not to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(asked and new approaches tend not to be adopted and the discipline stagnates.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 407.427 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 376.810 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. M. Wormald, )] TJ ET BT 142.676 376.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mary Queen of Scots: A Study in Failure )] TJ ET BT 341.984 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(George Phillip: London, 1988\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 496.976 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 496.976 375.411 m 550.964 375.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 362.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(C. A. Whatley, )] TJ ET BT 139.340 362.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Scottish Society, 1707-1830 )] TJ ET BT 275.996 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Manchester University Press: Manchester, 2000\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 517.280 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 517.280 361.155 m 557.276 361.155 l S BT 64.016 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 346.899 m 78.008 346.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 334.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Newlands, 'The oil economy', in W. Hamish Fraser and Clive H. Lee \(eds.\),)] TJ ET BT 459.932 334.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Aberdeen 1800-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 319.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(2000. A New History )] TJ ET BT 167.684 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Tuckwell Press: East Linton, 2000\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 344.336 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 344.336 318.387 m 398.324 318.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 293.525 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H-Net Reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 263.619 m 240.992 263.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 243.992 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Observer)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2002/jan/20/historybooks.features1)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 235.107 m 368.000 235.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 371.000 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 231.775 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 213.995 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 213.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/273)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 212.601 m 322.316 212.601 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 187.624 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.224 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2571)] TJ ET BT 34.016 158.824 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=6809)] TJ ET BT 34.016 144.424 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2002/jan/20/historybooks.features1)] TJ ET endstream endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 496.9757 375.7255 550.9637 387.6055 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 517.2797 361.4695 557.2757 373.3495 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 347.2135 78.0077 359.0935 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 344.3357 318.7015 398.3237 330.5815 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 26 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 263.9335 240.9917 275.8135 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=6809) >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 235.4215 367.9997 247.3015 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2002/jan/20/historybooks.features1) >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 212.9155 322.3157 224.7955 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/273) >> endobj xref 0 45 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000589 00000 n 0000000671 00000 n 0000004994 00000 n 0000005103 00000 n 0000005213 00000 n 0000005322 00000 n 0000008883 00000 n 0000009011 00000 n 0000009095 00000 n 0000009179 00000 n 0000016908 00000 n 0000016938 00000 n 0000017066 00000 n 0000017102 00000 n 0000017186 00000 n 0000022945 00000 n 0000022975 00000 n 0000023102 00000 n 0000023138 00000 n 0000023222 00000 n 0000031048 00000 n 0000031078 00000 n 0000031206 00000 n 0000031242 00000 n 0000031368 00000 n 0000038101 00000 n 0000038229 00000 n 0000038284 00000 n 0000038412 00000 n 0000038467 00000 n 0000038593 00000 n 0000038648 00000 n 0000038776 00000 n 0000038831 00000 n 0000038958 00000 n 0000039058 00000 n 0000039185 00000 n 0000039303 00000 n 0000039431 00000 n trailer << /Size 45 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 39526 %%EOF