%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 20 0 R 25 0 R 27 0 R 29 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140722031202+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140722031202+01'00') /Title (Gender in History) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4734 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Gender in History)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(G)] TJ ET BT 42.680 259.067 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ender in History)] TJ ET BT 121.340 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a timely publication. The field of gender history is reaching maturity in two senses. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Firstly, numerous studies have been published about the impact of gender at various times and places. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Merry Wiesner-Hanks draws on this wealth of scholarship and her own research to provide a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(welcome overview of gender in global history from prehistory to date. Secondly, the reach of gender history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is expanding too. Not only are more studies of gender being published, but the use of gender as a tool of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis in ?mainstream? history is also increasing. A book like Richard Price?s )] TJ ET BT 420.968 187.787 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British Society 1680-1880)] TJ ET BT 546.296 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for example, does not need ?gender? in its title to make it an integral element of analysis.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 461.948 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 461.948 172.137 m 475.940 172.137 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 475.940 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In this light I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would recommend )] TJ ET BT 126.668 159.275 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gender in History)] TJ ET BT 213.992 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as a set text for all students beginning a degree in history, alongside )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more conventional fare like E. H. Carr?s )] TJ ET BT 231.632 145.019 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(What is History?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 312.968 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 312.968 143.625 m 326.960 143.625 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 326.960 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It should not be restricted to those students \(in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(my opinion still too often predominantly female\) who select a course in which the main topic of study is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gender. For, crucially, it demonstrates that gender is as significant as social class, race and ethnicity as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(category of historical analysis, as well as providing novice historians with many insights into understanding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history. This is not to ignore that it is also of value to more experienced historians, particularly because of its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thematically arranged suggestions for further reading.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(274)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 1 April, 2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Merry E. Wiesner-Hanks)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780631210368)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(16.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(256pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Blackwell)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://eu.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-0631210369.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joanne Bailey)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 461.9477 172.4515 475.9397 184.3315 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 312.9677 143.9395 326.9597 155.8195 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7773 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the most vexed questions in gender history is the relationship between social gender and biological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sex. In her introduction Wiesner-Hanks leads readers through this complex debate, making them aware of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the profound uncertainties about markers of sexual difference and the performative nature of gender, its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adaptability and impermanence of meanings for men and women. The colliding ripples from such theoretical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pebbles as post-structuralism, queer theory, post-colonial theory and critical-race theory also currently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disturb the choppy waters of history. Wiesner-Hanks expertly navigates them to show that their cumulative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact for gender historians is to attack assumptions about the universality of experience. The wide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chronological and geographical scope of this book certainly reveals that gender is historically and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(geographically contingent. The author explores variations between cultures and among social, ethnic and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(racial groups within one culture to illustrate the diverse ways in which family, economy, law, religion, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics, education, culture and sexuality informed women?s and men?s lives and were in turn moulded by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gender. These processes were complicated by colonialisation, empire and migration, which spread some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditions and created ?new? traditions. It is impressive that the author presents this information in an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting and coherent way, avoiding the pit-falls of stereotyped over-generalisation and numbing lists of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counter-examples.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wiesner-Hanks does us a great service by charting the distinctions and variations in gender structures, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her book also reveals the striking number of common themes across the world. Women are invariably linked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the home. This is expressed in a number of ways from possessing fewer legal and political freedoms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than men to their absolute physical restriction within the home. These are tenacious phenomena. Laws were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only repealed or amended within the last century and Chinese foot-binding, which began around 1000 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forced women to remain within the confines of the home, did not completely die out until the 1930s. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Veiling, of course, is still going strong, with the first recorded evidence from the ancient Near East around )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3000 BCE testifying both to its longevity and its independence of specific religious traditions. These )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practices are usually justified by ideas about protecting women from other men and, therefore, blood-lines )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and inheritances from impurity. )] TJ ET BT 188.996 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gender in History)] TJ ET BT 276.320 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( reminds us, however, that several factors have influenced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the extent to which such traditions are enforced. Most commonly, necessity has ensured that many women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have possessed more agency in terms of making decisions and managing family, household, domestic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economy and property than these customs and law codes would suggest. Seclusion, for example, has often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(signified membership of a wealthy elite. Thus peasant women in China did not have their feet bound, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because they needed to work. This occasionally cut across gender, so that it was elite men in the Ottoman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Empire who rarely left the household. Other traditions have altered gendered domestic roles. Jewish men )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who took the ideal path of devoting themselves to piety and the study of religious texts were economically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dependent upon their wives, who worked to support them and their children. Of course those wives whose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(husbands were absent through work or war and conquest were more likely to make unilateral decisions and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(choices.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gender in History?s)] TJ ET BT 132.008 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( thematic approach highlights other contradictions at the heart of the home and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marriage. Many homes were and are the site of profound domestic double-standards, with women doing all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the domestic work, whatever their other labour. It is equally prevalent in political systems founded upon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(equality between the sexes. In the Soviet Union, for example, women made up more than half the full time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(labour force but continued to do most household work. One only has to read the eighteenth-century washer-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(woman Mary Collier?s poem )] TJ ET BT 177.332 190.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Women?s Labour)] TJ ET BT 283.328 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1739\) to see that women have long recognised the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(injustice of this.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 111.020 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 111.020 174.579 m 125.012 174.579 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 125.012 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Ideologies about the relationship between husbands and wives further complicate the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gaps between prescription and practice. Writers as far apart as those in Classical Rome, Protestant early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern England, and the Jewish tradition, for instance, have advocated companionship and shared interests )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and activities between spouses, while also demanding wives? subordination to husbands? authority. The two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are not necessarily incompatible ideas, but I am inclined to believe that they set up a potentially conflictual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(situation when they were so often contradicted by the realities of wives? contributions to domestic life.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book emphasises that mixed messages about women and men are hardly unusual. In particular, many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious traditions convey conflicting ideas about the relative status of the sexes because they draw upon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existing traditions to articulate their message and shape their ritual. In animism, paganism and shamanism )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 111.0197 174.8935 125.0117 186.7735 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 7829 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women and men are often perceived to have the same access to the spirit world. This can be empowering for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women but it does not always equate with equal status with men and can have dangerous consequences. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After all, close contact could be with bad spirits as well as good, leading in some cases to accusations of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(witchcraft. A not dissimilar double-edged sword existed in more formal text-based religious traditions where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women have been viewed as possessing a ?natural? facility for spirituality. Combined with ideas about their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weakness they can thus easily be seen as susceptible to diabolical influences. Those women who have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moved by divine inspiration to get involved in military or political affairs are often subject to harsh measures )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to remove them from this sphere. Although religions like Christianity, Hinduism and Buddhism make )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spiritual fulfilment equally available to both sexes, and while female saints and deities have provided )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(positive role models, women have still been conceptualised as the secondary, subordinate sex to men. They )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also threaten male achievement of spiritual goals. In Buddhism and Christianity, for example, men have at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(times been obliged to be detached from desire in order to achieve the sinless life necessary for enlightenment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or spiritual fulfilment. As a result women were defined as sexual temptation. Actually, a theme that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(permeates this book is the way that women have been seen as a threat to everything from morals, genetic and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(property inheritance, to financial liquidity and social order. Thus their exclusion from many institutions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often appears to be a defensive act.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Parenting, according to )] TJ ET BT 148.664 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gender in History)] TJ ET BT 235.988 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is as gendered as other roles carried out within the home. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bearing and rearing of children has moulded women?s lives to a far greater extent than fathering children has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impacted on men?s, and interestingly this continues to be the case where effective contraception is widely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(available. There are examples where men?s status shifts on the birth of their first son, but in most cases their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lives are not expected to adapt to the arrival of children as women?s do. The ideological connotations of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parenthood are equally gendered. Fatherhood has often been considered as the root of political systems and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was invoked as a symbol by nations like Nazi Germany?s ?fatherland? and monarchs like James I and VI of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England and Scotland, but the rhetoric of motherhood has had a far greater impact on ordinary women?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lives. In both authoritarian dictatorships and democracies, ideas about women?s ?natural? role as mothers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have served to promote pro-natal measures and limit their education and employment opportunities. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nevertheless, Wiesner-Hanks shows how often the ideology has also been used positively. Though formal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power is usually gendered and socially stratified, we know that women and low-status men have participated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in political life. The rhetoric of motherhood is one way in which women claim a ?right? to enter the political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arena. Women across the world, for example, invoke their special status as mothers to complain against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abuses of human rights. Maternity has also been used as a way to claim the right of citizenship for women. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In eighteenth- and nineteenth-century England and the United States and twentieth-century Egypt and Iran, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women?s role as mothers was combined with ideas about their superior moral status to demand better )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(education and opportunities. It was claimed that this would allow women to better guide their husbands and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rear their sons in the necessities of civic virtue, morality and public service. Nevertheless, )] TJ ET BT 467.600 299.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gender in History)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reminds us that while women are always to be found fighting alongside men for political rights, freedoms, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and justice through debates, boycotts, demonstrations, riots, guerrilla tactics, and warfare the resulting law )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(codes and constitutions often fail to give them equal status to men. If they did, as following communist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolutions, they still did not give women?s concerns high priority.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If motherhood has been a potent symbol, Wiesner-Hanks also draws into sharp focus the way that gender, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sex and race are entwined as metaphor. Nowhere is this clearer than in war, conquest, colonisation and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empire. Victors in battle and territorial conquest are invariably eulogised as virile and masculine, losers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(degraded as weak and feminised. Indigenous peoples have been imagined as passive and/or hyper-sexualised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and sexually voracious by their colonisers. Representations of the act of colonisation frequently draw on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(image of men penetrating ?virgin? territories. America in the sixteenth- and seventeenth-centuries, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, was portrayed as a naked woman in a feathered headdress. Disturbingly, as )] TJ ET BT 443.912 130.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gender in History)] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illustrates, human bodies all too often act out these gendered metaphors. At various places and times )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marriage has been more than a sign of alliances between different groups, serving to confirm conquest. Thus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aztec and Inca leaders married the daughters of the rulers of the tribes they conquered. Rape is the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violent physical enactment of conquest, either of defeated soldiers or women on the losing side, depending )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on prevailing attitudes to same-sex relations. The enforced sexual services of indigenous women, following )] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 7351 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the conquest of territory and peoples, performed a similar purpose.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This survey of gender reveals how often the modern world judges civilisations by their treatment of women. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For some an ?advanced?, ?civilised?, ?modern? society is one in which women possess extensive legal and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutional freedoms. Thus nations have sought to ?prove? that they were worthy of independent status by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(improving the lot of women. Educating women was a sign of modernisation and progress in India, as was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(passing laws against veiling in Turkey and Iran in the 1920s and 1930s. Others have consciously rejected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this formulation. Christian and Islamic fundamentalists use traditional authoritarian gender hierarchies to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(symbolise their superior purity and morals. For fundamentalist movements within Islam the veiling of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women also underlines their rejection of western cultural imperialism and commercialisation. In extreme )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cases like the Taliban regime this even led to removing women from the professional roles to which Muslim )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women often have access in order to cater for women in an all female environment. For all this, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impressive range of examples in )] TJ ET BT 192.320 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gender in History)] TJ ET BT 279.644 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( powerfully demonstrates that there is in fact no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(straightforward link between modernisation, advanced economic development, extensive civil institutions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the emancipation of women. After all, rapid economic development, for example, can be achieved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without equality for women, or, for that matter, men. Likewise it is not only male dominated societies that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are warlike or aggressive. Men can value diplomacy, as an alternative to war, and societies with women in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political positions of power can be bellicose.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This simplistic equation of modernity, civility, economic success and female emancipation is rendered even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more problematic by Wiesner-Hanks? observations that emancipation does not have any unified meaning in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practice. Laws asserting equality between the sexes are not always enforced or taken-up, particularly when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impetus for change came from outside the area. Women themselves do not always view such changes as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beneficial. Crucially, she shows that the debate about whether women are better served by asserting their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rights and establishing equality with men, or by determining and meeting their different needs as women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continues throughout the world. As this book further demonstrates, equality of opportunity does not always )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(equate with improved status. It is clear that the exclusion of women from training, for example, explained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their absence or lesser participation in the ?major? fields of art, literature and music. In contemporary US, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nonetheless, though women take up higher education in Fine Arts at the same or higher rates than men, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(female work is not displayed in galleries in the same proportions as male work. Equally, numerous cultures )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have denied women the ability to participate in many institutions and derive formal power, by denying them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(access to training to write. Yet societies with oral cultures to which both sexes had equal access were also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inegalitarian and failed to offer women the same status as men.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gender in History)] TJ ET BT 121.340 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( shows that the whole question of status is tricky in itself. Status has long been and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continues to be defined in masculine terms. While it may arguably be beneficial that women derive status in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specific spheres, it is noticeable that few men wish to be admitted to them. It does not help that the level of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(status and remuneration accorded to occupations and skills depends upon whether they are predominantly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(carried out by women or men and are reclassified when this shifts. As Wiesner-Hanks shows, this occurs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(again and again. For instance, when various countries strove for mass education in the nineteenth- and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(twentieth-centuries, those primarily employed as teachers were women because they were a cheap way to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supply the necessary large numbers of teachers. Subsequently teaching was down-graded in status and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remuneration. In early modern Europe brewing moved from a primarily female activity to a male one, as did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(midwifery in the eighteenth-century, and both were accorded more value and pay as this occurred. We need )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not be complacent about this phenomenon since keyboard skills have experienced a similar gender-shift. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Typing, a ?female? skill was transformed with the advent of computers, into ?male? keyboard skills, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(associated with new technologies and mathematics, and consequently better paid. Similarly, new creative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(genres developed by women, like miniature portraits on ivory or paper collage, have failed to achieve the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(status of the ?major? arts. Genres in which women continued to work were devalued. Thus flower painting, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(once seen as an important branch of still-life, was re-categorised as trivial painstaking craftsmanship when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women predominantly carried it out. As Wiesner-Hanks remarks, there is some justice, since folk art, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which women could participate, has come to be highly prized.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R ] /Contents 30 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Length 6217 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wiesner-Hanks warns us that we will feel puzzled, angry, depressed or defensive after reading this book. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(She is right. Even after a few years of familiarity with scholarship on gender in early modern and modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British history, I am left with the despairing recognition that women have been and are being oppressed in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explicit and implicit ways across the globe. For despite the book?s claims to be about gender it is essentially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about women. It makes it clear that for the majority of people, men?s and women?s daily experiences were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(similar since they were focused upon survival. It does indicate that many men as well as women are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exploited and often denied access to education, political representation and religious scriptures. But, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crucially, this is more likely to be through lack of wealth and property than through gender restrictions. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is little sense that masculinity is as restricting or limiting a force on men as femininity is on women. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Even where ordinary women have exercised authority, it is usually conceptualised as derivative from men, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or restricted to specific areas of life with men theoretically holding the highest authority. In short, despite the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differences in the formulation of gender across time and space, the overwhelming impression is one of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pervasive and resilient gender hierarchies, which are a profoundly negative force for women. Obviously this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is in part the result of the book?s nature. A text book simply cannot offer the intricate analyses that serve to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinguish between abilities and rights. As a narrower focus can reveal, the former allow women and men to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(do much more than the latter would indicate. Importantly )] TJ ET BT 311.984 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gender in History)] TJ ET BT 399.308 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( serves its purpose by shattering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complacency and preconceptions about relationships between the sexes. It also raises questions about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gender, its relationship with status and power and its meanings for individuals. Wiesner-Hanks concludes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hoping that her book will lead readers ?to engage in your own political acts and know that if it does, aspects )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of your life that mirror the chapters you have read ? your work, religious worship, creative outlets, sexuality, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and family relationships ? may not be the same?.\(p. 239\) Though such questioning might be easier for those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(readers living with freedoms in the first place, the notion that the personal is the political still has not lost its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(force and it is a plea to which we should all pay attention. Whatever else it does, this book will certainly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alter lives by stimulating some readers into research to answer the questions it raises for them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 421.683 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 391.066 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Price, )] TJ ET BT 135.668 391.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British Society, 1680-1880: Dynamism, Containment and Change)] TJ ET BT 451.652 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge )] TJ ET BT 64.016 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University Press: Cambridge, 1999\), p. 205-33.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 291.668 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 291.668 375.411 m 345.656 375.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 362.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(E. H. Carr, )] TJ ET BT 119.336 362.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(What is History?)] TJ ET BT 200.672 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1961\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 281.996 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 281.996 361.155 m 335.984 361.155 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 348.298 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mary Collier, )] TJ ET BT 132.344 348.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Women?s Labour: an Epistle to Mr. Stephen Duck in Answer to his late Poem, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 334.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(called The Thresher?s Labour)] TJ ET BT 209.684 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1739\), cited in V. Jones, ed., )] TJ ET BT 356.996 334.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Women in the Eighteenth Century: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 319.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Constructions of Femininity)] TJ ET BT 198.692 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Routledge: London, 1990\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 335.684 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 335.684 318.387 m 389.672 318.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 293.525 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 274.543 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 256.763 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 256.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/274)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 255.369 m 322.316 255.369 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 230.392 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 215.992 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2585)] TJ ET BT 34.016 201.592 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 291.6677 375.7255 345.6557 387.6055 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 281.9957 361.4695 335.9837 373.3495 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 17 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 335.6837 318.7015 389.6717 330.5815 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 255.6835 322.3157 267.5635 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/274) >> endobj xref 0 39 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000527 00000 n 0000000623 00000 n 0000005409 00000 n 0000005518 00000 n 0000005628 00000 n 0000005737 00000 n 0000009298 00000 n 0000009426 00000 n 0000009510 00000 n 0000009539 00000 n 0000009667 00000 n 0000009703 00000 n 0000009732 00000 n 0000009860 00000 n 0000009896 00000 n 0000009980 00000 n 0000017806 00000 n 0000017836 00000 n 0000017964 00000 n 0000018000 00000 n 0000018065 00000 n 0000025947 00000 n 0000026012 00000 n 0000033416 00000 n 0000033521 00000 n 0000039791 00000 n 0000039919 00000 n 0000039974 00000 n 0000040102 00000 n 0000040157 00000 n 0000040285 00000 n 0000040340 00000 n 0000040468 00000 n trailer << /Size 39 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 40563 %%EOF