%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 19 0 R 24 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140724102210+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140724102210+01'00') /Title (The Measure of Multitude: Population in Medieval Thought) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4299 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Measure of Multitude: Population in Medieval Thought)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Noonan did not read polyptychs, and Duby did not read these penitentials.' \(p. 185\). In other words - as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Biller was observing in this one of a multitude of pithy asides that enliven )] TJ ET BT 419.660 244.811 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Measure of Multitude)] TJ ET BT 544.652 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the pre-eminent modern historian of contraception apparently did not bother himself too much with the raw )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(materials of Carolingian economic and social history, nor did one of the twentieth century's most prominent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic and social historians spend much time with the texts of early-medieval pastoral precepts. Or, more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broadly still, the intellectual paradigms of modern historians of medieval thought do not usually overlap with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those of modern historians of medieval society, economy, and population, a point with which it is difficult to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argue. And yet Biller's agenda in the most fundamental sense in this book is to redress that divide, and to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(follow \(as he himself acknowledges\) in the recent tradition of historians like Brian Tierney and John )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Baldwin, who seek what might be called a newly contextualized style of the history of medieval thought, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one that aims to re-insert that thought into the context of the real world in which the theologians, canonists, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and natural philosophers of the middle ages actually lived.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 314.312 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 314.312 100.857 m 328.304 100.857 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In his disarmingly autobiographical preface Biller sets out his questions quite simply: did medieval writers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(develop a body of knowledge and ideas that were 'demographic', that correspond in some recognizable way )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(275)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 1 June, 2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Biller)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780198206323)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(40.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(506pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ukcatalogue.oup.com/product/9780198206323.do)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(L. R. 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And if the answer to this first question is 'Yes', )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then to what extent can we imagine that that was the result of a hermetically-sealed thought system, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(conversely\) to what extent was it the product of these writers' observation of the 'real world', and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demographic realities, in which they lived? Part of the problem is semantic: if the very word 'dmographie' is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a nineteenth-century invention \(in much the same way that 'feudalism' was first coined centuries after the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social and legal arrangements it describes had come into being\), then one must be exceptionally careful to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(respect the mental categories that medieval intellectuals actually used, a point that Biller is repeatedly at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pains to emphasize. When Bonaventure lectured on Peter Lombard's )] TJ ET BT 365.444 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sentences)] TJ ET BT 412.760 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in the mid-thirteenth century, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he did not enquire about sex ratios at birth exactly, but did debate with himself the proposition, 'whether )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there would have been an equal multiplication of men and women' \()] TJ ET BT 360.452 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Utrum aequalis fieret multiplicatio )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(virorum et mulierum)] TJ ET BT 133.340 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) \(p. 92\). Or, as Nicholas Oresme glossed Aristotle's )] TJ ET BT 386.792 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Politics)] TJ ET BT 423.464 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in the fourteenth century, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the concept of runaway population growth in relation to resources in particular places - and whether )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governments can or should do something about it - becomes)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And for this purpose, that the people should not multiply so greatly that it does not have enough upon which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to live, it is appropriate to bring moderation and measure into this, according to philosophy and as best as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one can through good laws and ordinances. And in many different ways according to the differences and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diversity of regions and times and the conditions and customs of men. \(p. 318\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And so on, 'multitude' \()] TJ ET BT 146.672 530.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(multitudo)] TJ ET BT 192.680 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) standing roughly for demographers' 'population'. Biller shows beyond any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reasonable doubt \(despite his own extreme caution and an almost rueful afterword in which he wonders )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whether he did manage to do so\) that 'demographic' concepts and modes of thinking did indeed begin to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(permeate the writing of many medieval intellectuals - indeed, not as a unified body of knowledge or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis, not by any means always connected or coherent, but rather as a result of cross-fertilization from a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wide variety of sources and causes that resulted in 'populationist' strands of thinking imbedded into texts that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were often predominantly focused upon other topics.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The development of this thought had a distinctive chronology, and the thirteenth and early fourteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centuries were its crucible. There were many factors that coalesced to stimulate it. Among the most critical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(in this as of course in most other aspects of medieval Western thought\) were the recovery and reception of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Greek and Arabic medicine and natural and moral philosophy, particularly Aristotle and Avicenna \('The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most important development in the intellectual history of Latin Christendom in the central middle ages was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(translation': p. 254\). By 1300 \(as opposed, say, to 1000\) intellectuals had available to them a sophisticated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(body of systematic observations about, for instance, the different lifespans of animals and humans, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individually and in groups, or what influenced the tendency to have male as opposed to female offspring.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Equally important were other things very specific to time and place. The impact of the Mongols, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beginning of attempts to send missions to China, and the dismal prospects for future Crusades, were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interwoven with a kind of nascent population geography: compare and contrast the low population density of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(north-central Asia with the cities of Cathay, speculate \(with fear, envy, or prurience?\) about why Muslims )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seemed to have higher birth rates than Christians and how the Holy Land ought to be re-populated by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(latter. Scholastic minds attempted to bring new clarity to old problems stemming from the Christian sense of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical time: why did the Old Testament reveal such long lifespans and why was polygamy allowed 'then', )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and why are things different 'now'? \(The answer, as Lombard's later commentators elaborated from Patristic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources, was that 'then' - after the Creation and the Flood - the admonition to 'increase and multiply' and to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fill up the numbers of the elect was a precept, but 'now' monogamous marriage is an indulgence and virgins )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(please God.\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Other factors specific to time and place were important, too. One was the newly aggressive stance by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Western Church, after the Fourth Lateran Council \(1215\), toward pastoral duties. These included more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regular and more probing auricular confession by laity, and produced a burgeoning genre of guides and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manuals for confessors and sinners, including searching questions into sexual practices and particularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contraceptive practices. Along with this there came to be something like a 'sociography' of sin - a catalogue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of notions about the particular vices to which particular kinds of people were likely to tend. Biller's handling )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7076 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of this literature and these issues embedded in it is remarkable and compelling, of enormous importance to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social historians; in particular, and following on from previous studies of his which were precursors to this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book,)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 61.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 61.016 766.563 m 75.008 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 75.008 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( he hints at how different regions of Western Europe might, just possibly, have produced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrably different nuances of emphasis in attitudes toward marriage and childbearing. At the same time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a just-recently-developed canon law of marriage, and \(equally importantly\) the development and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regularizing of ecclesiastical legal jurisdiction over laity \(which Biller, not entirely accurately, sometimes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terms 'marriage courts': pp. 69, 164\), resulted in a new practical urgency to the disentanglement of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conundrums surrounding matrimony's purposes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What is most distinctive in Biller's contextualized intellectual history of medieval demographic thought, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, are his always-cautious reminders of another factor distinctive to the thirteenth and early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fourteenth centuries when this thought was developing. That is the rise in population that most of Western )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe was experiencing in exactly that same period, along with its social and economic consequences. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Biller argues the case that the connections were hardly abstract or circumstantial. William of Auvergne was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bishop of Paris from 1228 to 1249; in around 1228 he produced a treatise, )] TJ ET BT 393.644 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(On the sacrament of marriage)] TJ ET BT 538.964 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Not entirely within the mainstream of thirteenth-century writing about matrimony, William's treatise ranged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from contrasts between Christian marriage and family on the one hand to Jewish and especially Muslim )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marriage and family on the other \(and his arguments 'recall the spirit of western fantasizing about Saracens )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and sex': p. 63\), on to speculation about the appropriate size of families for people in different stations in life )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the lower fertility that Parisian prostitutes seemed to exhibit. At more or less the very same time, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William the bishop was having to cope with the consequences of the exploding population of Paris: very real )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequences such as the need to create new parishes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In similar manner - in a kind of coda to the book - Biller looks at a variety of writers from pre-Black Death )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Florence. Near the end of the thirteenth century, the city began a third circuit of walls to encompass its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proliferating inhabitants. Here, unlike the case in the rest of the book, Biller draws from lay voices, most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notably Giovanni Villani and his famous early-fourteenth-century )] TJ ET BT 352.964 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nuova cronica)] TJ ET BT 423.956 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( detailing the city's people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and \(in effect\) its demographic history, and Dante's vision of the city in cantos 15-16 of the )] TJ ET BT 474.776 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Paradiso)] TJ ET BT 518.780 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideal and the corrupt Florence, where)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At that time all who were there, between Mars)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the Baptist [i.e. within the city's boundaries], capable of arms, were but the)] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fifth of the now living ones. \(p. 417\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 296.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Biller's observation: 'What is significant is that some sort of number is penetrating everywhere' \(p. 402\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moreover, here for the first and only time he raises what earlier in the book had been a latent issue: given for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the most part only clerical writers' texts \(as the texts of writers on natural philosophy, theology, canon law )] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and pastoral guidance axiomatically were\), what do we deduce about the scope of their conceptual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(framework beyond the clergy and into the laity? Here, at the last, he allows himself one further speculation: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the flow was not one-way \(clerical to lay\) but bi-directional \(as lay experience provided the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumstantial frame of reference within which, for instance, preachers had to situate themselves to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intelligible\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 170.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Throughout the book, Biller has relatively little to say about what modern demographic historians believe we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 156.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(do or can 'know' about medieval populations; he summarizes some of the available writing briefly, but his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intention is not to dwell upon it. Nonetheless it forms the constant background refrain for the point that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 127.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(realities of world inhabited by his writers cannot be dismissed; circumstantial though it might be, there are, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(if handled subtly, real possibilities of perception in watching the writers grapple with increasing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sophistication with the problems suggested by that world. Though this passage deals specifically with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reception of Aristotle's )] TJ ET BT 146.492 85.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Politics)] TJ ET BT 183.164 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, it can stand as an example of the ever-cautious interrogation Biller brings to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all his sources:)] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 61.0157 766.8775 75.0077 778.7575 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 5154 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When putting the demographic elements in the )] TJ ET BT 261.656 784.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Politics)] TJ ET BT 298.328 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and medieval western reactions to them side by side, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and noting what western thinkers received in the )] TJ ET BT 269.972 770.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Politics)] TJ ET BT 306.644 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and what they added, there are two questions which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are our real concern. What is shown about these men's existing patterns of thought and thus what they were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(already, to some degree, in the habit of thinking? Beyond that is the more elusive matter: what went on in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their minds as their reading of the )] TJ ET BT 198.992 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Politics)] TJ ET BT 235.664 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( came up against those demographic realities of the world in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they lived which were most deeply impressed upon their minds? \(p. 311\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(So, then, the answer to the second question raised above must remain circumstantial and suggestive. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nonetheless, this is a stunning and important book. The sheer weight of the careful exegeses of the sources )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and their evolution is massive; the constant caution about terminology, about the often unpredictable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trajectory of novelty in medieval intellectual evolution, the care given to \(for lack of a better word\) the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditional concerns of the medieval textual scholar, are equally impressive. Biller is also immensely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appealing in his style: witty, even quirky at times, seldom boringly linear, and exemplified by these three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sentences from one paragraph:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The matter now moved to what was, when it met, the largest talking-shop of Latin Christendom. At a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(council which was about to try to depose him, Frederick's name was mud. The buzz made by this session can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(still be picked up in the Burton Annals report. \(pp. 229-30\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In short: an author sometimes seemingly having more fun than is quite fair, but a reader sharing in it, and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book that is too exceptionally important to be read only by intellectual historians.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 471.219 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 440.602 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 440.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Most notably, Brian Tierney, )] TJ ET BT 206.672 440.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Medieval Poor Law: A Sketch of Canonical Theory and Its Application )] TJ ET BT 64.016 426.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(in England )] TJ ET BT 120.020 426.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(University of California Press: Berkeley & Los Angeles, 1959\), and more recently John )] TJ ET BT 64.016 412.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Baldwin, )] TJ ET BT 110.684 412.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Language of Sex: Five Voices from Northern France around 1200)] TJ ET BT 449.984 412.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(University of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 397.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chicago Press: Chicago, 1994\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 215.672 397.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 215.672 396.435 m 269.660 396.435 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 383.578 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 383.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For instance, P.P.A. Biller, 'Marriage patterns and women's lives: a sketch of a pastoral geography', in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 369.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(P.J.P. Goldberg, ed., )] TJ ET BT 165.680 369.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Women is a Worthy Wight: Women in English Society c. 1200-1500)] TJ ET BT 490.640 369.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Sutton: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 355.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stroud, 1992\), pp. 60-107.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 191.012 355.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 191.012 353.667 m 245.000 353.667 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 328.805 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 309.823 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 292.043 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 292.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/275)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 290.649 m 322.316 290.649 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 265.672 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.272 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2588)] TJ ET BT 34.016 236.872 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 215.6717 396.7495 269.6597 408.6295 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 191.0117 353.9815 244.9997 365.8615 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 290.9635 322.3157 302.8435 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/275) >> endobj xref 0 32 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000559 00000 n 0000000648 00000 n 0000004999 00000 n 0000005108 00000 n 0000005218 00000 n 0000005327 00000 n 0000008888 00000 n 0000009016 00000 n 0000009100 00000 n 0000009129 00000 n 0000009257 00000 n 0000009293 00000 n 0000009358 00000 n 0000017033 00000 n 0000017117 00000 n 0000024246 00000 n 0000024276 00000 n 0000024402 00000 n 0000024438 00000 n 0000024536 00000 n 0000029743 00000 n 0000029871 00000 n 0000029926 00000 n 0000030054 00000 n 0000030109 00000 n 0000030237 00000 n trailer << /Size 32 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 30332 %%EOF