%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150525095855+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150525095855+01'00') /Title (Richelieu's Army: War, Government and Society in France, 1624-1642) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4395 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Richelieu's Army: War, Government and Society in France, 1624-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(1642)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cardinal Richelieu famously claimed in his )] TJ ET BT 245.336 237.683 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Testament Politique )] TJ ET BT 344.672 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that)] TJ ET BT 365.672 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('There is no nation on earth so little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suited to war than our own', accusing the French of fickleness and impatience in even the least of tasks. It is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unlikely that Richelieu was being ironic; his observation suggests frustration at the inability of his underlings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to realise his grand schemes, an understandable reaction, perhaps, to the problems that France faced in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years following its entry to the Thirty Years War in 1635. Yet - so the usual story goes - Richelieu need not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have worried; his life's work was about to bear fruit. If at his death in 1642 France's military position still )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gave great cause for concern, the famous triumph over Spain at Rocroi on 19 May 1643 opened a new era, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which commanders like the great Cond and Turenne carried all before them. By 1660, )] TJ ET BT 455.924 137.891 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(la prpondrance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(espagnole)] TJ ET BT 82.676 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was at an end; Louis XIV's )] TJ ET BT 218.480 123.635 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(grand sicle)] TJ ET BT 277.472 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was about to begin.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richelieu's )] TJ ET BT 89.840 97.379 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Testament)] TJ ET BT 139.172 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, like other political testaments of the early modern period, was an artful document )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(designed to secure its author's reputation. Yet its picture of the farsighted statesman laying the foundations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for French greatness has proved remarkably durable. If revisionist historians have done much to undermine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditional views of Richelieu as the father of French absolutism, this has, on the whole, been more the result )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(277)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 30 April, 2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Parrott)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780521792097)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(60.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(626pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.cambridge.org/uk/catalogue/catalogue.asp?isbn=9780521792097)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert I Frost)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7381 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a general assault on the whole concept of absolutism; in the traditionalist world of foreign policy and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military history, much of the Cardinal's reputation as a hard-headed state-builder survives. According to this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(line of reasoning, despite his conviction that France must contest hegemony with its Habsburg enemies, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richelieu wisely kept the country out of the Thirty Years War as long as he could, while preparing its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military forces to face the excellent Habsburg armies. After successfully fighting a covert war by proxy, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defeat of his Swedish ally at Nrdlingen in September 1634 forced Richelieu into open war. If the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fighting went badly for France, this was due to the inexperience of its armies. Nevertheless, his military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reforms had laid good foundations: the French army, once it had found its feet, proved more than a match for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its enemies. If the turning-point came after his death, he was largely responsible for it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This view still dominates textbook accounts, despite the fact that David Parrott, in his doctoral thesis and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(string of important articles, has long been suggesting that it is deeply flawed. With this book, which builds )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impressively on his earlier work, he has produced a dazzling )] TJ ET BT 327.620 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(tour de force)] TJ ET BT 389.612 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( that renders much of the current )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(orthodoxy obsolete and poses fundamental questions about the history not just of seventeenth-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France, but of Europe as a whole. It is set in the context of the long-running debate on the 'Military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revolution'. Unlike so many military historians, however, Parrott has fully grasped that Michael Roberts, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when he launched the debate which revived the reputation of military history as a respectable occupation for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well-adjusted adults, was not concerned with military change as such, but with its impact. Alas, much of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debate has degenerated into recondite squabbles about this or that military innovation, and many of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(works it has spawned stay resolutely bogged down on the battlefield or in the siege-trench. Most authors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have either ignored the wider impact altogether, or have merely stated )] TJ ET BT 373.268 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ex cathedra)] TJ ET BT 429.584 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, like Sir John Hale, that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the link which Roberts saw between technical military developments and social and political change did not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exist, without subjecting the problem to serious analysis.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Parrott does: the heart of his book is a minutely-researched and brilliantly conceived analysis of the army in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its relationship to French society and the French state. It is based on exhaustive research in French archives, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supplemented by Italian archival material that does much to rescue the Italian theatre of war from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obscurity to which so many historians have confined it. Also impressive is the massive basis of secondary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reading: unlike many historians of France, Parrott reads German and is fully conversant with recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revisionist accounts of the Thirty Years War.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(His massive scholarly labours give him the base from which he launches a profound and bold set of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguments. He begins with a masterly analysis of the conduct of warfare in the first half of the seventeenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century which shows that he is perfectly capable of writing excellent battle history even if - as he stresses - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the traditional concentration on battles still distorts much writing on military history. From the outset it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clear that, while he does not deny the rapid pace of military change in the period, Parrott is deeply sceptical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with regard to the 'Military Revolution' thesis, arguing that Roberts's picture of a 'progressive' Dutch and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Swedish tradition opposed to a 'traditional' Habsburg school is fundamentally flawed. Much of this is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(familiar from his previous work, but here it is carried off with a richness of texture and detail which is truly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impressive.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Equally valuable is the overview of France at war from 1624 to 1642 that follows. Here Parrott stresses that, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(far from the visionary statesman preparing for the best moment to intervene in the Thirty Years War, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richelieu was gradually and inexorably drawn into what he had long sought to avoid: a multi-front conflict )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for which France was singularly unprepared. Of particular interest is Parrott's innovative sketch of France's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(limited wars in Italy and Lorraine between 1629 and 1635, which makes very clear the significance of much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of what followed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The main part of the book, however, is an exhaustive dissection of all aspects of the financing, recruitment, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administration and deployment of the French forces between 1624 and 1642. This begins with a detailed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consideration of the most basic of problems: the actual size of the army. Parrott demonstrates conclusively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that French armies of this period were far smaller than is usually suggested. This is important: if Geoffrey )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Parker criticised much of Roberts's version of the 'Military Revolution', he accepted the central contention )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that one of its major results was a massive increase in army size. It was the increasingly large military )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 8817 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(establishments of the seventeenth century which put pressure on states, driving the process of state-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formation. Following Parrott's forensic dissection of the French sources, nobody will be able to rely any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more on Parker's figures on European army size, which turn up everywhere. According to Parrott, even at a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberal estimate, French troops on campaign between 1635 and 1642 numbered no more than 70-80,000 in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(total, far short of previous estimates. He dismisses the possibility that Richelieu maintained the 25,000-plus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(garrison troops which would have been necessary to bring the total army size up to the 100 -120,000 men )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accepted in the supposedly conservative estimates of previous historians.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After a section on paying for war, in which he builds on the excellent work of Richard Bonney, James )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Collins, Daniel Dessert and others, Parrott considers the recruitment and maintenance of the army, its civil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administration, the management of the war-effort by )] TJ ET BT 288.632 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(commissaires)] TJ ET BT 353.960 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 377.288 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(intendants)] TJ ET BT 427.292 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the relationship between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ministry and the high command, concluding with a chapter on the army and the civilian population. As )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he points out, traditional views of France's war-effort are contradictory. On the one hand, we are told that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poor showing in the early years after 1635 was due to a necessary period of adjustment, in which the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government and army command solved the basic problems of control, finance and supply; once this was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achieved, the famous )] TJ ET BT 138.656 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(tournant militaire)] TJ ET BT 224.336 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( took place, symbolised by the great victory at Rocroi. On the other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hand, however, we are also told that Richelieu avoided full-scale involvement in the war before 1635 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(precisely in order to make the preparations that would allow for the more effective deployment of resources )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 110\). In fact, as Parrott shows, France had been far from inactive in military terms between 1624 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1635; the difference thereafter was that, instead of conducting campaigns which, although by no means as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(limited as is frequently suggested, were concentrated on one or two fronts, France had to conduct multi-front )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(campaigns which seriously taxed its administrative and financial resources.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(According to Parrott, Richelieu's government fell woefully short in confronting this task. It entered the war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1635 after a massive miscalculation by the )] TJ ET BT 253.988 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(surintendants des finances)] TJ ET BT 381.320 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, who had converted )] TJ ET BT 481.628 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(droits )] TJ ET BT 512.636 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paper )] TJ ET BT 63.668 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(rentes)] TJ ET BT 92.996 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( on a huge scale, leaving the crown with few cash resources and forcing it to launch a ruinous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cycle of borrowing from private financiers at high rates of interest. Parrott convincingly argues this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrates that, whatever the historians say, the French government on the eve of its famous declaration )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of war on Spain in 1635 did )] TJ ET BT 171.008 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(not)] TJ ET BT 186.344 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( anticipate that it would be drawn into a major European war \(p. 238\). When )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it was, however, far from the military pressures provoking a response in favour of the sort of bureaucratic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and financial pressures which led to the modern state, they forced Richelieu and his successors into a series )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of ad hoc measures which merely exacerbated existing weaknesses within the French system of government: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(venality was expanded, the role of private financiers increased, corruption and creative accounting rose to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unprecedented levels and no less than 75 per cent of contracts with )] TJ ET BT 357.944 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(munitionnaires)] TJ ET BT 430.616 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( were met by assigning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revenues rather than with cash payments. Even at the start of the war, such practices had already ensured that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the )] TJ ET BT 51.680 302.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(taille)] TJ ET BT 76.352 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, assessed at 58 million livres in 1635, only produced 20 million livres in cash. Every military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(setback threw the inappropriately-named Bullion, )] TJ ET BT 275.312 287.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(surintendant des finances)] TJ ET BT 397.976 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, into a panic over the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(willingness of private financiers to advance more credit. Thus the French state mortgaged its future and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entered the vicious circle of debt financing which finally crippled it in the late eighteenth century. France, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unlike other contemporary powers, rejected the system of military contracting and entrepreneurship, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which professional mercenaries raised and led armies, for a more traditional system based on the native )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(noblesse d'pe. )] TJ ET BT 114.896 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thus aristocratic values permeated the officer corps, in which )] TJ ET BT 414.152 216.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(les grands)] TJ ET BT 463.820 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, even when far )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from competent, sought commands suitable to their rank. When the ministry tried to ensure greater )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obedience to its wishes by pairing aristocratic commanders with its own )] TJ ET BT 382.976 187.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(cratures)] TJ ET BT 428.300 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the effect was not what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was intended: since no self-respecting )] TJ ET BT 219.644 173.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(grand)] TJ ET BT 248.312 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( would accept subordination to anybody not their clear superior )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the social hierarchy, a ludicrous system of alternation was established, in which control was swapped back )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and forth between the two commanders on successive days.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thus an over-ambitious war effort, conducted with inadequate mechanisms to secure the mobilisation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France's undoubtedly superior resources, brought the country ultimately to the edge of political collapse in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the )] TJ ET BT 51.680 90.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Frondes)] TJ ET BT 91.676 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( which broke out six years after Richelieu's death. And if historians turn their eyes away from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the odd highpoint such as Rocroi, and view the war effort as a whole, it appears much less effective than is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(usually suggested - general histories always mention Rocroi, but rarely remember Tuttlingen, fought the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7897 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same year, in which the French army of Germany was virtually destroyed. Parrott's refusal to ignore the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lesser fronts is particularly praiseworthy and gives a much more rounded picture of France's war-effort than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is usual elsewhere. In general, far from ever-larger armies roaming the continent, much of the fighting was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actually sustained by forces of about 10 -15,000 men. When the system came under strain, the government )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was forced to prioritise, with some fronts suffering complete collapse: in 1637 the Valtelline army simply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ceased to exist. Armies faced all-but crippling wastage rates, were raised largely on the credit extended by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their noble commanders and were held together only by 'a veneer of discipline and subjection to common )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(objectives, under which individual insubordination and corruption were almost universal' \(p. 286\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moreover, since pay was always in substantial arrears and arrangements for billeting and winter quarters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were inadequate, armies secured their existence through arbitrary levies on the local population or simple )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(banditry.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is a bleak picture. Yet is it entirely convincing? On the whole, it is. Parrott's brilliant analysis of the French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(army in this crucial period confirms much of the revisionist view of French history and, for the first time, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convincingly integrates foreign policy and war into the picture. It also provides an interpretation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richelieu's ministry that explains much about what was to follow. If I have any doubts - and they are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insignificant - they concern Parrott's attitude to the whole question of the 'Military Revolution', for it is here )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the author himself seems to express the odd uncertainty.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite his general scepticism in this regard, Parrott recognises at many points that warfare )] TJ ET BT 475.604 530.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(had)] TJ ET BT 493.604 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( changed, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and with it the demands that it placed on governments. For all his - utterly convincing - assault on those who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exaggerate French army size in this period, he nevertheless in essence accepts Roberts's conclusions, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pointing out with regard to French strategy in 1639, when Louis XIII took direct charge of the siege of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hesdin, which meant that all available resources were poured into one campaign, that this represented a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(return to the strategy of the early sixteenth century: a massive thrust against a single point in the Habsburg )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(system. 'Yet what made good sense in the 1530s or 1550s, )] TJ ET BT 316.484 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(when the total size of armed forces was much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(smaller)] TJ ET BT 70.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(my italics\), was a far less sensible deployment of resources in the 1630s when other campaign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theatres would be neglected only at considerable peril' \(p. 137\). Thus, if Parrott argues that in this period the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French army was much smaller than historians once thought, he accepts that it was still much bigger than it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had been. Moreover, if he denies that there was the great leap in size between 1634 and 1636 postulated by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many historians \(p. 166\), he accepts that even if the figures for the later reign of Louis XIV are inflated, they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are considerably larger than those for the period of Richelieu's ministry. War )] TJ ET BT 405.764 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(had)] TJ ET BT 423.764 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( changed in scale; not least, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as Roberts suggested, through the growing tendency to keep troops under arms over the winter, rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dismissing them at the end of each campaign. This affected France from 1636/7, when considerable efforts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were directed to keeping large parts of the army in winter quarters rather than disbanding them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In essence, Parrott therefore accepts the broad outlines of the developments sketched in by Roberts. He is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(keen, however, to detach them from notions of state-building, arguing that the 'growth in the size of armies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was not necessarily either a product or a cause of administrative and financial developments in the state' \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(549\). Thus he implicitly - and to my mind rightly - dissociates himself from Jeremy Black's attempt to refute )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 'Military Revolution' thesis by claiming that an efficient state organisation was a necessary precondition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for substantial changes in the waging of war. Yet Roberts himself warned that the linkages between state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development and military change were complex, and was wary of attempts to depict 'absolutist' states )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imposing new systems of authority with their newly-efficient armies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is here that Parrott's concentration on Richelieu's army can, at times, be a little frustrating. For the great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cardinal died in 1642, when the Thirty Years War still had six years to run, and the Franco-Spanish war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another seventeen - well over twice the period Richelieu was in charge of the French war-effort - and these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(were)] TJ ET BT 57.344 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( periods where France enjoyed considerable military success. Parrott does have a fair amount to say )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about Mazarin's ministry, but he does not say it with anything like the same level of detail. If he shows )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convincingly that the crucial transformation did not take place under Richelieu, he does suggest at several )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(points that it )] TJ ET BT 97.028 78.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(did)] TJ ET BT 112.364 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( take place under Louis XIV, even if the Sun King was reacting against, rather than building )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upon, Richelieu's work. As he recognises, the coming of peace did not bring the disbanding of the French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(army and Louis XIV embarked on his personal rule with a military force not significantly smaller than that )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 4318 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which Richelieu and Mazarin had sustained in war, paid for by taxes which continued to be extracted at near )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war-time levels \(p. 228\). When this army was next used, in the late 1660s and early 1670s, it swept all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before it \(pp. 78, 554\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This was precisely the sort of transformation to which Roberts was pointing, and it is perhaps a pity that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Parrott does not say a little more on this point. Roberts was, above all, concerned with the emergence of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new military world of permanent armies maintained in peace as well as war, and a new relationship between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these armies and the societies which maintained them. If historians are prepared to jettison the often crude )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and teleological model of state-building which few serious early modernists would now endorse, and forget )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their obsession with the watchwords of 'modernisation', such as bureaucratisation, rationalisation and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(efficiency, then the 'Military Revolution' thesis still has much to offer; indeed Parrott's work suggests - at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(least to this reviewer - that the French experience is in many senses comparable to that of other states. All )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early modern governments struggled to cope with the burden of war. If solutions were found, they were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(solutions which developed within already extant political frameworks; thus the outcomes in Sweden, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Denmark, Prussia, Russia, Austria or Britain were very different, and no one model fits all cases. Each )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(system had to experience a period of crisis, in which the government struggled to cope; in France this was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(precisely the period covered by this book, extended down to the end of the )] TJ ET BT 394.952 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Frondes)] TJ ET BT 434.948 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. The key breakthrough )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was the acceptance by the political and social elites of the burdens, either financial or in terms of service, of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the new military system. Parrott's work suggests that the French nobility did accept the considerable, if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hidden financial burdens of serving as officers in the new-style army, securing recognition of their status in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(return. This bargain was secured by the victories of 1648 and 1659, and the army became permanent. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achievement - within Roberts's timeframe - made possible the victories of Louis XIV's early years. Yet, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Parrott's work makes clear, by entrenching certain aspects of the old system, the peculiarly French solution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the challenges posed by the great increase in the scale of warfare stored up problems for the future. It was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not that the French had no aptitude for war, but rather that they had a peculiar way of organising and paying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for it which frustrated generations of reformers. Perhaps that is what Richelieu meant.)] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 425.599 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 407.819 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 407.819 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/277)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 406.425 m 322.316 406.425 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 381.448 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 367.048 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2595)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 406.7395 322.3157 418.6195 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/277) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000576 00000 n 0000000658 00000 n 0000005105 00000 n 0000005214 00000 n 0000005324 00000 n 0000005433 00000 n 0000008994 00000 n 0000009122 00000 n 0000009206 00000 n 0000009271 00000 n 0000016705 00000 n 0000016770 00000 n 0000025640 00000 n 0000025705 00000 n 0000033655 00000 n 0000033739 00000 n 0000038110 00000 n 0000038238 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 38333 %%EOF