%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140802012838+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140802012838+01'00') /Title (The Affirmative Action Empire: Nations and Nationalism in the Soviet Union, 1923-1939) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4000 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Affirmative Action Empire: Nations and Nationalism in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Soviet Union, 1923-1939)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Weighing in at over five hundred pages, this formidable work of scholarship investigates the fifteen-year )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evolution of the Soviet Union's strategy towards its multi-ethnic jurisdiction from the 'Lenin Constitution' of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1923 through to the consolidation of the 'Stalin Constitution' of 1936. The touchstone of such a complex and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convoluted topic is the principle of what is now termed 'affirmative action': received wisdom holds that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Soviet Union adopted 'korenizatsiia' or 'indigenisation' in the 1920s as "a prophylactic policy designed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defuse and prevent the development of nationalism" \(p. 126\) by simultaneously favouring the minority non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russian nationalities and penalising the majority Russian nation. In the course of the 1930s, however, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(affirmative action was abandoned and then reversed, initially as a 'Great Retreat' and most calamitously in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Great Terror' which reasserted Russian dominance and victimised the previously-privileged non-Russians to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(create a covert 'Russian Empire' legitimised by the meretricious doctrine of the 'Friendship of Peoples'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Following an extended introductory chapter, the main text is divided into three unequal but comparable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sections: Part One, accommodating Chapters 2 to 5, is entitled 'Implementing the Affirmative Action )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Empire' and broadly covers the period from 1923 to 1932; comprising Chapters 6 and 7, Part Two focuses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(278)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 30 April, 2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Terry Martin)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780801486777)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(18.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(528pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cornell University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.cornellpress.cornell.edu/cup_detail.taf?ti_id=3496)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ithaca)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Raymond Pearson)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7293 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the crossroads of the early 1930s under the title 'The Political Crisis of the Affirmative Action Empire'; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and under the heading of 'Revising the Affirmative Action Empire', Chapters 8 to 11 \(constituting Part )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Three\) consider the years 1933 to 1939. Within the overall chronological structure, individual chapters are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generally thematic in approach without departing from an essentially narrative treatment.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Handsomely produced by Cornell University Press, the volume provides extensive references \(which appear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as footnotes on each text-page to facilitate inspection by the conscientious scholar\), some 46 tables )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conveniently integrated into the text, four maps to illustrate geopolitical shifts between 1922 to 1939, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(useful - not to say essential - glossary, a comprehensive and up-to-date bibliography of primary and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secondary sources, and an exhaustive index. Symbolising Martin's overall theme, the book cover )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incorporates a 1935 propaganda photograph of an unctuous Stalin publicising his newly-adopted 'Friendship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Peoples' slogan. Although apparently an unreconstructed version of Martin's doctoral thesis for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of Chicago, making few discernible concessions to accessibility for a non-specialist readership, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Affirmative Action Empire)] TJ ET BT 181.676 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( represents a publisher's model of how to present an unapologetically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(academic treatise.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The professional virtues of the exposition are self-evident. While never ignoring the historiographical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context of secondary sources, )] TJ ET BT 178.976 558.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Affirmative Action Empire)] TJ ET BT 326.636 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is overwhelmingly a product of archive-based )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research. Martin's positively Herculean labours in six historical archives in Moscow and another two in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ukraine have been rewarded with a rich and abundant harvest of hitherto-inaccessible primary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(documentation. To complain that such a detailed investigation of so sensitive a topic by a Westerner was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unthinkable in the Soviet era does not detract from Martin's remarkable achievement: the opportunities for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Western penetration and exploitation of the Soviet archives offered in the post-Soviet 1990s have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seized by Martin with prodigious determination, enterprise and solid graft.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first purpose of the study is to investigate the impact of 'korenizatsiia' over the 1920s and 1930s. What is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immediately striking is the sheer sweep of geopolitical discussion, comparing the application of central )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strategy towards the 'national question' from the western to the eastern extremities of the Soviet Union. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Martin demonstrates how the diverse societal circumstances of nations and nationalities in the more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sophisticated West and the less developed East \(later to be dubbed the 'Soviet Raj'\) meant that 'affirmative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(action' by All-Soviet authority bifurcated, settling for divergent objectives and disparate results across an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('empire' which encompassed extravagant ethnic variety. Recognising that the Soviet Union was far from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being ethnically homogeneous, official national strategy could not be as administratively monolithic or as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politically totalitarian as portrayed in Western historiography.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Martin's second preoccupation is to monitor and expalin the dynamic of change in the operation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('korenizatsiia'. The study suggests that Soviet nationalities policy was more multi-factorial than has been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commonly represented, typically precipitated by a fluctuating combination of internal and external )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(components. Simplistically expressed, Leninist strategy was designed to avoid antagonising the still-potent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(force of separatist nationalism by the intemperate imposition of state socialism, instead opting to handicap )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the instinctive 'chauvinism' of the majority Russian population and foster lasting goodwill among the non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russians by institutionalised 'affirmative action' on their behalf. 'Korenizatsiia' was intended to 'indigenise' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Soviet power through mass recruitment of local non-Russians as cadres within the Communist Party, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extending and deepening Soviet authority within a state-sponsored political climate of respect for non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russian national identity and culture.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But Martin also asserts that a hitherto-undervalued element in determining tactics towards the nationalities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was geopolitical location: non-Russian nations that straddled the Soviet frontier were crucial in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elaboration of overall policy. Following the 'Piedmont Principle', conspicuous benevolence towards nations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within the Soviet Union was intended to furnish supra-national window-dressing to co-nationals outside )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Soviet jurisdiction, simultaneously facilitating future national unification and the expansion of the Soviet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Union. As nationalism was press-ganged into the service of socialism, the interests of non-Russian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalists and the Soviet Union were - for the time being - expected to coincide. As a consequence, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ukraine \(as the largest non-Russian Soviet republic\) was especially generously treated in the 1920s, in the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7093 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(propagandist hope of recommending Soviet-style socialism to the Ukrainian minority of Poland with a view )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to opportunist Soviet encroachment westward.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By the early 1930s, however, both the internal and external rationales for 'positive discrimination' had been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(irremediably undermined. Most non-Russians had their appetities whetted rather than slaked by 'affirmative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(action' while 'korenizatsiia' showed every sign of exacerbating inter-ethnic violence to the point of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(endangering the territorial integrity of the Soviet Union. At the same time, the Russians mightily resented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the institutionalised and artificial 'reverse discrimination', which benefited non-Russians who were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasingly condemned as ungrateful, extortionate and manipulative. Meanwhile, on the western )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(borderlands, front-line Ukraine, Belorussia, Moldavia and Karelia were now considered vulnerable to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Western aggrandisement and the exploitative 'Piedmont Principle' was perceived as backfiring on the Soviet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Union.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The affirmative action of the 1920s was consequently replaced by a security-conscious repression of all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('diaspora nationalities', that is to say ethnic groups within the Soviet Union which could be accused of being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('fifth columns' or 'Trojan horses' for expansionist 'kin-states' across the Soviet border. The 'Great Terror' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undeniably targeted 'diaspora nationalities' \(notably Poles, Finns, Belorussians and Ukrainians\) in operations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which would now be termed 'ethnic cleansing'. But the 'Terror' did not necessarily victimise other ethnic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(groups: nationalities were not harassed for their ethnic distinctiveness but because their geopolitical location )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exposed them to the temptation of defection from the Soviet Union. Martin asserts that available )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(documentation indicates that anti-nationalist purges accounted for no more than one-third of executions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the 'Great Terror' \(p. 338\) and claims that extant evidence suggests that non-diaspora non-Russians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suffered an arrest, exile and execution rate lower than the Russians \(p. 424\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Two ostensibly contradictory points about the transition from the twenties to the thirties are advanced. While )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it is conventional to identify 1928, the year of Stalin's initial assumption of leadership, as the turning-point )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the versatile Leninism of the twenties and the consolidating Stalinism of the thirties, Martin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convincingly proposes the alternative of 1932 - dated specifically to the test-case of Ukrainisation - as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supreme political watershed of the interwar Soviet Union. At the same time, the traditional dichotomy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the twenties and thirties is consciously played down, with the 'unfortunate' labelling of the 1930s as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the era of the 'Great Retreat' from Soviet ideals coming under close and critical scrutiny \(pp. 414-16\). Martin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insists that the element of continuity between the two decades was authoritative and persistent, with 'silent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(korenizatsiia' being effectively "scaled back, although not abandoned" \(p. 27\), a reading which undermines )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the image of reactionary backlash which has dominated Western historiography of the period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are identifiable shortcomings to the study, some of which are patently not the responsibility of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author. As Martin candidly concedes, KGB documentation remains 'largely inaccessible' to researchers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p.387\). With the expanded activities of the OGPU/NKVD so central to the 'Stalin Revolution' and 'Great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Terror' over the 1930s, the current non-availability of the historically-crucial KGB archives inevitably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prevents anything resembling a definitive interpretation, necessarily downgrading the present meticulous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account to the level of an enterprising interim investigation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By its very nature, administrative history is never likely to set the pulse racing and this detailed dissection of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Soviet social-engineering ambition and practice cannot escape a certain hermetic and de-humanising )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(character. In a quite literal sense, the study is essentially characterless, that is to say devoid of personalities. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although Stalin predictably looms large, always the ultimate architect of nationalities policy but often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essentially arbitrating between the initiatives of underlings, no personal dimension emerges: there is plenty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the 'Stalinshchina' but precious little about Stalin himself. Significantly, the protagonists in the ongoing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(saga of Soviet affirmative action were typically Bolshevik second-rankers of the likes of Kaganovich, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Skrypnyk and Postyshev. The almost total non-appearance of first-rankers like Bukharin, Kirov, Trotsky and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Zinoviev is a reminder that, while not automatically a peripheral issue, the nationalities question was still )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only one of a number of interlinked items high on the packed agenda of the interwar Soviet Union.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One particular professional shortcoming of the text can be laid more readily at the author's door. Perverse )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 4954 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though it may seem to criticise a volume of over 500 pages for being too short, the lack of chronological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context in the shape of the pre-1923 and post-1939 settings is regrettable. Too little by way of historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(background, either tsarist or Leninist, is provided. It is surprising, as well as disappointing, to see Richard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pipes's Cold War classic )] TJ ET BT 154.832 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Formation of the Soviet Union: Communism and Nationalism, 1917-1924)] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Harvard University Press; Cambridge, MA, 1964\) and especially Jeremy Smith's post-Cold War study )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Bolsheviks and the National Question, 1917-1923)] TJ ET BT 294.344 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Macmillan in association with the School of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Slavonic and East European Studies; Basingstoke, 1999\) cited in the bibliography but not even mentioned, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(still less discussed, in the body of the work. Similarly, while it would seem that the Second World War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reinforced rather than retarded interwar trends, no significant attempt is made to do more than hint at their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact on the short-term \(1939-41 and 1941-45\), medium-term \(1939-53\) or long-term \(1939-91\) career of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Soviet Union.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Over ten years after the end of the Cold War, Western revisionist history of the defunct Soviet Union is still )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gathering pace, fuelled both by a greater historical objectivity and the growing availability of primary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(documentation. Martin has demonstrated in )] TJ ET BT 245.996 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Affirmative Action Empire)] TJ ET BT 393.656 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( an admirable open-mindedness )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towards the tortuous and traumatic development of the Soviet Union, and presented outstanding credentials )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as what Stalin once ominously described as an 'archive rat'. While Martin's reputation as a 'super-rat' is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(already assured, there are still more questions than answers about the career of the Soviet Union, certainly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the largest and probably the most controversial country in the twentieth-century world. If and when the KGB )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archives are ever mined, admitting the tantalising possibility of retrospectively resolving the bewildering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paradoxes of the Soviet era, it is to Martin that we must surely look for magisterial re-interpretation and re-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evaluation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Foreign Affairs)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/57935/robert-legvold/the-affirmative-action-empire-nations-and-)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 443.187 m 533.912 443.187 l S BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalism-in-the-sov)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 428.931 m 142.676 428.931 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 145.676 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Political Review)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.politicalreviewnet.com/polrev/reviews/NANA/R_1354_5078_80_20300.asp)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 400.419 m 458.984 400.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 461.984 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 397.087 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 379.307 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 379.307 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/278)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 377.913 m 322.316 377.913 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 352.936 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 338.536 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2598)] TJ ET BT 34.016 324.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/57935/robert-legvold/the-affirmative-action-empire-nations-and-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 309.880 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalism-in-the-sov)] TJ ET BT 34.016 295.480 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.politicalreviewnet.com/polrev/reviews/NANA/R_1354_5078_80_20300.asp)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 443.5015 533.9117 455.3815 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/57935/robert-legvold/the-affirmative-action-empire-nations-and-nationalism-in-the-sov) >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 429.2455 142.6757 441.1255 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/57935/robert-legvold/the-affirmative-action-empire-nations-and-nationalism-in-the-sov) >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 400.7335 458.9837 412.6135 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.politicalreviewnet.com/polrev/reviews/NANA/R_1354_5078_80_20300.asp) >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 378.2275 322.3157 390.1075 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/278) >> endobj xref 0 28 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000588 00000 n 0000000670 00000 n 0000004722 00000 n 0000004831 00000 n 0000004941 00000 n 0000005050 00000 n 0000008611 00000 n 0000008739 00000 n 0000008823 00000 n 0000008888 00000 n 0000016234 00000 n 0000016299 00000 n 0000023445 00000 n 0000023550 00000 n 0000028557 00000 n 0000028684 00000 n 0000028860 00000 n 0000028987 00000 n 0000029163 00000 n 0000029290 00000 n 0000029420 00000 n 0000029548 00000 n trailer << /Size 28 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 29643 %%EOF