%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 13 0 R 15 0 R ] /Count 3 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 17 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 10 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150901110957+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150901110957+01'00') /Title (Response to Review no. 278) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 11 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 6206 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 635.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 609.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Terry Martin2009-11-21T12:12:31+00:00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 595.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I am grateful to Professor Pearson for his admirably lucid re-statement of my book's major arguments, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 581.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well as his kind words about its contribution to our understanding of the Soviet Union. I see that we are soul )] TJ ET BT 34.016 566.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mates in our high regard for the footnote and our regret that almost all academic publishers now insist on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 552.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spoiling their books with endnotes. I am pleased that Pearson has publicly commended Cornell University )] TJ ET BT 34.016 538.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Press for giving their author the necessary space and academic apparatus to address a very large and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 524.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important topic in a comprehensive manner, and am happy to express here my own gratitude as well.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 497.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I will proceed by first briefly alerting the reader to a few of the book's themes and arguments that Pearson )] TJ ET BT 34.016 483.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lacked space to mention, and then by addressing his query about the place of my story in the broader context )] TJ ET BT 34.016 469.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Tsarist/Soviet history. One of the great benefits of access to Soviet archives was the possibility to analyze )] TJ ET BT 34.016 455.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patterns of ethnic conflict, which turned out to have been quite severe throughout the 1920s and into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 440.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early 1930s. Interestingly, a radical Soviet policy designed to lessen ethnic conflict - namely, the creation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 426.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thousands of small national territories down to the district, village soviet, and even individual collective farm )] TJ ET BT 34.016 412.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(level - actually exacerbated it considerably. As national territories became smaller and smaller, the threat of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 398.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(becoming a national minority in one of them became more and more threatening, leading to further ethnic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 383.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mobilization and conflict. I also found that ethnic conflict was most severe - in right-bank and southern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 369.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ukraine, the Kuban, Bashkiria, Kirgizia, and above all, Kazakhstan - where such territorial conflict )] TJ ET BT 34.016 355.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(combined with conflict over land and historical estate or )] TJ ET BT 307.640 355.355 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(soslovie)] TJ ET BT 346.304 355.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( divisions \(an important instance of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 341.099 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence of the Tsarist heritage\). By making the possession of land worthless, collectivization actually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 326.843 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reduced ethnic conflict, a fact of considerable relevance for understanding the relative lack of rural ethnic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 312.587 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflict in the recent Soviet collapse.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 286.331 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I also present a new argument concerning the vexing question of the role of the Ukrainian national question )] TJ ET BT 34.016 272.075 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the mass famine of 1932-33, making use of a large quantity of elite, decision-making sources in Kyiv and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 257.819 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moscow, including the recently declassified personal archive of Joseph Stalin. As many readers will know, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 243.563 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some interpret the famine as a planned genocidal act directed against the Ukrainian people, while others )] TJ ET BT 34.016 229.307 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counter that it had absolutely nothing to do with nationality, but instead targeted peasants in the country's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 215.051 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(major grain-growing regions. Both positions rely on real facts but grossly exaggerate their significance and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 200.795 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ignore sources gathered by the other side. I argue, as do almost all serious scholars, that the famine was not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 186.539 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intentional genocide, but the result of a reckless collectivization and dekulakization policy and an even more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 172.283 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reckless exporting of grain in 1930-31 to acquire hard currency, combined with a mediocre harvest. Once a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 158.027 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(famine crisis had emerged in the summer of 1932, a strategic decision was taken to concentrate the famine in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 143.771 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Soviet Union's grain-growing regions in order to be able to minimally feed the politically crucial army )] TJ ET BT 34.016 129.515 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and urban populations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 103.259 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I depart from this fundamentally correct 'peasantist' interpretation, however, by demonstrating that )] TJ ET BT 509.588 103.259 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Stalin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 89.003 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(personally)] TJ ET BT 84.680 89.003 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(and, I would add, falsely\) interpreted greater peasant resistance to state grain requisitions in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 74.747 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ukraine and the Ukrainized North Caucasus region of Kuban as being caused by Ukrainian nationalism, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 60.491 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aided and abetted by Petliurite forces in Pilsudski's Poland and acting underground in Ukraine. On 11 )] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 12 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 14 0 R >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Length 7622 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(August 1932, Stalin wrote to Kaganovich confidentially: "If we don't make an effort now to improve the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(situation in Ukraine, we may lose Ukraine. Keep in mind that Pilsudski is not daydreaming, and his agents in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ukraine are many times stronger than [the Ukrainian Communist leadership] thinks. Keep in mind that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ukrainian Communist party includes not a few \(yes, not a few!\) rotten elements, conscious and non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conscious Petliurites, as well as direct agents of Pilsudski. [Without major reforms], I repeat - we can lose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ukraine."\(p. 298\) These reforms would include a year-and-a-half-long wave of terror against Ukrainian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectuals and Galician migrs, and a substantial scaling back of the policy of Ukrainization. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ukrainian question, then, was not a cause of the famine, but it did quite quickly become a major factor in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics surrounding the famine crisis, and ultimately triggered a fundamental revision of the Soviet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalities policy. I hope \(undoubtedly naively!\) that this interpretation will resolve the increasingly sterile )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debate between the 'peasantist' and 'Ukrainian' interpretations of the famine.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Before turning to the relevance of my findings for the long-term fate of the Soviet Union, let me briefly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(address two small points. Although I did \(and do\) regret that I was unable to work in KGB archives for this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book \(not so much to study the terror, but for their surveillance reports on the popular mood\), I have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subsequently worked in several former KGB archives and no longer feel that the documentation there will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fundamentally change our understanding of Soviet social history. Rather, I think future progress will come )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through detailed local studies based on regional archives, many of which are already beginning to appear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(for instance, recent books by Matt Payne on Kazakhstan, Hiroaki Kuromiya on the Donbas, Amir Weiner )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on Vinnytsa, and forthcoming books by Jrg Baberowski on Azerbaijan, Douglas Northrop on Uzbekistan, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Adrienne Edgar on Turkmenistan, Kate Brown on right-bank Ukraine, Nick Baron on Karelia, and Michaela )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pohl on Kazakhstan\). Second, Professor Pearson made a minor mis-statement in his description of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national operations of the 'Great Terror', which indeed did target Poles and Finns \(among others\) as 'diaspora )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalities', but not Ukrainians and Belorussians, who were categorized as indigenous nationalities. I only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cited some evidence suggesting that they )] TJ ET BT 233.324 456.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(might)] TJ ET BT 260.660 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( have suffered disproportionately due to being located on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sensitive western border and due to a significant Roman Catholic population in those border regions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author of a large book on a broad theme can only be gladdened when the primary criticism of a reviewer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is that he did not extend the book's chronological scope. Nevertheless, I feel Professor Pearson is perfectly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correct to raise this issue and I did, at various times, consider adding a brief account of Tsarist policy in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduction and a conclusion dealing with longer-term trends, including the collapse of the Soviet Union. I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did not do so partially out of respect for the complexity of these issues and my dislike of superficial, potted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical summaries. However, with respect to the period before 1923, the reason was much more my )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preference to use my introduction to frame the study in terms of the global, world-historical problem that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bolsheviks were attempting to resolve - how to govern a multi-ethnic state in a centralized fashion in the age )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of nationalism - and the novel solution they attempted: what I call the 'Affirmative Action Empire', the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conscious promotion of national territories, elites, languages and identities \(even where these barely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existed!\) as a prophylactic strategy for defusing the emergence of separatist nationalism and the subjective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perception among non-Russians that they were living in a Russian empire. This was the first and most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(radical response to the crisis of the multi-ethnic state created by the collapse of the Habsburg, Ottoman and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Romanov empires, and I believe that the novel Soviet experiment in addressing this crisis should be better )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(known by students of nationalism, empire, affirmative action and contemporary multi-ethnic states \(the book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is published in a comparative, multidisciplinary series on politics, history and culture\). For this reason, I did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not deal extensively in my introduction with the Bolshevik re-conquest of the Tsarist borderlands or their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fascinating improvisational policy decisions during the Civil War, topics admirably dealt with by Richard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pipes and Jeremy Smith, both of whom I in fact do cite in my introduction as authoritative \(see notes 2, 3, 9, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(29, 44\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With respect to the long-run significance of the policy evolution that occurred from 1933 to 1939 \(described )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in chapters 8-11\), I agree with Pearson that the revised policy did largely structure Soviet nationalities policy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through to the Gorbachev reforms. The two most important changes were the conquest of the Baltics, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(western Ukraine, western Belorussia, and Moldova which, as Roman Szporluk has long argued, foolishly re-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(created in a new form the Tsarist regime's Polish problem: that is, the problem of ruling peoples with a more )] TJ ET endstream endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 18 0 R ] /Contents 16 0 R >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Length 5887 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developed sense of nationality \(for whom Soviet affirmative action offered nothing\) and a comparable or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(greater economic potential \(for whom developmentalist socialism offered nothing\). Second, the end of mass )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terror and Brezhnev's doctrine of 'stablility of cadres' allowed indigenous first Party secretaries in the eight )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(southern republics of Central Asia and Transcaucasus - and to a lesser extent in the six western republics - to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practise a kind of ')] TJ ET BT 122.156 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(korenizatsiia)] TJ ET BT 184.160 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( from below', creating indigenous, neo-traditional patron-client networks that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(came to control republican politics and, in most cases, easily assumed leadership after the collapse in 1991.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However the key contradiction, I would argue, was already in place in 1939. The original 'Affirmative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Action Empire' strategy was specifically designed to prevent the emergence among the non-Russians of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subjective perception that they were living in a Russian-dominated empire, for Lenin and Stalin correctly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understood that in the age of nationalism, the subjective perception of empire meant the belief that the state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would eventually collapse along national lines. To that end, they implemented the twin policies of non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russian nation-building and the downplaying of the Russian nationality, so that their centralizing policies, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which otherwise might provoke nationalist resistance, would be perceived as Soviet and not as Russian. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After 1933, the first policy was preserved in a scaled-back form, but the second was reversed and Russians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were celebrated as, in effect, the state-bearing people of the Soviet Union. As a result, not only could overtly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discriminatory actions such as the national operations of the Great Terror and the national deportations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during World War II, but also more ambiguous events as the famine in Ukraine, collectivization in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Baltics, denomadization in Kazakhstan, or even the censoring of a national author, all be interpreted as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actions of a Russian empire. Prior to )] TJ ET BT 212.000 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(glasnost')] TJ ET BT 254.576 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, such perceptions were mostly confined to migrs and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dissidents, but after 1986 they spread with stunning rapidity and quite quickly undermined the legitimacy of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not just the Communist Party but the multiethnic Soviet state as well.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nor were the Russians fully content with their national status as elder brothers. After 1933, Russians were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lauded as the most Soviet nation, encouraged to view the whole Soviet Union as their homeland, not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(required to learn 'national minority' languages, but Stalin's policy \(and this was very much Stalin's policy, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not Lenin's\) of denying the Russian nationality any institutional base was very much continued. There was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no Russian Communist Party, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russian flag, and so forth. There was only a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(multiethnic All-Russian \()] TJ ET BT 156.020 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(rossiiskii)] TJ ET BT 199.364 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( not )] TJ ET BT 220.700 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(russkii)] TJ ET BT 252.704 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) Soviet Federated Socialist Republic \(and Stalin had even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vehemently opposed Lenin's creation of a separate RSFSR exactly on the grounds that it would create an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutional base for Russian separatism; in other words, one must admit that Stalin did foresee the danger of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a Yeltsin\). From all evidence, save a small nationalist dissident coterie, Russians were perfectly content with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this status \(and many are now nostalgic about it\). However, with )] TJ ET BT 346.976 344.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(glasnost')] TJ ET BT 389.552 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and the torrent of abuse directed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at Russian imperialism, particularly from the western republics, a brief moment emerged when the 'burden )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of empire' argument seemed persuasive to enough of the Russian elite to allow Yeltsin to use the RSFSR to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(destroy the Soviet Union.)] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 285.295 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 267.515 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 267.515 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/278/response)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 266.121 m 367.640 266.121 l S endstream endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 266.4355 367.6397 278.3155 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/278/response) >> endobj xref 0 20 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000335 00000 n 0000000372 00000 n 0000000522 00000 n 0000000604 00000 n 0000006862 00000 n 0000006971 00000 n 0000007081 00000 n 0000010642 00000 n 0000010770 00000 n 0000010854 00000 n 0000010919 00000 n 0000018594 00000 n 0000018678 00000 n 0000024618 00000 n 0000024727 00000 n 0000024855 00000 n trailer << /Size 20 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 24959 %%EOF