%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140721225304+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140721225304+01'00') /Title (Revolution, Counter-Revolution and Union. Ireland in the 1790s) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4175 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Revolution, Counter-Revolution and Union. Ireland in the 1790s)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Irish rebellion of 1798 and, more particularly, the act of Union two years later, were significant events )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in British as well as Irish history and yet their bi-centenaries passed almost without notice in mainland )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain. In Ireland and the Irish diaspora, on the other hand, the number of exhibitions, conferences and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publications was sufficient, if all had been absorbed, to have caused mental indigestion.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This volume consists of twelve essays, eleven of which are based on papers delivered at a conference on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rebellion held at the University of Notre Dame in 1998, the twelfth being a sparkling introduction by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(editor. Their subject matter varies considerably, ranging from changes in the content of popular melodies to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(payments to 'suffering loyalists', but read together they all contribute to our knowledge and understanding of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the causes and consequences of the rebellion and the Union, and therefore justify the all-embracing title. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is particularly so in the case of causes of the rebellion. In his sparkling introduction, Jim Smyth outlines )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(four principal historiographical contexts in which eighteenth-century Ireland has been set - the suppressed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholic 'nation', an improving Anglo-Irish hegemony wrecked by the impact of French revolutionary ideas, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the )] TJ ET BT 51.680 75.995 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ancien regime)] TJ ET BT 119.996 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( state, and a colonial dependency - but, finding that none of them provide an entirely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(satisfactory explanation of the rebellion, places the emphasis for its cause on growing politicisation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(279)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 30 June, 2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jim Smyth)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780521661096)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(64.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(257pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.cambridge.org/uk/catalogue/catalogue.asp?isbn=9780521661096)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Jupp)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7724 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(following the 'transformation' of the economy after 1760. This is a theme that a number of the contributors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explore in the 1790s and beyond. Daniel Gahan examines Wexford and south Wicklow in 1798 and tackles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one of the key historiographical debates of the moment: how much the rebels of that area were motivated by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political idealism and how much by sectarian hostility. He concludes that that the pattern of Protestant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(landownership and leasing policy, particularly in the north of the area where Protestant middlemen were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paramount, was a factor in generating rebel activity and giving it a sectarian edge but that French-style )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolutionary ideals also played a part. Mary Helen Thuente considers four United Irish prose satires )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published in Belfast, 1793-96, and suggests that these helped to undermine the authorities and mobilise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public opinion. Fintan Cullen examines the 1790s portraits of Lords Fitzgibbon and Edward Fitzgerald and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomas Robinson's contemporary picture of the battle of Ballynahinch, and proposes that these provided a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(visualisation of ascendancy, republicanism and loyalism, which by implication also helped sharpen political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(awareness, especially as it is claimed that Hamilton's portrait and Horace Hone's miniatures of Fitzgerald )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were "the first official appropriation of the colour green as emblematic of the national cause" \(p. 181\). The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1790s also had a role to play in music, with the Irish Parliament's rejection of a proposal to develop the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Arigna ironworks in Kilronan, County Roscommon, playing a part in drawing its owner, Charles O'Connor, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the United movement and coincidentally linking the memory of the harper, Turlough O'Carolan, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the United Irish cause. The upshot, in a story unravelled carefully by Luke Gibbons, was a radical theme )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being added to the "old Celtic notes of melancholia" \(p. 237\) in the nationalist popular music of the 1840s.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The impact of the 1790s on politicisation and political ideas is also tackled in two other essays. In a subtle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essay, 'The politics of crisis and rebellion, 1792-1798', Louis Cullen suggests that the British government's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irish 'policy' was at its most inept in the 1790s and that it was this that stimulated the growth of a 'liberal' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alliance of whigs, radicals and republicans which, if left to its own devices, might have made the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concessions to Catholics that could have created a stable and enduring political system. More directly, and in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a separate essay, the editor surveys the widespread debate on the union conducted in the press, in pamphlets )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and at public meetings. This leads him to the conclusion that contrary to the views of unspecified )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Namierites, 'public opinion' was of account and that the 1790s had indeed "witnessed unprecedented levels )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of popular politicisation in Irish society" \(p. 158\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although there are points of detail in each of these particular essays over which l might take issue, there is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no doubting that each of them provides useful information and insights on the politicisation theme. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moreover, when considered together, they suggest where there are significant gaps in our knowledge. In the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(case of the essays on prose satires and portraiture and history painting, the significance of what happened in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1790s could be better assessed if we knew more about their history beforehand. In the case of the satires, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for example, one of them - the 'Chinese Journal' - assumes some acquaintance with Goldsmith's )] TJ ET BT 495.764 316.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Citizen of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the World)] TJ ET BT 81.680 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and more generally, a knowledge of foreign courts and international diplomacy. Leaving aside the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literary allusions, foreign news had been prominent on the front page of the )] TJ ET BT 399.284 287.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Belfast News Letter)] TJ ET BT 493.292 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( since its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foundation in the 1730s and we might assume that the satire's author was addressing his material to readers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of such a newspaper. But how many other Irish newspapers gave such prominence to foreign news and by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whom were they read? Similarly, Fintan Cullen makes a number of points about portraiture and history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(painting that merit greater contextualisation. For example, that the draped column behind Hamilton's portrait )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Fitzgibbon symbolises "steadfastness" \(as opposed to classical learning; p. 176\); that an advertisement of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robinson's 'Battle of Ballynahinch' as "a faithful representation" of events \(p. 187\) should be taken as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(painter's opinion \(as opposed to attempting to attract viewers\); and that Madden included engraved portraits )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in his 1840s history of the United Irishmen "to increase the emotional impact of his study" \(as opposed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(giving readers an impression of what his subjects looked like; p. 163\). Cullen also raises the question \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(178-9\) of who was the instigator of engraved versions of portraits in the late eighteenth century - the subject )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or the engraver - and less directly, of how popular that genre was earlier. A catalogue of one London print )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shop for 1775 \(Sayer and Bennett's\) lists hundreds of engraved portraits of royals, politicians and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entertainers for sale at prices ranging from 3d upwards. It seems very unlikely that these or their equivalents )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were not also available in Dublin and elsewhere in Ireland and it would be interesting to know what stylistic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and commercial conventions had evolved.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7593 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A fuller context would also help in two other essays. In the case of Gahan's study of the Wexford rebellion, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there are several references to the rebels being influenced by the ideals of the French revolution and by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paine's )] TJ ET BT 70.508 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rights of Man. )] TJ ET BT 144.512 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite the fact that evidence for this appears to be thin, the question arises of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whether the rebels of 1798 had reflected on what had happened in France since 1789. As Gahan makes clear, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some rebels were Protestants and some were men of property. It therefore seems likely that they would have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(read of what had happened in Belgium, Holland, the Rhineland and in Italy and of the growing resistance to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French rule by 1798. Can we therefore assume that the ideals of the French Revolution were still )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unquestioned? The same general point applies to the editor's essay on the Union and public opinion. Here it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would be interesting to know the answers to such questions as: what proportion of the literature of various )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kinds that was published in Ireland at this time was not about the Union? How many Irish newspapers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existed in 1799-1800 and what was their readership? How many British and foreign newspapers were in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circulation? And how many county and civic meetings took place on other issues? Further, and more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generally, we need to know much more about popular Protestant opinion - particularly in the north but also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the south. Most of these particular essays focus on the proponents of republicanism and reform who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sought independence or a measure of independence from Britain. What we lack at the moment, as the editor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recognises, is a full understanding of popular loyalism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This raises the issue of the resistance to the rebellion and the countering of its after-effects. Three of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essays deal with this topic and very effectively too. In one of these Nancy J. Curtin examines the reaction of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the magistracy in Ulster, 1795-98, and argues convincingly that a number of factors - the high rate of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(absenteeism amongst the propertied elite, the small number of effective magistrates that represented that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elite, and the high-ish proportion of clerical magistrates - made it impossible for the elite as a whole, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(magistracy in particular, to carry out their traditional paternalistic and mediating roles. This, she suggests, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(played a part in convincing the British government that a Union was desirable and also helped to politicise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the province. This raises the question of what happened to the magistracy in Ulster, and perhaps, elsewhere. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A possible answer lies in one of the two other essays, both of which examine Cornwallis's policy of dealing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the aftermath and, in particular, the captured rebels and those who were their victims - the 'suffering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(loyalists'. In the case of the first, Michael Durey shows very clearly how Cornwallis pursued a policy of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("measured severity" \(to use Tom Bartlett's term; p. 107\) by mitigating a proportion of the sentences of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capital punishment to transportation or forcible enlistment into the British army in the West Indies and even, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for diplomatic reasons, into the Prussian army. This, he argues, was a "sensible" policy from the point of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(view of Irish politics, given that he was dealing with genuine political subversives, but perhaps not so much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the point of view of Britain's interests abroad, given that the "Irish revolutionary contagion" was spread )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("throughout the world" \(p. 129\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The other, by Tom Bartlett, does raise the question of the magistracy. The focus of his splendidly composed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essay is the contrast between Cornwallis's 'leniency' and the demand by loyalists for retribution. How was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the latter contained? An important part of the answer, Bartlett suggests, was that by 1805, more than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(600,000 had been distributed amongst 6,630 claims from 'suffering loyalists'. This must have helped to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconcile some loyalists to the policy of leniency and to the Union - although to press this case too far might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggest, falsely, that loyalism was motivated solely by financial considerations. Further, although the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government provided the money, the claims were assessed and dealt with largely by the magistrates in what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appears to have been an efficient and effective manner. Here, perhaps, is an answer to the question raised by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Curtin's essay. In 1798 the Ulster magistracy had been found wanting but in the immediate aftermath they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seem to have found a role in assessing compensation on a very substantial scale. Admittedly, it is unlikely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that this would have appealed to rebels and their sympathisers but it surely did to others in Ulster and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps elsewhere. At the very least, Curtin's and Bartlett's research suggests that an examination of the role )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the magistracy in the aftermath of the rebellion might yield some interesting results.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are two other essays to be considered. Tommy Graham tackles the question of why the leadership of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the United Irish movement shifted from Belfast to Dublin, 1796-98, and proposes that the answer lies in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incapacity of the Belfast leaders and the comparatively sparse troop levels in the Dublin area. He also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides some useful information on the Dublin membership. The other essay, by David Miller, is in several )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7567 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ways the most challenging of all, for it confronts directly the question of whether the events of the 1790s led )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to a revolution - by which he means, "a fundamental and lasting redistribution of power in the political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(system" \(p. 210\). He concludes that they did and that this was brought about by the enfranchisement of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholics on the same terms as Protestants in 1793, and by the enforced Union which abolished 'the borough )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(system' - the bastion of a Protestant ascendancy - and diluted the influence of the Irish landed class by their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(absorption into the United Parliament. He then considers whether this revolution had any impact on the three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(principal religious communities and concludes that it did, but only in the case of the proselytising )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undertaken by the Church of Ireland in the 1830s, which he construes as "a defensive institutional strategy" )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 207\). In short the '98 was not a failed rising but a component of a partially successful revolution.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although Miller is careful to refer to his revolution as one with a small 'r', the thesis is open to question. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irish landed class had never been masters in their own house and it is doubtful that more than a small )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(minority wanted to be. All the Union did was to diminish its share of responsibility. Second, in the case of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the political system, it is important to note that the Union did not abolish all close boroughs and, more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importantly, that the influence of property over numbers was restored in 1829 and confirmed in 1832. Third, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it is also important to note that the British government and the Westminster Parliament did not attempt to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treat Ireland as part of a unitary state. The Lord Lieutenancy was retained with full reserves of patronage at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his disposal along with the Dublin Castle administration. It was not until the war had finished that financial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and revenue matters were brought under the control of Whitehall departments of State, leaving the Castle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the local authorities still responsible for law, order, education and welfare. Further, Ireland continued to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be legislated for as a separate, as opposed to an incorporated, kingdom. The proportion of United Kingdom )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legislation does increase but there was still separate Irish legislation in the 1840s. For this and other reasons, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his case seems overstated.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, there is the question of the more general context in which these events might be set. In his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduction, the editor contrasts Irish separatism with Scottish unionism and British loyalism which, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(says, sustained "ruling class hegemony" \(p. 13\); and in the course of outlining a European context, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subscribes to the view that the French revolution was a catalyst for the various forms that radicalism took in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland. In addition, all these essays left me with the impression that eighteenth-century Ireland and Britain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were totally distinct with little in common between them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With regard to Smyth's contextualisation, there are some points that may be worth considering. His )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(description of the British state as in the hands of a "ruling class hegemony" seems to ignore the work of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of scholars such as Langford who have argued for a much more plutocratic and participatory form of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government than that term suggests. \(In this regard, the recent emphasis on the importance of local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government in Britain might repay consideration as far as Ireland is concerned.\) Further, the work of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cookson and others has raised questions about the both Scottish unionism and British loyalism and has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(begun to unpack Colley's all-embracing thesis about cultural state formation. There is now some doubt about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whether large numbers of Scots were happy to see themselves as 'North Britons' and a plausible case has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been made that rather than developing a sense of Britishness, their war effort strengthened the view that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scotland had become a more equal 'sister Kingdom'. Further, distinctions now have to be drawn between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(loyalism of the early 1790s and the 'national defence patriotism' of the later 1790s and early 1800s while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there seems little doubt that neither extinguished popular radicalism. Loyalism, patriotism and radicalism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could and did coexist. Perhaps this was the case in Ireland too.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As for the European context, many of the essays, including the editor's, assume it to be provided by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French Revolution of 1789, which acted as a catalyst to reformist and radical thinking in Ireland. This seems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(too limited a view. As we know, the French Revolution was a lengthy process with various stages. We also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(know that the rebellion took place in Ireland just at the time when the revolutionary ideals of 1789 and 1791 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were being re-thought in the interests of the management of )] TJ ET BT 323.960 106.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(la grande nation)] TJ ET BT 403.964 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in France, management which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had given the French government and bureaucracy considerable experience of collaborators and resisters. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Here, perhaps, is a broader context into which Irish events may be set. If so, several interesting questions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(come to mind. What impact did the development of the French Revolution in France have upon Irish public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opinion? How did Irish reformers and radicals react to the French subjugation and exploitation of other )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 24 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 2034 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(states? What was the reaction in Ireland to Napoleon's view that empire was a force for progress? What )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(similarities and differences are there between those who collaborated with, or resisted French government in, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(say Italy, and those who did the same in Ireland for or against Britain - particularly on the question of Union?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As for the differences between Ireland and Britain, l remain to be convinced that they were as great as are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implied here. Trade, travel, migration, enlistment in the army and navy, the consumer revolution - all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggest greater and greater ties. Perhaps it is time that these are given as much attention as the origins of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(History Ireland)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.historyireland.com/volumes/volume9/issue2/reviews/)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 642.771 m 348.680 642.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 351.680 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 639.439 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 621.659 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 621.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/279)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 620.265 m 322.316 620.265 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 595.288 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 580.888 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2601)] TJ ET BT 34.016 566.488 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.historyireland.com/volumes/volume9/issue2/reviews/?id=113557)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 643.0855 348.6797 654.9655 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.historyireland.com/volumes/volume9/issue2/reviews/?id=113557) >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 620.5795 322.3157 632.4595 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/279) >> endobj xref 0 26 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000572 00000 n 0000000654 00000 n 0000004881 00000 n 0000004990 00000 n 0000005100 00000 n 0000005209 00000 n 0000008770 00000 n 0000008898 00000 n 0000008982 00000 n 0000009047 00000 n 0000016824 00000 n 0000016889 00000 n 0000024535 00000 n 0000024600 00000 n 0000032220 00000 n 0000032311 00000 n 0000034398 00000 n 0000034525 00000 n 0000034648 00000 n 0000034776 00000 n trailer << /Size 26 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 34871 %%EOF