%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 27 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140827004020+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140827004020+01'00') /Title (The Crusades: The Essential Readings) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4015 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Crusades: The Essential Readings)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This collection is a new addition to Blackwell?s 'Essential Readings in History' series, which reprints )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important academic articles on historical topics. The books in the series are useful acquisitions for academic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(libraries, as they take the pressure off over-used journals, but, more importantly, they also make the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarship and advances contained in the articles available to a readership that may not have access to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(university libraries or obscure journals, and so allows a wider public access to the process of debate and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reformulation. The series is also useful for researchers, since the inclusion of an index allows themes, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individuals and events to be traced across all the contributions. Unlike Ashgate?s excellent Variorum )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Collected Studies' series, however, the original pagination is not retained.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The editor of this volume on the crusades, Thomas F. Madden, has picked out some of the plums from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crusade scholarship of the last 35 years. Not surprisingly, Jonathan Riley-Smith looms large, contributing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two of the twelve articles. His provocatively-entitled ?Crusading as an act of love? is a superlative attempt to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understand crusade motivation on its own terms, while his later ?Early crusaders to the east and the costs of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crusading, 1095-1130? forcefully argued against the notion that crusaders were Europe?s landless sons, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(going east solely in the hope of material gain. There are articles by Giles Constable, Marcus Bull, R. A. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(282)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 August, 2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomas F. Madden)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780631230236)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(22.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(283pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Blackwell)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://bookshop.blackwell.co.uk/jsp/id/The_Crusades/9780631230236)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jonathan Harris)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7306 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fletcher, John France, Norman Housley, and, of course, H. E. J. Cowdrey?s classic ?Pope Urban II?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preaching of the First Crusade?. This last has also been reprinted as number XVI in Cowdrey?s own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collection, )] TJ ET BT 87.344 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Popes, Monks and Crusaders)] TJ ET BT 228.668 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Hambledon; London, 1984\), but there is certainly no harm in it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appearing again. Cowdrey considered the question of whether the objective of Jerusalem was integral to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Urban?s original vision for the expedition to the East as expressed in the sermon at Clermont in November )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1095, and in subsequent letters and encyclicals. His argument that Jerusalem was central to the enterprise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the beginning has been largely accepted ever since.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Also included is Jonathan Tyerman?s radical ?Were there any crusades in the twelfth century??, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues that it is misleading to regard crusades as a separate phenomenon from the general development of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attitudes to warfare in western Europe before the pontificate of Innocent III \(1198-1216\). Taken to their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(logical conclusion, Tyerman?s iconoclastic ideas would put an end to any debate on the crusades before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1198, since the very term is retrospective and inappropriate. So far, however, he has not been as influential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as Riley-Smith or Cowdrey, although as an alternative voice, he well merits inclusion here.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomas Madden?s contribution to the book is to give it unity and to provide very helpful clarifications of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(main points at issue. He gives, at the beginning of each article, a short summary of the argument and some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indication of how it influenced subsequent scholarship. He has also provides an introduction which traces )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the fluctuating approaches to crusading in western Europe and America from the Renaissance to the world )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after 11 September 2001. This survey is very well pitched towards a general readership, placing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(academic debates in the wider context of world events and how they have changed attitudes to ideologically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(motivated warfare.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is only one aspect of this book that strikes an odd note and that is the decision to include Sir Steven )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Runciman?s ?Byzantium and the Crusades?. Like all of Runciman?s output, the nine pages reproduced here )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are a compelling read with a clear and forcefully argued thesis. The First Crusade was, he believed, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tantamount to a barbarian invasion of the civilised and sophisticated Byzantine empire and its consequences )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were ultimately to bring about the ruin of Byzantine civilisation. This mass migration was unwittingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(triggered by the Byzantine emperor, Alexius I Comnenus, when he had sent ambassadors to the pope at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Council of Piacenza in March 1095 to ask for mercenary soldiers to enrol in his armies. The emotive appeal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made in response by Urban II at Clermont, however, had the effect of sending thousands of Frankish knights )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Constantinople under their own leaders, quite a different outcome from what Alexius had expected.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Consequently, in the words of his daughter, Anna Comnena, Alexius ?dreaded? the arrival of the crusaders, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and there was misunderstanding and tension from the start. ?It is commonly believed by worthy people?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wrote Runciman, ?that the more we see of each other, the more we shall like each other. It is a sad delusion? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 214\). There had been differences between Byzantium and the West in the past, but since contact between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the two societies was sporadic, open animosity had little chance to develop. Now that the westerners were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brought into the heart of the empire in large numbers, those differences, especially those between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Byzantine and western churches and the more tolerant attitude of the Byzantines towards Muslim powers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became more noticeable and led to resentment. Although Runciman lays some of the blame at the door of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Byzantine emperors who reigned after 1143, the sack of Constantinople by the Fourth Crusade in April )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1204 was the culmination of ?the mounting dislike and suspicion that all western Christendom now felt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towards the Byzantines? \(p. 219\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cogent though Runciman?s views are, the fact remains that they are hardly new. Although published in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1986, this contribution is in fact a straight summary of the position adopted by Runciman in his )] TJ ET BT 495.344 151.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the Crusades)] TJ ET BT 97.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( which was published between 1951 and 1954 \(3 vols, Cambridge University Press\). That )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(singles it out immediately from the rest of the articles. The next earliest is Cowdrey?s, which came out in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History)] TJ ET BT 70.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( for 1970, while the rest all appeared in the 1980s or 1990s.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moreover, while Cowdrey?s thesis has stood largely unchallenged since it first appearance, Runciman?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most certainly has not. One of the main problems is its almost uncritical acceptance of the main Byzantine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(source for the First Crusade, Anna Comnena?s )] TJ ET BT 261.308 54.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Alexiad)] TJ ET BT 297.968 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which presents Alexius I?s actions throughout the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 19 0 R 22 0 R 25 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 8259 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(episode as motivated solely by Christian charity and places the blame for subsequent disagreements on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shoulders of the crusade leadership and particularly of the Norman, Bohemond of Taranto. Runciman also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(takes at face value Anna Comnena?s descriptions of some of the crusaders as uncouth louts and this is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(largely the basis for belief that the two peoples were mutually estranged from the start. It could be objected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the classicising literary genre in which Comnena wrote dictated that foreign peoples be presented as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?barbarians? and that this did not necessarily mean that the entire populations of the two halves of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christendom were in a constantly increasing state of mutual antipathy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Madden is, of course, well aware of all this. He openly admits in his introduction that many aspects of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Runciman?s work have been criticised since he wrote \(pp. 6, 11\), and he himself has done much to mitigate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Runciman?s picture of mutual intolerance leading directly to the sack of Constantinople. The second edition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Donald E. Queller?s )] TJ ET BT 147.656 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Fourth Crusade: The Conquest of Constantinople)] TJ ET BT 407.672 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(University of Pennsylvania )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Press; Philadelphia, 1997\), which Madden co-authored, presents the diversion to Constantinople as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outcome of a series of accidents, in no way related to any previous history of east-west hostility. One can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even detect a certain antipathy to the Runciman thesis on Madden?s part in his introduction to this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collection, albeit expressed in oblique fashion. He is highly critical of the 1995 BBC Television series, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presented by Terry Jones, because it portrayed the crusades as ?a long, misguided war of intolerance, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ignorance and barbarism against a peaceful and sophisticated Muslim world? \(p.1\). Substitute ?Byzantine? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for ?Muslim?, and you are left with the essence of Runciman?s opinion on the matter, one that he expressed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(succinctly in interviews given for the Jones programme. Jones was, moreover, heavily dependent on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Runciman as his main historical source. He even faithfully reproduced some of Runciman?s errors. In the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(second episode, for example, while recounting the siege of Antioch in 1097-8, Jones mentions how Alexius I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obligingly sent the English exile, Edgar the Aethling, from Constantinople with a shipload of siege engines )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the hard-pressed crusaders. The story appears in )] TJ ET BT 284.936 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History of the Crusades)] TJ ET BT 399.272 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, vol. 1, p. 227, but subsequent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investigations have shown that it has no basis whatsoever.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 312.992 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 312.992 455.187 m 326.984 455.187 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 326.984 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It therefore seems impossible to criticise Jones )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without, by implication, criticising Runciman as well.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(All this begs the question as to why Madden includes Runciman at all, in a book which, he asserts, is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(designed to explode popular myths and disseminate a more thoughtful approach to the problem \(p.12\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History of the Crusades)] TJ ET BT 148.352 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is still in print and is probably much more widely available than the works of any of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the other authors featured in this collection. It is not as though people need to be encouraged to read )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Runciman. He jokingly boasted that he had made more money for his publisher, Cambridge University )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Press, than any other author apart from God, since his books were only outsold by the Bible.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nevertheless, Madden is facing a genuine difficulty here. He has included two articles on the Muslim )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience of the crusades: Nikita Elisseff on the slow response to calls for )] TJ ET BT 402.932 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(jihad)] TJ ET BT 427.604 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( after the First Crusade, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Benjamin Kedar on Muslims under crusader rule. It is, however, difficult to find alternatives to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Runciman which sum up the Byzantine experience in the same accessible and engaging way. There are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surveys by Joan Hussey and Anthony Bryer which cover the period 1081 to 1204, but both are now fairly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dated and in any case, they tend to mirror Runciman?s central contention that cultural differences were the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ultimate source of conflict.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 163.328 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 163.328 231.603 m 177.320 231.603 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are, of course, a number of scholars who have reinterpreted aspects of Byzantine-crusader relations. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Of these the three most prominent must be Paul Magdalino, Ralph-Johannes Lilie and Jonathan Shepard. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Magdalino?s and Lilie?s close studies of Byzantine policies towards the crusader states of Syria show not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(steadily mounting tension, but periods of animosity interspersed with co-operation and alliance.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 493.640 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 493.640 162.579 m 507.632 162.579 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 507.632 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Shepard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(re-examines the whole question of Byzantine involvement with the genesis of the First Crusade in two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(masterly articles. Adopting a more critical stance towards Anna Comnena, Shepard argues that there was far )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more to the episode than an innocent Byzantine emperor taken aback by the turn of events and that Alexius )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was cleverly exploiting the situation for his own ends. While Runciman unabashedly labels Bohemond as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?villain?, whose greed and lack of scruple poisoned relations with the Byzantines, Shepard argues that this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(picture is an uncritical and literal reading of Anna Comnena, who vilified the Norman leader with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hindsight acquired in the forty-year interval between these events and the writing of her history. There is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intriguing evidence that in 1096-7, Alexius viewed Bohemond as a potential tool, ally and recruit, a kind of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 20 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 312.9917 455.5015 326.9837 467.3815 ] >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 21 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 163.3277 231.9175 177.3197 243.7975 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 493.6397 162.8935 507.6317 174.7735 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 30 0 R 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 5619 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperial agent to oversee the re-conquest of Asia Minor.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 305.624 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 305.624 795.075 m 319.616 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet there are problems in using the works of these authors for a volume of this type. Lilie?s articles are in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German, with only his major book being available in English. Magdalino?s work tends to be extremely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detailed, making it far less accessible and readable than the broad canvas of Runciman. Shepard, like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Magdalino, is a painstaking scholar who has little interest in broad generalisations. He often tends to write at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(length in order to bring out the full potential of the evidence he adduces. 'When Greek meets Greek' covers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(almost a hundred pages, which would create difficulties of space in a small paperback publication.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In short, even though his work is now fifty years old and many of his ideas discarded, in one respect, namely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his sheer accessibility combined with genuine erudition, Runciman remains unsurpassed. For this reason, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Madden is justified in including him. Yet his very inclusion is also ample proof that a re-examination of east-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(west relations at the time of the crusades is long overdue.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jonathan Harris)] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.755 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 538.138 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 538.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nicholas Hooper, ?Edgar the Aethling: Anglo-Saxon prince, rebel and Crusader?, )] TJ ET BT 459.596 538.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Anglo-Saxon )] TJ ET BT 64.016 523.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(England)] TJ ET BT 104.684 523.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 14 \(1985\), 197-214, at pp.208-209.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 279.332 523.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 279.332 522.483 m 333.320 522.483 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 509.626 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 509.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. M. Hussey, 'Byzantium and the Crusades, 1081-1204', in K. M. Setton, gen. Ed., )] TJ ET BT 464.648 509.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A History of the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 495.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Crusades)] TJ ET BT 109.352 495.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(6 vols, University of Wisconsin Press; Madison,1969-89\), ii, pp. 123-51; A. A. M. Bryer, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 481.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('The first encounter with the West AD 1050-1204', in )] TJ ET BT 322.964 481.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Byzantium: An Introduction)] TJ ET BT 456.956 481.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. P. Whitting )] TJ ET BT 64.016 466.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2nd edn, Blackwells; Oxford, 1981\), pp. 85-110.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 301.652 466.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 301.652 465.459 m 355.640 465.459 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 452.602 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 452.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R-J. Lilie, )] TJ ET BT 115.352 452.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Byzantium and the Crusader States 1095-1204)] TJ ET BT 339.680 452.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, trans. J. C. Morris and J. C. Ridings )] TJ ET BT 64.016 438.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford University Press; Oxford, 1993\); Paul Magdalino, )] TJ ET BT 348.320 438.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Empire of Manuel I Komnenos 1143-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 424.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1180)] TJ ET BT 88.016 424.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford University Press; Oxford, 1993\), pp. 66-108.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 347.648 424.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 347.648 422.691 m 401.636 422.691 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 409.834 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 409.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Cross-purposes: Alexius Comnenus and the First Crusade', in )] TJ ET BT 363.992 409.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The First Crusade Origins and Impact)] TJ ET BT 548.996 409.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 395.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ed. Jonathan Phillips \(Manchester University Press; Manchester, 1997\), pp. 107-29, and idem, ?When )] TJ ET BT 64.016 381.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Greek meets Greek: Alexius Comnenus and Bohemond in 1097-98?, )] TJ ET BT 397.304 381.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Byzantine and Modern Greek )] TJ ET BT 64.016 367.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Studies, 12 \(1988\), 185-277.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 201.344 367.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 201.344 365.667 m 255.332 365.667 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 340.805 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 326.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 321.823 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 304.043 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 304.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/282)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 302.649 m 322.316 302.649 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 277.672 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.272 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2609)] TJ ET BT 34.016 248.872 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 305.6237 795.3895 319.6157 807.2695 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 279.3317 522.7975 333.3197 534.6775 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 18 0 R >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 301.6517 465.7735 355.6397 477.6535 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 347.6477 423.0055 401.6357 434.8855 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 201.3437 365.9815 255.3317 377.8615 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 29 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 302.9635 322.3157 314.8435 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/282) >> endobj xref 0 42 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000539 00000 n 0000000621 00000 n 0000004688 00000 n 0000004797 00000 n 0000004907 00000 n 0000005016 00000 n 0000008577 00000 n 0000008705 00000 n 0000008789 00000 n 0000008854 00000 n 0000016213 00000 n 0000016311 00000 n 0000024623 00000 n 0000024653 00000 n 0000024781 00000 n 0000024817 00000 n 0000024847 00000 n 0000024975 00000 n 0000025011 00000 n 0000025041 00000 n 0000025169 00000 n 0000025205 00000 n 0000025324 00000 n 0000030996 00000 n 0000031026 00000 n 0000031154 00000 n 0000031190 00000 n 0000031318 00000 n 0000031373 00000 n 0000031501 00000 n 0000031556 00000 n 0000031684 00000 n 0000031739 00000 n 0000031867 00000 n 0000031922 00000 n 0000032050 00000 n trailer << /Size 42 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 32145 %%EOF