%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140930123814+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140930123814+01'00') /Title (Deadly Embrace. Morocco and the Road to the Spanish Civil War) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4278 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Deadly Embrace. Morocco and the Road to the Spanish Civil War)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Deadly Embrace )] TJ ET BT 117.992 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is not only a well-written and thoroughly documented book but also a necessary and vital )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribution to the study of the turbulent and often violent first four decades of twentieth century Spain. Not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surprisingly, in a country whose political destiny has unfortunately been determined far too often by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(praetorian intervention, there is a rich scholarly literature on the Spanish armed forces. There also exists a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vast number of studies on the colonial wars of the last quarter of the nineteenth century, in particular the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(origins and aftermath of the disaster of 1898. By contrast, the subsequent brutal and last imperialist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adventure in Morocco, and more specifically the Army of Africa, has traditionally been overlooked. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Furthermore, the objectives of the previous vital works on the question of the military and Morocco have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been radically different to those of the present book under review.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joan Connelly Ullman?s )] TJ ET BT 155.012 118.763 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Tragic Week)] TJ ET BT 236.996 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Harvard University Press; Cambridge, MA, 1968\) remains the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ultimate study of popular insurrection, that of 1909, against involvement in a new colonial enterprise. Yet its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(object was not so much Morocco itself but the linkage between anti-clericalism and anti-militarism as early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forms of protests against the ruling oligarchic regime. Equally, Caroline P. Boyd?s )] TJ ET BT 434.312 75.995 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Praetorian Politics in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Liberal Spain)] TJ ET BT 99.692 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(University of North Carolina Press; Chapel Hill, 1979\) was above all a lucid analysis of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(283)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 August, 2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sebastian Balfour)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780199252961)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(50.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(380pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ukcatalogue.oup.com/product/9780199252961.do)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Francisco J. Romero Salvad)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8223 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(division within the armed forces, caused to a large extent by the war in Morocco from the outbreak of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Great War to the coup of Primo de Rivera in 1923. Again, the focus was on mainland Spain, examining the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parallel process between the crisis of the ruling system and the increasing intervention of the military in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics. Recent works by Spanish historians such as Pablo La Porte?s )] TJ ET BT 371.996 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(La Atraccin del Imn )] TJ ET BT 483.320 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Editorial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Biblioteca Nueva, SL; Madrid, 2001\) and Juan Pando?s )] TJ ET BT 304.652 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(La Secreta Historia de Annual)] TJ ET BT 451.316 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Temas de Hoy; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Madrid, 1999\))] TJ ET BT 106.340 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are welcome analyses of the major defeat of the Spanish army in Morocco in 1921. However, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Deadly Embrace )] TJ ET BT 117.992 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represents an altogether new fascinating endeavour: the study of an interventionist military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elite through the experience of war in Morocco. The outcome is an illuminating analysis of the creation of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new caste of army officers who came to embody a growing colonial identity at odds with the metropolis that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(finally led to the rebellion of 1936. This book provides a valid model with which to understand the mentality )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and ideology of the colonial corps and its potentially destabilising role when confronted by metropolitan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administrations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paradoxically, after his last work, the )] TJ ET BT 215.984 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(End of the Spanish Empire, 1898-1923 )] TJ ET BT 405.644 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Clarendon Press; Oxford, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1997\), a study of the impact of the colonial disaster and loss of the overseas territories, Balfour now )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concentrates on the new domains acquired in Africa, at the start of the twentieth century. Divided into three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parts, starting with ?The Colonial Embrace?, he examines the first three decades of colonial experience in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Morocco.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Following the disaster of 1898, Spain consolidated through diplomatic negotiations with the two large )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial powers, Britain and France, a few footholds in Africa. They included Guinea, Western Sahara and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strip of land in northern Morocco surrounding the two traditional Spanish enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla. As )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Balfour correctly explains, the combination of business lobbies eager to exploit the mining resources of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(area with the imperialist dreams of a group of politicians and the army?s hope to recover its lost prestige, all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the full backing of the new King, Alfonso XIII, resulted in the country slowly sinking into a new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adventure for which it was not prepared. Ironically, Spain was largely a victim of the increasing competition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the European powers. She secured approval to exert control of northern Morocco due to the fact )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Britain needed a buffer against French expansion towards the coast opposite to Gibraltar \(p. 5\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In fact, in comparison to French Morocco, Spain was allocated not only a relatively small area but also one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characterized by arid and infertile terrain and inhabited by a rebellious and indomitable population. Indeed, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(everything went downhill from 1909. The complex existing rivalries, combined with the penetration of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European capital, resulted in localized clashes and eventually to a full-scale rebellion that was to last for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(almost twenty years. At a peninsular level, the effects were extremely significant. Labour unrest and anger )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against the regime intensified. With still-fresh memories of 1898, the call-up of working class reservists to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(become the cannon folder of new imperialist ambitions was greeted with riots that reached their peak during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the so-called 'Tragic Week' of Barcelona in the summer of 1909. With growing popular turmoil and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emergence of regional nationalism, the military were needed increasingly to act as the praetorian guard of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ruling social order. At the same time, a new generation of young and dynamic officers soon known as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Africanistas )] TJ ET BT 95.024 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(saw the opportunity to bypass the bureaucratic scale of the inflated army corps to obtain quick )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(promotion by showing merit on the Moroccan battlefield. Yet the royal favouritism, nepotism and corruption )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with which medals and honours were awarded to these officers angered those in mainland Spain. It marked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the beginning of internal fissures within an alienated and embittered army. Finally, as the Moroccan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(campaigns became an endless nightmare for distinct Spanish governments, aware of the unpopularity at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(home, they persistently underfunded and practically concealed them from public scrutiny.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Balfour could have explored more in depth the crucial years of the Great War. This was, after all, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moment in which peninsular officers badly hurt by wartime inflation formed the so-called )] TJ ET BT 468.284 135.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Juntas Militares )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(de Defensa)] TJ ET BT 87.668 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(:)] TJ ET BT 94.004 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a sort of military trades unions, whose objectives included the re-imposition of a closed-scale )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(system of promotion in detriment to their fellow )] TJ ET BT 268.676 106.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Africanistas. )] TJ ET BT 332.684 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The refusal of these )] TJ ET BT 430.652 106.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Junteros )] TJ ET BT 474.980 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to disband in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(June 1917 galvanized the reformist forces in the country to launch a revolutionary strike. Won over by last-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(minute concessions, the )] TJ ET BT 151.340 78.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Junteros )] TJ ET BT 195.668 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crushed with ferocity the revolution and temporarily saved an ailing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regime. However, as social discontent and political turmoil continued unabated, the armed forces were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasingly called upon to bail out a discredited regime. The downward spiral of violence and repression )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 6149 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effectively ended with the army take-over in September 1923. In Morocco, the First World War saw German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secret agents seeking to incite an insurrection against the French administration. In fact, it also fuelled the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rebellious spirit of many Moroccans in the Spanish zone. One of them, Abdel Krim turned during these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years from collaboration with Spain to lead the forces that inflicted on the Army of Africa its worst defeat, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Annual.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Balfour explains coherently the causes and aftermath of Annual, the catastrophe in which during a few )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weeks of the summer of 1921, thousands of Spanish troops were massacred or captured by the rebel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moroccans. It shocked the country and in a way was the last nail in the coffin of the ailing liberal regime. As )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the author explains, if not a disaster foretold, it could have been prevented at the very least. The inadequacy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the budget allocated to this campaign and lack of investment to buy the loyalty of the natives were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important. But above all the military incompetence of adventurous generals such as Silvestre, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Commander-in-Chief of the troops in Annual, proved decisive. Yet out of the ashes of Annual a new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial army began to be forged that had revenge as its fundamental motive power \(p. 83\). For the next six )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years, as weak governments lacking a clear strategy for Morocco succeeded each other and eventually the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberal order gave way to a dictatorship whose leader, General Miguel Primo de Rivera, was well known for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his )] TJ ET BT 51.020 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(abandonista )] TJ ET BT 113.360 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(views, the Army of Africa came of age. Their sense of elitism and disdain for both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governments and armed forces in the peninsula led them to view themselves as the vanguard of a new race )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of conquerors and heroes. Thus, scorn for governments of any leaning in Madrid and the practice of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(horrifying, brutal methods to quell dissent amongst the native population were the formative values of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Africanistas)] TJ ET BT 92.024 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. When in 1927 the Moroccan campaign had been completed with success, a violent but highly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(efficient corps of ambitious army officers reached the peak of their glory. With their active service all but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over, their mentality was bound to clash with the governing classes back at home. This was particularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(glaring when a reformist and modernizing Second Republic was proclaimed in 1931.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The central section, tellingly called 'The Brutalization of Colonial War?, is the essential part of this book. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Balfour abandons the chronological narrative to produce a superbly written and powerfully argued wide-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ranging series of thematic chapters. First of all, he offers an eloquent view of the use of chemical warfare in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Moroccan campaigns. Angel Vias in his excellent )] TJ ET BT 299.636 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Franco, Hitler y el Estallido de la Guerra Civil)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Alianza; Madrid, 2001\), has already advanced this argument. Yet the concern of this author was, above all, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to trace the collaboration between Spanish and German army officers up to the outbreak of the civil war. By )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrast, Balfour provides a convincing analysis of chemical weapons as an instrument in the offensive to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quell rebellion in Morocco. After Annual, they became a key element in the arsenal of the Army of Africa. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The desire to punish the recalcitrant natives, added to the low cost of production and the possible savings in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terms of manpower was something that united King, )] TJ ET BT 288.992 316.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(abandonistas )] TJ ET BT 356.000 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(like Primo and )] TJ ET BT 429.668 316.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Africanistas)] TJ ET BT 487.676 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(widespread use was not as secret as sometimes this book seems to imply. Yet Balfour?s as well as Vias? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(previously great merit is to bring into academic scrutiny an element of Spanish warfare that had been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditionally overlooked. Furthermore, as )] TJ ET BT 234.656 273.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Deadly Embrace )] TJ ET BT 318.632 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insists, it was an important step in the formative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(descent into dehumanization and brutality of the Army of Africa. As )] TJ ET BT 365.960 259.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Africanistas )] TJ ET BT 426.968 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would claim, it was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regrettable but necessary corollary of civilization \(p. 136\).)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 8804 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The next chapters are of great quality. Here Balfour investigates the cultural background and conditions in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which the Army of Africa was raised. It deals, firstly, with the widening gap between the mentality and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(values of )] TJ ET BT 80.672 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Junteros )] TJ ET BT 125.000 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and )] TJ ET BT 145.328 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Africanistas)] TJ ET BT 203.336 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( that would ultimately prove irreconcilable. An antipathy would remain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through to the civil war and would play a part in the support given by leading )] TJ ET BT 408.644 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Junteros )] TJ ET BT 452.972 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the Republic, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when the bulk of the )] TJ ET BT 135.668 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Africanistas )] TJ ET BT 196.676 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rose in revolt in 1936 \(p. 168\). In the remaining chapters, )] TJ ET BT 474.632 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Deadly Embrace )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offers a fascinating contrast between the experiences of soldiers and officers. Balfour portrays convincingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the quasi-surreal world dominated by terror, alienation, corruption and unabated warfare which the Army of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Africa inhabited. For the recruits, Morocco was a meaningless nightmare in which fear for their lives, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anxiety to return home and appalling living conditions went together. However, for the )] TJ ET BT 454.292 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Africanista )] TJ ET BT 510.632 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(officers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of either the native-led troops or )] TJ ET BT 191.984 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Regulares )] TJ ET BT 243.644 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the Foreign Legion, the Moroccan campaigns became the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crucial part of their upbringing. Indeed, most )] TJ ET BT 252.980 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Africanistas )] TJ ET BT 313.988 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have subscribed to Franco?s words: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Without Africa, I can scarcely explain myself?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Amongst the )] TJ ET BT 98.684 601.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Africanistas )] TJ ET BT 159.692 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existed a minority of enlightened officers interested in embracing the Arabic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture and winning over the natives. Yet for the majority, their African experience was a schooling in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they embraced a core ideology of brutality, sacrifice and discipline. The best exponent was the Foreign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Legion. Created by the brutal Milln Astray, Franco and the best-known )] TJ ET BT 384.296 558.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Africanistas )] TJ ET BT 445.304 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(served in its ranks. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Under the motto ?Bridegrooms of Death?, the Foreign Legion blended Prussian militarism with the Japanese )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bushido )] TJ ET BT 76.352 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(code of violence, abnegation, elitism and honour. Thus, they regarded themselves as the saviours of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a decadent Spain, the expression of an extreme form of nationalism in which the ultimate goal was glory or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(death. In this process of legitimization of repression, the natives were seen as the archetypal 'other': )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primitive, fanatic and backward, who ought therefore to be crushed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The concluding part examines the 1930s, the tragic period that encompassed the proclamation of the Second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Republic and the civil war. )] TJ ET BT 166.664 446.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Deadly Embrace )] TJ ET BT 250.640 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illustrates how the Army of Africa played a central role in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unfolding of the dramatic events. In their distorted view of nationalism, their role as saviours of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(motherland was now manipulated. The Moorish 'other' was no longer the enemy, but the 'reds', masons and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(separatists who had captured the government of the country.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The establishment of a new republican regime brought a new governing class. Inspired by ideals of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modernization, the new administration introduced wide-ranging reforms that threatened the vested interests, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no less the armed forces. The Republic?s strongman Manuel Azaa, the Prime Minister who was also in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(charge of the War Department, would become the )] TJ ET BT 276.944 335.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(bte noire)] TJ ET BT 325.268 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Military measures that included the promotion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of loyal officers, mostly )] TJ ET BT 152.336 320.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Junteros)] TJ ET BT 193.664 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the freezing and review of the awards and promotions conceded during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the last Moroccan campaigns, and the opening of new judicial enquiries into the disaster of Annual, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confirmed the anti-republican instincts of the colonial corps. Thus, )] TJ ET BT 356.972 292.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Africanista )] TJ ET BT 413.312 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(officers were at the centre of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the reactionary conspiracy to overthrow the new regime. One of them, General Sanjurjo, staged an ill-fated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rebellion in August 1932. Yet a year later the political pendulum was to swing the other way, as right-wing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parties emerged victorious in the elections of November. The repression of the revolutionary movement of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(October 1934 then became a dress rehearsal for the horrors of the civil war. With martial law declared, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power rested officially in the hands of the War Minister, Diego Hidalgo. In effect, General Franco, his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(technical adviser, was the one in charge. His dispatch of units of Legionnaires and Moors to crush the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Asturian miners represented the crossing of the Rubicon. The great paradox was that Muslim mercenaries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were employed to suppress, with unprecedented levels of brutality, Spaniards in Asturias, the cradle of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spanish Christian )] TJ ET BT 122.024 163.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reconquista )] TJ ET BT 184.352 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in medieval times. When two years later, a left-wing swing brought the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Popular Front to power, the die was cast. )] TJ ET BT 233.324 149.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Africanista )] TJ ET BT 289.664 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(officers began to plot in earnest the destruction of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Republic.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Deadly Embrace?s)] TJ ET BT 125.660 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( final chapter is entitled 'The Reconquest of Spain?. Although too short for the crucial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(three years it narrates, it is a powerful recollection of the crucial role played by the Army of Africa. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ironically, General Mola and the other )] TJ ET BT 221.636 80.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Africanista )] TJ ET BT 277.976 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conspirators, confident in the rapid success of a military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coup, assigned the colonial army initially only a passive role. Yet this all changed when the insurrection )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failed in the capital and the most important urban and industrial centres of mainland Spain. As the partially )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 1904 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(botched rebellion gave way to a cruel civil war, the Army of Africa became the most important asset of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insurgents. With the blessing of the Catholic Church and the people of order, the discourse of the 'other' was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(finally reshaped. Messianic zeal, nationalism and myth came together to justify the savagery of the colonial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shock troops let loose in the country. The cleansing and brutal methods of warfare previously used to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subjugate the natives became now commonplace on the mainland. By 1939, the )] TJ ET BT 419.300 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Africanistas )] TJ ET BT 480.308 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had succeeded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in their mission of 'saving? Spain. Yet the bloodbath and repression was far from over. One of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Africanistas)] TJ ET BT 92.024 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, General Franco, was to rule the country for almost 40 years. Spain herself had become a colony.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 665.695 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 647.915 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 647.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/283)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 646.521 m 322.316 646.521 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 621.544 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 607.144 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2612)] TJ ET BT 34.016 592.744 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 646.8355 322.3157 658.7155 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/283) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000571 00000 n 0000000653 00000 n 0000004983 00000 n 0000005092 00000 n 0000005202 00000 n 0000005311 00000 n 0000008872 00000 n 0000009000 00000 n 0000009084 00000 n 0000009149 00000 n 0000017425 00000 n 0000017490 00000 n 0000023692 00000 n 0000023757 00000 n 0000032614 00000 n 0000032698 00000 n 0000034655 00000 n 0000034783 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 34878 %%EOF