%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140728064933+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140728064933+01'00') /Title (Europe in Crisis 1598-1648) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4327 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Europe in Crisis 1598-1648)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Among those scholars who write on early modern Europe, Geoffrey Parker occupies a position of well-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(merited prominence. His books, essays, articles and other publications have greatly extended the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of early modern Europe among practising historians, their students and the wider public alike. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As their titles indicate - )] TJ ET BT 149.672 216.299 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Army of Flanders and the Spanish Road)] TJ ET BT 363.332 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge University Press; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge, 1972\), )] TJ ET BT 127.340 202.043 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Dutch Revolt)] TJ ET BT 211.328 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Allen Lane; London, 1977\) and )] TJ ET BT 372.968 202.043 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Philip II)] TJ ET BT 413.300 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Hutchinson; London, 1978\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? some of his early books dealt with the Spanish Habsburgs and their European possessions during those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crucial decades from the 1560s to the turn of the century, and this is a theme to which Professor Parker has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often returned \(recently, for example, in )] TJ ET BT 229.292 159.275 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Grand Strategy of Philip II)] TJ ET BT 380.288 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( [Yale University Press; New Haven )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and London, 1998]\). Meanwhile, his expanding historical interests went on to incorporate, among others, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such topics as Spain's overseas possessions, the military history of early modern Europe \(especially the so-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(called 'military revolution' of the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries\), the Thirty Years War, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic history of early modern Europe, and the debates which began in the 1950s on ?the general crisis' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the seventeenth century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That Professor Parker developed such capacious interests doubtless was encouraged by an invitation to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(284)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 September, 2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Geoffrey Parker)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780631220282)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(88.89)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(348pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Blackwell)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://bookshop.blackwell.co.uk/jsp/id/Europe_in_Crisis_1598_1648/9780631220282)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Sturdy)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7970 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribute to the Fontana History of Europe edited by the late J. H. Plumb. Those Fontana volumes that dealt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with post-medieval Europe usually covered about fifty years each, and Professor Parker was allotted the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(half of the seventeenth century. The task of writing a general history presents formidable challenges, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even the most omnicompetent scholar cannot be expected to know every facet of the potential subject matter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in detail, and he or she must read up on a wide range of material. The author has to think of the readership at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which the text is aimed and must shape the content and style accordingly. Can he assume that readers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(already have some knowledge of the period in question, or will the book aim to cater for people new to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period? If so, the author will have to devote valuable space to describing, for example, institutional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structures \(perhaps of the Holy Roman Empire or some other state or body\), processes of government, legal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(systems and so on. This latter consideration can be all the more taxing in that the publisher, conscious of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(production costs and sales, imposes a word limit which forces the author to be highly selective as regards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(content; passages, the function of which are to describe and explain institutions and processes, can occupy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(space which the author might have preferred to devote to other topics. Yet more questions arise. How shall a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(balance be struck between the demands of narrative, analysis and recent historiographical debate? To what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extent should the author seek to thematise history? This is a process which can assist the reader who is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(novice, but which can leave the author open to the charge of over-simplification; on the other hand, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alternative might lose the reader in a mass of seemingly unconnected detail. What role should be afforded to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personalities? If that role is overdone, the author risks slipping into a ?great-men-and-women? version of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history, but if it is underplayed, the people of former generations can appear as no more than helpless )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flotsam borne on mighty tides of history. The writing of general history is one of the most demanding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(branches of historical literature; nevertheless, one observation can be made with utter confidence: whatever )] TJ ET BT 34.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the effects on the reader of the final text, the exercise is highly educational for the author himself or herself!)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Parker?s )] TJ ET BT 126.656 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Europe in Crisis, 1598-1648)] TJ ET BT 263.996 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was published in 1979, and it is testimony to the success )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with which he confronted the problems inherent in writing general history that the book soon went through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(several impressions and revisions. A further tribute is paid in that it is now reissued in a second edition, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(having been selected by Blackwell as one of their Classic Histories of Europe, a series comprising revised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volumes of the older Fontana Histories. The appearance of this second edition is to be welcomed by all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(students of the period, and this is an appropriate occasion on which to assess the changes that Professor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Parker has introduced and to reflect anew on his interpretation of European history from 1598 to 1648.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Firstly, what about the content of the book? The 2001 edition contains extensive modifications to that of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1979. The 1979 version consisted of a Prelude and eight chapters: 1\) 'European Society and the Economy', )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2\) 'European Society and the State', 3\) 'The Time of Troubles in the East, 1593-1618', 4\) 'Armed Neutrality )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the West, 1598-1618', 5\) 'The Apogee of Habsburg Imperialism', 6\) 'The Defeat of the Habsburgs, 1629-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(35', 7\) 'War and Revolution', and 8\) 'The Culture of Post-Renaissance Europe'. The chapters were divided )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into sections, each of which had its own sub-heading. The new edition retains the same structure and chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(headings \(although chapter 5 now has the dates 1618-29 appended\), but there are significant changes to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sections. Thus, in Chapter 1, 'The Little Ice Age' \(1979 edition\) becomes 'Climate and Crisis' and a new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(section entitled 'An Economy on the Edge of Crisis' is added. Chapter 2 includes a new section on 'The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Theory of Absolutism'. Chapter 7 adds a new section on 'The Crisis of the Spanish Monarchy' and replaces )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the former section entitled 'The End of the Thirty Years' War' with two new ones: 'The End of the Eighty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Years' War' and 'The End of the Thirty Years' War' \(this latter being very different from the 1979 version\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter 8 is extensively recast and bears only marginal relation to the text of 1979. Even within those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapters and sections where the list of Contents would indicate little change between 1979 and 2001, there is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in fact much rewriting. Professor Parker has gone through the entire text, shortened many sections )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(digressions that enlivened ?1979? have mostly gone, presumably under the pressure of a word limit\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reworded others, revised yet more in the light of recent research and updated the bibliography. Various )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stylistic and presentational changes are evident: miles are now converted into kilometres, quotations from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seventeenth-century English are put into modern spelling, long paragraphs from 1979 are broken into several )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shorter ones \(does this imply that modern readers are deemed less able than their predecessors to cope with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(solid blocks of text?\), and the format of graphs and other supporting visual material is modernised. In short, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 2001 version of )] TJ ET BT 130.004 59.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Europe in Crisis)] TJ ET BT 209.348 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is much more than the 1979 edition with a few additions or )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7744 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amendments: the text has been revised thoroughly and comprehensively, many passages in the 2001 version )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bear little resemblance to their predecessors, and the presentation and style of the book are emphatically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?new millennium? rather than ?1970s?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Some of the new material revises information presented in 1979. Thus, the European population statistics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(given in 2001 \(p. 6\) differ somewhat from those given in 1979 \(p. 23\); the figure for that of Magdeburg at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the time of the siege of 1631 is changed from 40,000 \(1979, p. 221\) to 30,000 \(2001, p. 161\). On some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(topics, Professor Parker shows a change of mind, or at least of emphasis. When discussing Russia during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Time of Troubles, he stated in 1979 \(p. 108\) that ?the story that he [the ?false Dimitri?] was a renegade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monk ? is almost certainly false?; now \(2001, p. 77\) ?much evidence suggests that he was Grishka Otrepev, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a renegade monk?. In his 1979 discussion of Richelieu?s financial policies, Professor Parker was of the view )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that ?he [Richelieu] did not understand the machinery of finance?, and quoted Richelieu himself to that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effect: ?I confess fully my ignorance on financial matters? \(1979, p. 248\). In 2001 the quotation from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richelieu is repeated, but Parker now contends that ?such statements seem to have been camouflage? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(180\). He goes on to demonstrate that, for all the expressions of ?ignorance?, the cardinal not only took a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(close interest in financial matters, but also ?drew up an ambitious plan for reform? \(ibid\). In Chapter 7 of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2001 version, the section entitled ?France Resurgent?, which covers the 1640s, replaces long passages from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1979 version with more concise paragraphs on the financial condition of the French and Spanish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governments, and does so by presenting statistics which have emerged in the light of more recent research.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nevertheless, as Professor Parker himself states in the 'Preface' to the 2001 edition, although much new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material and many revisions have been introduced, especially concerning the social, economic and cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of the period, the major theses and arguments remain intact. As he puts it: 'The Thirty Years' War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remains the central event, and the Habsburgs still lose it ? Spain and Poland still end the period far weaker )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than they began it. Sweden and the Dutch ? still achieve Great Power status while France struggles on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(edge of an abyss' \(p. xiii\). In short, the main contours of Professor Parker's Europe have not undergone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(serious revision between 1979 and 2001. On the other hand, Europe as depicted in 2001 is shaped even more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by warfare than it was in 1979. As an advocate of the 'military revolution' thesis \(outlined pp. 48-52\), Parker )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasises not only changes in the organisation and conduct of warfare, but explores some the financial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequences with which governments had to contend, and, in a new section, assesses the relationship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between war and culture \(pp. 210-17\). Therein he discusses pamphlets, broadsheets, newspapers and popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(songs which emerged from the wars of the period; he considers some of the effects of warfare on 'high' art )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Velzquez's 'Surrender of Breda' is an obvious example\), and points to the depiction of military themes in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(architecture, the decorative arts, literature and music, both religious and secular.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is, of course, inconceivable that Professor Parker would not have devoted so many chapters of his book to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(warfare, but a few reflections on his interpretation are in order. The thesis that a 'military revolution' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occurred has been current since Michael Roberts first advanced it in the mid-1950s, and it is one which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Geoffrey Parker himself has further developed, most notably in )] TJ ET BT 341.288 261.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Military Revolution)] TJ ET BT 456.620 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University Press; Cambridge, 1988\). Of course, )] TJ ET BT 265.652 247.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Europe in Crisis)] TJ ET BT 344.996 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ends at 1648, and in view of that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terminating date the thesis of a ?military revolution? serves Parker well. However, two reservations may be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expressed. Firstly, if one looks forward to the military history of the second half of the century and then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continues into the eighteenth, one encounters even more changes relating to weaponry, tactics, the conduct )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of sieges, the organisation of military administration and so on, to the point that the notion of a 'military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolution' \(a phrase which implies the replacement of one ?system? by another\) begins to be transformed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into one of ?military evolution?. The alternative is to posit a theory of 'permanent revolution', but this is just )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as problematic in the history of warfare as it was in Maoist political philosophy. Secondly, the more we learn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about warfare even during the 1620s and 1630s, the less 'modern' it often looks. David Parrott's recent study )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the French army during Richelieu's ministry [see review 277] shows that age-old problems of recruitment, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisation, provision of equipment and the exercise of military command continued to undermine the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effectiveness of the army. It was not until the reforms of Le Tellier and Louvois later in the century that a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fully-fledged 'military revolution' occurred in the French army. The phrase ?military revolution?, rather like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that of ?scientific revolution? which was also in vogue in the mid-1950s and later, is surrounded by )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7816 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(numerous problems, some of definition and others relating to the distribution and duration of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(phenomenon which it purports to define. Perhaps it, like ?scientific revolution?, should be regarded as a term )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of convenience rather than a historical reality, and should be employed only in a rough and ready sense.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That the warfare of this period inflicted appalling socio-economic consequences on many parts of Europe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(needs no emphasis here; it is a theme which is prominent in many parts of )] TJ ET BT 392.312 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Europe in Crisis)] TJ ET BT 471.656 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Yet, by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social values of the time, warfare also had desirable social effects. Warfare enabled the nobility to fulfil its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?natural? social function of military activity. The conventional medieval division of society into those who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pray \(clergy\), those who fight \(nobility\), and those who labour \(commoners or Third Estate\) was never other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than an ideal typology, but the wars of the seventeenth century gave it new vigour, as the nobility of Europe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had ample opportunity to exercise its military calling. Commoners did occasionally rise to positions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military command, but the officers and generals of European armies came overwhelmingly from the ranks of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the nobility and aristocracy. To this extent, warfare reinforced bonds between crown and nobility. European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monarchs looked chiefly to the nobility for their commanders, while the latter accepted that their military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eminence depended in the last resort on royal favour. Warfare confirmed the mutual dependence of crown )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and nobility and helped to ensure that, even though crown and nobility sometimes might be in conflict over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domestic issues, they would abandon that mutual dependence only under the most exceptional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumstances, as happened, for example, in Portugal in the 1640s. Normally, whatever the seriousness of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the disputes between them, crown and nobility accepted that the social system within which they lived )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(required them to establish a )] TJ ET BT 169.664 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(modus vivendi)] TJ ET BT 238.652 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The reality of the ?military revolution? is taken for granted in)] TJ ET BT 329.300 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Europe in Crisis)] TJ ET BT 411.644 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and so is that of the ?general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crisis? of the seventeenth century. Indeed, the very title of the book reflects Professor Parker?s conviction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the history of this period is qualitatively different from that which preceded or followed it. Those among )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(us who, in our training as \(then\) young historians, observed the debates occasioned by the ?general crisis? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theory, recall the passion with which they were conducted and the fierce ideological confrontations which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they engendered as Marxists and non- \(or anti-\) Marxists locked in combats that at times became personal as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much as scholarly. The debates ran from the later 1950s to the early 1980s and generated an enormous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical literature; then as sometimes happens in historical debate, they petered out somewhat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inconclusively as a new generation of scholars turned to other topics. Those who championed the ?general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crisis? theory argued that the momentous economic, social, political and cultural conjunctures of which it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was composed were more than a European experience; they extended to Asia and, to a certain extent, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Americas. Professor Parker aligns himself with advocates of the theory, and although in )] TJ ET BT 458.948 344.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Europe in Crisis)] TJ ET BT 538.292 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does not have the space to explain at length why he does so, the bibliography draws the attention of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reader to some of the key literature on this subject.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In a sense, his explanation is implicit in the text of the book, the very structure of which conforms to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?general crisis? analysis. His opening chapters deal with the harsh socio-economic conditions under which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most Europeans lived; he moves on to the question of 'absolutism' as a political response to those conditions; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he discusses the international wars of the period, the civil wars and rebellions which proliferated across the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continent and, as stated earlier, concludes by examining what might be termed the 'cultural superstructure' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which was produced by these decades of crisis. In his discussion of 'absolutism', Professor Parker contrasts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the inflated theoretical claims made on behalf of 'absolute monarchy' in the seventeenth century \(and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(propagated through the printed word, sermons, paintings, music and other means\) with the hard realities of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government and administration, wherein a host of practical factors, such as geographical distance, provincial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rights, the ability of central and provincial administrators to undermine unpopular policies, severely curtailed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the exercise of monarchic power.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In one of the most stimulating of the new sections, however, Parker argues that if one wishes to observe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('absolutism' at work in this period, one should look at the churches, Catholic and Protestant alike \(how far )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the same may be said of Orthodoxy is a different matter\). The Council of Trent and the various doctrinal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agreements within Protestant churches afforded religious leaders a degree of ecclesiastical authority which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secular monarchs could but envy. The Tridentine Catholic Church, for instance, possessed a well-defined )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doctrine which was steadily imposed throughout the Catholic world, a precisely-structured ecclesiastical )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 6011 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hierarchy, efficient \(by the standards of the day\) administrative support, an obedient membership \(heterodox )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tendencies did emerge, as with Jansenism, but they were handled without another Reformation crisis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occurring\), and although the precise nature of papal authority remained in question, the Pope exercised a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leadership whose ?princely? attributes and powers outshone those of many secular monarchs. As regards the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(various Protestant churches, they might have rested on doctrinal foundations which differed from each other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as well as from those of Catholicism, but even so they managed to secure from their members a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commitment, enthusiasm and obedience which contrasted with the resistance which monarchs frequently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encountered among their subjects. The character, purposes and limitations of ?absolute monarchy? remain a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject of investigation among historians, but one approach is to perceive it as an attempt by secular rulers to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adapt to their own purposes the techniques of indoctrination \(in the neutral, non-pejorative sense of that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(word\) and control achieved by the churches. It is no accident that much monarchic propaganda appealed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the divine right of kings, thereby making a direct connection between obedience to God via the churches and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the monarch. This was a strategy not without considerable risks. In so far as rulers legitimated themselves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through religious criteria, in like measure did they expose themselves to criticism on doctrinal grounds. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thus, the denunciation of Charles I of England by his enemies that he was, in Biblical terms, a ?man of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blood?, who therefore could no longer command obedience from his subjects, proved fatal to his cause. And )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although Charles is an extreme case, he does illustrate the general point: that the appeal to divine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approbation in support of monarchic authority might have closed down certain avenues of criticism, but it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opened up others. To take this comment a stage further \(and beyond the chronological scope of )] TJ ET BT 493.592 539.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Europe in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Crisis)] TJ ET BT 62.696 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), it is possible that the resurgence of state-sponsored religious persecution that characterised several )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parts of Europe from about the 1670s to the turn of the century, was in part an attempt by rulers to suppress )] TJ ET BT 34.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?religious? criticism of their regimes which was a consequence of monarchic insistence on the divine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(right of kings.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Students and other readers who came to the period 1598-1648 through the first edition of )] TJ ET BT 464.288 456.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Europe in Crisis)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will find the new edition equally instructive, enjoyable, enlightening and essential; it thoroughly deserves the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appellation of ?modern classic? and will long remain a standard text. In its geographical spread, it still has a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1970's flavour, a reflection of the original publisher's remit to its authors. Although it incorporates eastern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and northern Europe, the book makes only passing reference to Britain and Ireland. While the revised final )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter now contains a discussion of science in England [pp. 252-4], the internal history of Britain and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland is not treated in any detail, a limitation that Parker himself notes from the outset \(p. xvi\). 'Europe' is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taken to mean the mainland continent. The front cover of the 1979 edition showed a profile of Richelieu?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(head taken from Philippe de Champaigne?s famous triple portrait; the cover of the new edition retains the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same source but uses the central portrait wherein Richelieu faces the reader. To finish these comments on a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(note of pedantry, however, the process of reproduction has reversed the cardinal?s posture: he gazes over his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(right instead of his left shoulder.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 254.527 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 236.747 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 236.747 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/284)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 235.353 m 322.316 235.353 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 210.376 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 195.976 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2615)] TJ ET BT 34.016 181.576 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 235.6675 322.3157 247.5475 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/284) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000536 00000 n 0000000618 00000 n 0000004997 00000 n 0000005106 00000 n 0000005216 00000 n 0000005325 00000 n 0000008886 00000 n 0000009014 00000 n 0000009098 00000 n 0000009163 00000 n 0000017186 00000 n 0000017251 00000 n 0000025048 00000 n 0000025113 00000 n 0000032982 00000 n 0000033066 00000 n 0000039130 00000 n 0000039258 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 39353 %%EOF