%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 24 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140721191830+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140721191830+01'00') /Title (Obedient Heretics: Mennonite Identities in Lutheran Hamburg and Altona During the Confessional Age) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3998 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Obedient Heretics: Mennonite Identities in Lutheran Hamburg and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Altona During the Confessional Age)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book in the St Andrews Studies in Reformation History series has the central purpose of expanding the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scope of studies of the radical Reformation into the 'confessional age'. It focuses on the implications for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anabaptists of the institutionalization of their religious life in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addresses the debate surrounding the uses of the terms 'confessionalism' and 'confessionalization' to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understand the development of early modern religious communities and their relationship to state power. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contends that studies of Anabaptist communities belong within, and contribute to, these debates on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confession-building and confessional identity in post-Reformation Europe.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Driedger's study focuses on the Mennonite communities of refugees from the Low Countries who settled in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hamburg and Altona, and in particular on the career of their long-lived lay preacher, Geeritt Roosen \(1612-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1711\). These refugees from Flanders remained a linguistic, ethnic and religious minority in north Germany, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who maintained close relations with fellow Mennonites in the Dutch Republic. The Mennonite community )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Hamburg had around 200 to 250 baptized members by the second half of the seventeenth century. These )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(settlers were able to pay the city authorities for rights of residence, and many in time were also able to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(286)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 30 June, 2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael D. Driedger)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780754602927)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(65.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(238pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ashgate)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(https://www.ashgate.com/default.aspx?page=637&calcTitle=1&title_id=3082&edition_id=4257)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aldershot & Burlington)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Graeme Murdock)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7297 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(become citizens in their adopted home. The translation of this community to Hamburg and Altona made a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant contribution to local economic life. Mennonites were particularly involved in textile production, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trading, ship-owning, whaling and insurance. The first church building for Mennonite use in Altona was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opened in 1675. A congregational council governed the church, and its members included all deacons and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lay preachers, such as the merchant Geeritt Roosen, although only once ordained as elders could preachers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conduct baptisms, communion services, and marriages.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mennonites did not have rights of public worship inside Hamburg, and instead had to travel to Altona. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, the Lutheran authorities on Hamburg's council were well aware of the economic benefits for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(city of the Flemish refugees, and were reluctant to see the community leave for permanent settlement in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Altona. The ruling count over Altona had invited the Mennonites to settle there in the early seventeenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, and the privileges offered to Mennonites in the town were maintained when in 1641 the territory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was inherited by Christian IV of Denmark. Mennonites in Lutheran Altona were promised protection by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Danish king alongside other Calvinist, Catholic and Jewish minorities. Where rulers in early modern Europe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were able to establish a clear and relatively unchallenged legal framework for diversity of religious practice, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then a common pattern emerges: that many societies were able to accept such legal arrangements for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(toleration of religious difference, and developed social mechanisms to limit outbreaks of confessional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hostility, and to manage the problems posed by multi-confessional environments. Altona presents a further )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example of such practical toleration of religious difference, where a majority Lutheran community did not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feel threatened by the presence of small minority groups, and reinforces suggestions that communal religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violence in the post-Reformation period often represents above all a failure in the operation of law in early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern states.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The identity of these North German Mennonites was shaped by their inherited religious history and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditions, and by their conduct of religious worship and rituals. It was also defined in moments of crisis, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly during their migration from Flanders, and was reinforced by challenges from without and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contested by schisms from within. Since the Mennonite tradition lacked strong institutional frameworks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which could act as arbiters of such internal disputes, the church was particularly prone to fall victim to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(congregational divisions. For example, Driedger gives attention to the split within the Altona-based )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(congregation over the need for baptism by immersion rather than sprinkling. 'Dompelaar' schismatics also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insisted on the need for communion to be celebrated in the evening using unleavened bread, and only after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ceremonial washing of feet. Negotiations about this split in the community, and attempts at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconciliation, forced both sides to articulate defences of their particular religious practices, and Geeritt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roosen produced a manuscript catechism which set out the traditional community's beliefs.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Driedger considers three other key areas of Mennonite belief and identity within the Hamburg and Altona )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communities: their rejection of violence, non-swearing of solemn oaths, and purity of community discipline. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the first area of non-resistance, Mennonite ship-owners and businessmen were faced with the problem of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how to deal with blockades against shipping during war-time and attacks on ships by privateers. Should their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ships be defended, or not? It seems clear that some local Mennonites did in fact arm their ships in time of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war, despite the official prohibition on believers from committing violence or bearing arms. While Geeritt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roosen was a firm supporter of non-resistance, he apparently had no problems with his family members )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being involved in gunpowder production. Roosen acknowledged that his secular rulers were expected to use )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(force of arms to protect their subjects, including Mennonites, against their enemies. He therefore justified )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involvement in the production of gunpowder as long as Mennonites themselves continued to avoid using )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arms.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The issue of non-swearing of oaths led to other sorts of difficulties for Mennonites in Hamburg. When the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(merchant Hans Plus was sued over a commercial deal gone sour, the authorities in Hamburg were willing for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(him to use a non-religious affirmation, 'by the truth of men', to support his testimony. When this case was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brought to the Imperial Cameral Court in 1661, the city was forced to defend this acceptance of a non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious oath. Hamburg's lawyer argued that Mennonites, unlike Anabaptists, were Christians and did not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fall under Imperial bans. He argued that Mennonites had brought prosperity to the city through their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commercial activity, that men like Plus were legally recognized residents of Hamburg, and that the formula )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7387 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of swearing by the truth of men was acceptable in Hamburg and did not break imperial law. The case was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(never fully resolved, and although Plus was forced into exile in Russia there were no other lasting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequences for the Mennonite community. A mandate from the Hamburg senate in 1694 clarified that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mennonites were able to give legal testimony and conduct business using the approved alternative to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(solemn religious oath. Mennonites retained some uncertainty about this solution, and while on the one hand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roosen pressed for them to be allowed simply to testify to the truth without using any formula such as 'by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the truth of men', on the other hand this formula became generally accepted practice within the Hamburg )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mennonites defended the purity of their community through their attitude to mixed marriages and by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(application of church discipline. Mennonites had to be baptized before they were considered eligible for an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(official marriage, and marriages were usually conducted soon after baptisms. There is no suggestion by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Driedger of the strategic delaying of baptism by Mennonites until they were certain that they were going to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marry within their own confessional community. While some Mennonites married with fellow-believers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from other northern European communities, and elite families within the congregation built strong local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(family alliances through marriages, marriage to non-Mennonites features as one of the most common )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offences which led to disciplinary action by the church authorities. Evidence from the community's records )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is presented in appendices to the text which place mixed marriages alongside drunkenness, adultery, violent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behaviour and bankruptcy as key areas of church disciplinary action. The church recorded those lost to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community through mixed marriages, and also recorded those who left their community and converted to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lutheranism or to Quakerism, in response to the activity of some English missionaries to the region. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Problems about maintaining Mennonite families intact faced even church leaders such as Roosen \(as one of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his daughters-in-law was a nominal Lutheran\) and were an intrinsic part of the life of such a small exile )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community. However, this also meant that the Mennonites of Hamburg and Altona were an increasingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diverse community, with a range of economic, social and family relationships with their host community. An )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasing number of families had members who were not Mennonites, which led to the breakdown of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural barriers between Mennonites and Lutherans, a growing complexity in Mennonite social life, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasing difficulties for church leaders to enforce discipline on ordinary believers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The identity of these Flemish refugees as Mennonites was most clearly articulated when it had to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defended against polemic attack and was obscured over time by commercial and social relations with non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mennonites. Driedger concludes that Mennonite identity had an intermittent character, and points to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(positioning of religious commitment as the prime, but not exclusive source, of the public identity of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mennonites in Hamburg and Altona. Driedger considers whether Mennonite religious identity in Hamburg )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might properly be called 'confessional Anabaptism'. Hamburg Mennonites supported the efforts of some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(northern European Anabaptists to establish a clear statement of agreed beliefs and religious practices. A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Zonist society emerged as the institutional umbrella for such confessional Mennonites, while Lamists were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unwilling to move beyond the text of Scripture and rejected attempts to provide statements about Mennonite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(orthodoxy. The Mennonites of Hamburg and Altona were allied to the Zonist camp, partly as a result of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dompelaar schism and partly because of Roosen's leadership. Although the congregation only established )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formal links with the Zonists in 1707, Hamburg Mennonites were thus in some sense a confessional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community, bounded by clear definitions of orthodoxy and by the application of church discipline.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Driedger then considers whether the model of confessionalization developed by Ernst Walter Zeeden, Heinz )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schilling, Wolfgang Reinhard and others can usefully be applied to early modern Hamburg. The notion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confessionalization in early modern states and societies suggests that the institutions and hierarchies of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confessional churches combined with the bureaucracies of states to enforce religious uniformity and social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discipline on their subjects, and that this cooperation was mutually beneficial to churches and states. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(application of this theory by historians of the Empire and elsewhere has encouraged them to see parallel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confessional paths of social integration, with controls being established over ordinary people's attitudes and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actions by clergy and secular officials in Catholic, Lutheran and Reformed states. Heinrich Schmidt has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argued that this concentration on the state at the heart of the model of confessionalization produces a very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(top-down image of power in early modern societies and does not allow for communities to have taken the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 22 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 6846 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(initiative in programmes of self-regulation. For Schmidt, confessionalization must be recognized as more of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a community project, and be less reliant on ideas about the role of the state in the imposition of social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discipline.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The application of the model of confessionalization has also been considered for religious communities who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could not form such alliances with state power. For example, Gregory Hanlon has described a weak )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confessionalization among French Calvinist communities in his 1993 work )] TJ ET BT 397.004 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Confession and Community in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Seventeenth-Century France. Catholic and Protestant Coexistence in Aquitaine)] TJ ET BT 415.976 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(University of Pennsylvania )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Press; Philadelphia, 1993\). Hanlon argues that confessionalization should be regarded as the process )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whereby barricades were erected around each church group. There was concern among Reformed church )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leaders in the towns of Aquitaine that intermarriage with the majority Catholic community was weakening )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Reformed church. Attempts to impose 'Reformed' behaviour and ethics on the local Hugeunot )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community were faced with the reality of constant social and economic interaction with Catholics. Where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Reformed church had been the dominant religion of the region, the attraction of social integration had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supported the growth of support for Calvinism, but the same force contributed to the church's decline in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mid-seventeenth century. Hanlon also stresses that Catholicism had the added appeal of being the religion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authority.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hanlon, like Driedger, does not view religious identity as an autonomous category of social experience, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(places it firmly alongside other social, political and economic relationships. The danger in some of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis is that the social power of religious ideas becomes a significant concern only to a devout )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confessional core, while most 'ordinary people' allow their confessional identity to vary according to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changing economic, social and political relationships.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are a number of reasons why the Mennonite community did not end up as the victims of a Lutheran )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confessionalization of Hamburg. Lutherans launched periodic polemic attacks on the beliefs of Mennonites. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There was also an increasing degree of social integration of Mennonites within the city. However, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community of foreign refugees was certainly more likely than most religious minorities to have a high )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proportion of members who remained committed to combat forces that diluted their religious and social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identity. The church leadership worked to provide clear statements of belief for Mennonites, and offered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pragmatic counsel on dealing with such practical issues as non-violence and not swearing oaths. While the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mennonites were forbidden from holding political office in Hamburg, they also benefited from divisions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within the Lutheran community between Pietists and non-Pietists. Pietist reformers tended to get a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sympathetic hearing from the Senate, who were wary of the jurisdictional claims of orthodox Lutheran )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clergy. A battle in the 1690s between conservative clergy and the council led to political violence as guild )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leaders challenged the traditional authority of the Senate. This turmoil over religious ideas and political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power also brought the position of Mennonites under increased scrutiny, but they remained loyal to the old )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(order.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Driedger points out that Mennonite confessionalism thus led to political conservatism, the 'obedient heretics' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the title, while an intensification of Lutheran piety and identity led to political rebellion. Driedger )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggests on this basis that confessionalism and confessionalization in Hamburg should both be taken merely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to mean religious identity formation, without any need to emphasize a confessionalizing alliance between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secular rulers and leaders of the Lutheran church. This study, alongside the work of Schmidt and Hanlon, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offers a growing challenge to the older state-focused model of confessionalization, and certainly suggests )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems for its application to the position of minority religious communities in early modern states.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H-Net Reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 107.811 m 240.992 107.811 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 243.992 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 104.479 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 86.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 86.699 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/286)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 85.305 m 322.316 85.305 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 60.328 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 108.1255 240.9917 120.0055 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=8833) >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 85.6195 322.3157 97.4995 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/286) >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 250 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.354 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2686)] TJ ET BT 34.016 781.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=8833)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 26 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000608 00000 n 0000000690 00000 n 0000004740 00000 n 0000004849 00000 n 0000004959 00000 n 0000005068 00000 n 0000008629 00000 n 0000008757 00000 n 0000008841 00000 n 0000008906 00000 n 0000016256 00000 n 0000016321 00000 n 0000023761 00000 n 0000023852 00000 n 0000030751 00000 n 0000030878 00000 n 0000030978 00000 n 0000031104 00000 n 0000031199 00000 n 0000031264 00000 n trailer << /Size 26 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 31566 %%EOF