%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 20 0 R 28 0 R 39 0 R 44 0 R 61 0 R 72 0 R 77 0 R 91 0 R 99 0 R 104 0 R 109 0 R 111 0 R 145 0 R ] /Count 14 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141128043959+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141128043959+00'00') /Title (Why We Need a History of Trust) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 5102 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Why We Need a History of Trust)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Confucius once remarked that rulers need three resources: weapons, food and trust. The ruler who cannot )] TJ ET BT 34.016 358.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have all three should give up weapons first, then food, but should hold on to trust at all costs: 'without trust )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we cannot stand'.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 116.492 344.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 116.492 343.209 m 130.484 343.209 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 130.484 344.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Machiavelli disagreed. A prince should if possible, he asserted, be both loved and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feared, but if both were not possible, then he should choose to be feared rather than loved. 'Love is held )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(together by a chain of obligation which, since men are wretched creatures, is broken on every occasion in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which their own interests are concerned; but fear is sustained by a dread of punishment which will never )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abandon you.')] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 100.832 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 100.832 286.185 m 114.824 286.185 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 261.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I suspect most of us, historians certainly, would agree with Machiavelli. On the whole we are more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interested in the operation of power within society than in the distribution of trust, in social solidarity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brought about from above rather than generated from below. Moreover, historians are more interested in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflict than in stability. We write far more about how wars and revolutions break out than about how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflict is avoided and revolutions are forestalled. How many studies have been written of the breakdown of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Weimar Republic before 1933 in comparison with those on the establishment of the German Federal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Republic after 1945? Yet in some ways the latter is the more unusual and remarkable story. We have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(histories of many things: political power, ethnic and national identity, civil society, economic development, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the family, religion and so on. But not of trust, which underlies all these phenomena.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I have spent most of my life studying Russia. That has naturally meant studying power politics, the actions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and intentions of rulers and their officials. But over the years I have become increasingly aware of another )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dimension to Russian society. After all, there have been several occasions in Russia's history when the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power structure )] TJ ET BT 111.992 78.251 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(looked)] TJ ET BT 143.984 78.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( impressive, but then suddenly collapsed. In the twentieth century it happened to both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the tsarist regime and to the Soviet one. On both occasions, however, Russian society survived, however )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(battered and bruised, and re-emerged in recognisable shape. Some form of social cohesion has been at work, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(287)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 1 July, 2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Niklas Luhmann)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1979)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Wiley & Sons)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chichester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Geoffrey Hosking)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 116.4917 343.5235 130.4837 355.4035 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 100.8317 286.4995 114.8237 298.3795 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R 26 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7661 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not independent of the power structure, but detachable from it. Again, in post-Soviet times, the proposed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic reforms )] TJ ET BT 123.992 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(looked)] TJ ET BT 155.984 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( well-conceived, but failed to work as intended because they did not bond with that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same grass roots mode of social cohesion.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The vital question, it seems to me, in Russia as elsewhere, is the reason why people trust one another - and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(why sometimes they mistrust one another. In traditional Russian society peasant communities were welded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(together by )] TJ ET BT 91.340 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(krugovaia poruka)] TJ ET BT 176.996 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, or 'joint responsibility', under which they paid taxes and furnished recruits for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the army together. If one household failed to pay its share, then others made up the difference; if a recruit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from one family proved unsuitable or deserted, then another family had to provide a substitute. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arrangement meant that all members of a village community had an interest in ensuring that every household )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enjoyed a basic level of subsistence, enough to pay its dues and bring up healthy young men. Forms of land )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tenure and village administration were designed to ensure that that was the case. Hence the custom of mutual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aid in times of adversity. It was not altruism but common sense: if your neighbour was poverty-stricken, you )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would end up paying his taxes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Such grass roots contrivances were very convenient for the rulers: they made taxation and recruitment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relatively easy. But they also enabled peasants to survive difficulties and emergencies, inevitable in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(country with a harsh climate and vulnerable borders. The resulting customs re-emerged after the revolution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Soviet society, where communities of 'joint responsibility' reconstituted themselves in different forms in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Soviet enterprises, collective farms and communal apartments, each with their own boss or patron both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exploiting and protecting them. And even in post-Soviet society they survive: they are the main reason why )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the practices of the globalised economy are difficult to reproduce in Russia. When in trouble, you look for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rescue to a protector or to group solidarity, and not to the police, the law courts or the market.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(So if we do not study systematically the structures of trust and social cohesion, we risk missing essential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(features of a society and are likely to make serious mistakes in dealing with it. That is what the International )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monetary Fund and other international financial institutions have done in Russia.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Trust is one of the most pervasive - and perhaps for that reason least noticed - aspects of social life. We need )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it in order to live at all. As the German sociologist Niklas Luhmann has remarked, 'A complete absence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trust would prevent [one] even getting up in the morning.')] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 311.480 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 311.480 376.419 m 325.472 376.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 325.472 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( For that reason human beings tend to face the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world with an attitude of trust. Unless there is strong evidence to the contrary, we assume when we go out of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the front door that no gunman will be waiting in the street to shoot us. Until recently we took it for granted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that, if we worked in the upper floors of a tall building, no one was deliberately going to fly an aircraft into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it. Every time I use a lift I presume without checking that it has been properly constructed, repaired and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maintained, that its cables are in good working order and that its electric supply system is safe. Yet it is not a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hundred per cent certain that that is the case. We simply have to make these assumptions, otherwise life )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would become impossible. We do not have the time to check the professional competence of everyone on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whom our health and even lives may depend.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Trust is necessary in order to face the unknown, whether that unknown is another human being, or simply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the future and its contingent events. Seldom, if ever, can we obtain all the information we would need in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(order to take decisions in a completely rational manner. At a certain point in our 'intelligence-gathering' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the world we have to call a halt, say 'enough is enough' and take a decision based on what we know )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the way we feel. That decision will inevitably partly be based on trust. Trust is thus a way of reducing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uncertainty. It lies somewhere between hope and confidence, and involves an element of semi-calculated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(risk-taking. 'Trust, by the reduction of complexity, discloses possibilities for action which would have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remained unattractive and improbable without trust - which would not, in other words, have been pursued.')] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 546.764 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 546.764 136.323 m 560.756 136.323 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Trust also makes an essential contribution to our cognitive equipment. It forms a constitutive part of the way )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in which we conceive the world. We learn about the world first of all from our parents, and later through our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intercourse with partners, friends, colleagues and people with whom we feel an affinity. Since we cannot )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(learn everything by personal experience, we take on trust much of what they tell us. At an even deeper level, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their discourse, their ways of mentally constituting the world in which they live becomes a usually unnoticed )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 311.4797 376.7335 325.4717 388.6135 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 546.7637 136.6375 560.7557 148.5175 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 31 0 R 34 0 R 37 0 R ] /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 7346 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but firmly embedded part of our own world-picture.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It has been argued that the scientific revolution only became possible thanks to the operation of a certain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kind of trust. According to Steven Shapin, seventeenth-century English scientists, of whom he takes Robert )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Boyle as an exemplar, combined three sets of qualities, all needed for systematic but at the same time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(innovative scientific speculation: \(i\) the knightly code of honour, courage and independence, needed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenge accepted concepts, to make assertions unaffected by dependence on others, and to stick by one's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unrefuted hypotheses; \(ii\) the post-renaissance humanist courtly virtues of self-discipline, decorum and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(courtesy, needed for systematic work and calm, orderly discussion of the results; \(iii\) the Christian virtues of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(humility, self-interrogation and readiness to acknowledge a fault, needed to accept criticism and to abandon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hypotheses once refuted. On their own, none of these sets of characteristics would have sufficed to engender )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scientific thinking: it required their coalescence in the seventeenth-century English social milieu, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encouraged regular meeting and exchange of ideas in a supportive atmosphere.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 412.916 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 412.916 626.259 m 426.908 626.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Some of the most powerful and pervasive institutions of the modern world have grown out of arrangements )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(initially improvised in order to foster familiarity and trust. The English legal profession - model for many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others in the modern world - originated in the Inns of Court and Chancery in London, where apprentice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practitioners learned their trade from their seniors, and also ate their dinners together. The latter practice was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presumably intended to promote conviviality and mutual confidence, as well as the exchange and discussion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of experience. In the early sixteenth century those same Inns were also a kind of 'third university of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England', where young gentlemen, including some not intending to study law, spent time improving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves and forming social networks on the threshold of adult life. As the legal historian J. H. Baker has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remarked)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Here the future statesmen, members of parliament, county magistrates and official classes joined together in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work and play. They learned the names which would matter to them, dined and prayed together, displayed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their wealth or their talents \(whichever was more conspicuous\), talked of law and much else, drank, diced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and misbehaved. The experience coloured one's whole life: well might Justice Shallow's mind dwell in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(closing years on the days he had spent in Clement's Inn.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Since attendance was expensive, especially for those who lived outside London, its members had the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comforting consciousness of belonging to an elite club. That is one of the ways in which mutual trust is built )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(up, and the motive is evidently still at work: to the present day aspiring barristers must dine 32 times over at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(least eight terms in order to qualify.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 205.664 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 205.664 333.651 m 219.656 333.651 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Similarly, both insurance companies and stock exchanges originated in late seventeenth-century London )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coffee houses, where merchants, shipowners and bankers would gather to exchange news about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commodities, technical novelties and commercial voyages. At establishments such as Jonathan's or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Garraways in Exchange Alley in the City, buyers and sellers of securities could be brought together and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(matched. Not far away, Edward Lloyd's Coffee House specialised in marine insurance and Tom's and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Causey's in fire insurance. With the help of the latest information and of various colleagues' estimates of it, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those involved could better assess the price one should pay for particular goods and services, and the risk )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one was assuming in undertaking certain types of transaction. The informal bonhomie of such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(establishments was crucial in generating the mutual confidence necessary for commercial and financial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(operations.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 87.008 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 87.008 179.091 m 101.000 179.091 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Such an example may at first sight seem haphazard. In reality it is not so. Trust needs to be created, but once )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it is established it can become both powerful and long-lasting. That is why some writers refer to its results as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('social capital', facilitating social development in the same way that financial and fixed capital, properly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deployed, advances economic development. As an example of how social capital operates, the sociologist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James Coleman cited a family which moved from the suburbs of Detroit to those of Jerusalem, even though )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Israel is both poorer and more vulnerable than the USA. The parents felt, however, that in Jerusalem they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would be able to let their children have more freedom, going to school and shopping on their own, secure in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the knowledge that if they got into any trouble other adults would intervene and help them out - something )] TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj [28 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 412.9157 626.5735 426.9077 638.4535 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj [28 0 R /Fit] endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 205.6637 333.9655 219.6557 345.8455 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj [28 0 R /Fit] endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 87.0077 179.4055 100.9997 191.2855 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 42 0 R ] /Contents 40 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Length 5961 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unlikely to happen in Detroit. Jerusalem was richer in social capital, the elementary background trust which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enables us to get on with our lives without constantly taking precautions. Where social capital is plentiful, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opportunities are increased and transaction costs reduced.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 310.280 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 310.280 766.563 m 324.272 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In exercising trust we are not simply lazily choosing to ignore part of what we do not know: we actually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change some of the circumstances which will affect our actions, on some occasions even decisively. In most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of our everyday transactions, we are not simply dealing with objective, unalterable conditions, but with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people and their subjective response to us: by exercising trust we are likely - though not certain - to affect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that response positively. Besides, trust is a self-generating and self-renewing resource. Unlike most forms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capital, it does not get consumed by our drawing on deposits of it. On the contrary, trust is self-reinforcing. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When we trust others, they usually - not always, of course - reciprocate, and the total stock of trust is thereby )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increased. By the same token, when we distrust others, they will almost certainly pay us back in the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(key; the total stock of trust is diminished, and conflict, of whatever kind, becomes more likely. The stock )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(market in social capital plunges.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Human beings tend to produce trust spontaneously, indeed to overproduce it, like a gland which secretes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more of a certain chemical than is strictly necessary for the body. We 'secrete' trust sometimes when the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumstances do not warrant it. Not indefinitely: trust can become eroded, can turn into suspicion and then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(break down altogether. There are times when a spouse's infidelities become intolerable, even to a trusting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(partner, or a son's capacity for getting into debt undermines the patience of even the most doting parent. But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the point is that human beings commonly display trust well beyond the point when evidence starts to suggest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that it is unwarranted. As Dr Johnson explained, 'It is happier to be sometimes cheated than not to trust.' We )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all know that banks do not carry deposits of gold sufficient to back up our use of paper money, yet we go on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trusting banks in all but the most abnormal circumstances. We all know that governments issue more orders )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and instructions than they could possibly enforce by calling on their powers of coercion, yet we mostly obey )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governments, pay our taxes to them and expect others to do likewise. This kind of acquiescence by inertia is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essential for civilised life to continue, and usually we do not even notice that we are practising it. Yet it is by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no means to be taken for granted. There are some societies in which banks are not trusted, taxes are not paid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and governments are routinely disobeyed. The point is to explain how this kind of routine minimal trust )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arises at all, how it is sustained and whether or not it generates peace or conflict.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The issue of trust is crucial today. In the decade or more since the end of the cold war, most nations and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(good many international organisations have been looking for ways to reconcile bitterly divided communities, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to create and maintain peace. 'Truth and reconciliation commissions' have endeavoured to enable former )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oppressors and their victims to live in the same society without tearing each other apart. 'Peace-keeping' has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(become the principal business of many national armies, and that sometimes seems to mean creating a peace )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where there was none to keep. In the Balkans, the former Soviet Union, Angola, Indonesia and elsewhere, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international organisations have been seeking ways to promote social cohesion and the stability which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encourages economic growth. Failure in this endeavour is far more dramatic and 'interesting' than success, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and gets itself better reported in the media, so that the ordinary newspaper-reader or television-watcher gains )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the impression that promoting trust is hopeless, and we are certainly not well-informed on the ways in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(success is sometimes achieved.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 41 0 obj [39 0 R /Fit] endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 310.2797 766.8775 324.2717 778.7575 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 47 0 R 50 0 R 53 0 R 56 0 R 59 0 R ] /Contents 45 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Length 7982 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In advanced western societies trust is also a serious problem: there is growing public distrust of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions, official and professional, in which we used to place our confidence, and as a result, there is more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(litigation, more overworked teachers and demoralised social workers, greater reluctance to help the police, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(greater recourse to private health care, and the like. Robert Putnam has suggested that since the 1960s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(membership in associations of civil society has drastically declined, and that as a result the peaceful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interaction of citizens necessary to democracy may be under threat.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 357.260 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 357.260 711.795 m 371.252 711.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 371.252 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In her Reith Lectures of 2002 Onora )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(O'Neill argued that the decline in trust is partly illusory, but did not deny that a 'culture of suspicion' is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developing apace )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 120.656 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 120.656 683.283 m 140.648 683.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 140.648 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Francis Fukuyama has provided abundant evidence of growing distrust: rising crime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rates, the weakening of the family, distrust towards scientists, doctors, police personnel, state officials and so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 49.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 49.016 654.771 m 69.008 654.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 69.008 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Anthony Giddens has suggested that trust is not necessarily at a lower level today than in earlier )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generations, but that it certainly takes very different forms.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 316.628 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 316.628 640.515 m 336.620 640.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Historians have not entered this debate very much. In a way, that is understandable, since they write about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the past. They do, however, have two great advantages when approaching questions of trust. The first is that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they do not examine economies, political structures or social welfare systems in isolation: they are interested )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in whole societies. Western economists working in the former Soviet bloc in the last decade are probably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excellent at their subject, but they have not seemed able to place their economic counsel in a wider context, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to see that measures which promote growth in one society will stifle it in another, or even endanger the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social fabric. An economy is part of a web of inter-relationships which make up society as a whole. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Historians are better placed than most social scientists to study the entirety of that web.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Secondly, historians locate their studies in the flow of time. A social problem is not like a chess problem, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where the previous moves needed to reach the position on the board are irrelevant to the solution. Societies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are composed of people whose mentality and outlook have been constituted by their previous life experience )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and that of those around them. Their future actions will be strongly, perhaps decisively, influenced by that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience. It is vital to know what their past was and to understand how they reacted to it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In principle, then, historians could be useful in providing an insight into the different ways in which trust )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(functions in different societies, and in which social cohesion is or is not sustained. Yet actually, when I look )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at what most of my colleagues are doing, I have to admit that the generation of peace and stability is not high )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(among their priorities.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I believe that historians currently over-emphasise power. The history of societies is nowadays usually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(written in terms of their power relationships, and the assumption that power is the decisive factor, not only in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics, but in all aspects of social life has eaten deep into our routine accounts of social structure. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(salient aspects of social life are analysed through relationships of domination and submission - or periodic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolt - whether it be family, gender, class, culture, religion or ethnos which is at issue.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The thinker who currently underwrites the obsession with power is Michel Foucault. He sees power as being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('inscribed' into all our social relationships, all our discourses and practices. He contends that a new form of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power has arisen since the sixteenth century: that of the State \(with a capital 's'\). It operates not just through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coercion, but in many other much subtler and more insidious ways. Its most successful coup was to take over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the pastoral role of the church, replacing the function of ensuring salvation in the after-life by that of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guaranteeing social welfare in this life. In order to fulfil that function, it collects information on individuals, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counting them, classifying them, fixing them in card indices \(or computer files\) and archives, and also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(backing up the efforts of professional experts to educate them \(teachers\), care for their bodies \(doctors\) and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(souls \(psychiatrists\), enmesh them in juridical relationships \(lawyers\), supervise them \(policemen\) and if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessary punish them \(prison officers\). In a real sense the state confers on persons their individuality, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without the documents and records of the state their identity is insubstantial and they are helpless to do )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anything; it even moulds their consciousness, which it then controls, not in a direct manner, but through the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(multiple technologies available to those who occupy the higher positions in the political hierarchy.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 507.308 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 507.308 81.555 m 527.300 81.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Power is even more pervasive than that, in Foucault's account. It is not just the exercise of sovereignty, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 46 0 obj [44 0 R /Fit] endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 357.2597 712.1095 371.2517 723.9895 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 49 0 obj [44 0 R /Fit] endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 120.6557 683.5975 140.6477 695.4775 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 52 0 obj [44 0 R /Fit] endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 54 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 49.0157 655.0855 69.0077 666.9655 ] >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 55 0 obj [44 0 R /Fit] endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 57 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 316.6277 640.8295 336.6197 652.7095 ] >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 58 0 obj [44 0 R /Fit] endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 60 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 507.3077 81.8695 527.2997 93.7495 ] >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 64 0 R 67 0 R 70 0 R ] /Contents 62 0 R >> endobj 62 0 obj << /Length 7822 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which is the prerogative of the state, not just a matter of commanding or laying down the law. Power is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('intentional and non-subjective': that is, it operates through the intentional activity of collectives of people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who are nevertheless unable to foresee or to determine the results of what they are doing. It is also multi-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(directional, 'operating from the top down and also from the bottom up.' It is 'exercised on the dominant as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well as on the dominated; there is a process of self-formation or auto-colonisation involved.' As the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bourgeoisie gained power during the seventeenth to the nineteenth centuries it had to 'exercise strict controls )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primarily on its own members. The technologies of confession and the associated concern with life, sex and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(health were initially applied by the bourgeoisie to itself.' Even truth statements reveal not the truth - which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anyway in an objective sense does not exist, in Foucault's view - but the nature of the power relationships in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the society which produced the statement.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 235.316 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 235.316 666.771 m 255.308 666.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I have considered Foucault at some length because he is very perceptive about many aspects of social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cohesion, especially perhaps about the feelings of those who are excluded from the power network and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(driven to various forms of 'resistance' against it. His notion of 'genealogy' is useful in explaining the origin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and development of human feelings during historical time. Yet there is something profoundly unsatisfactory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about a concept of power which is so vague and all-embracing, which proceeds from no particular source or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centre, and which is lacking in all subjectivity and direction. It is no accident that his master-image of power )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the post-Enlightenment world, Bentham's Panopticon, was never put into practice. At times one feels that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Foucault was deliberately not noticing what was under his nose: people's mutual sympathy, their lively and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apparently ineradicable tendency to seek reciprocal relationships with one another. Many of his evasions and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumlocutions could be avoided if one postulates that much of what he explains through power would be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(better explained by a quite different human propensity: trust. What we really need is a genealogy of trust.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps Diderot can help us make the leap from power to trust. He once said that 'The consent of men united )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in society is the foundation of power.')] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 215.156 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(15\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 215.156 457.443 m 235.148 457.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 235.148 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It is the nature of that consent, the ways in which it is generated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and sustained, that need to be more closely examined. That is where trust comes in.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Foucault deliberately refrained from defining 'power', but let me all the same rashly attempt to define trust. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relates to both contingencies and persons, so here are two parallel definitions: 'The expectation, based on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(good but less than perfect evidence, that events will turn out in a way not harmful to me,' and 'Attachment to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a person, based on the well-founded but not certain expectation that he/she will act for my good.' Trust is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a precise term, however, and there are many near synonyms: tolerance, acquiescence, acceptance, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confidence, loyalty, familiarity, attachment, hope; social cohesion/solidarity are objective correlatives.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A sociologist who worked on similar material to Foucault but from a different viewpoint was Norbert Elias. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He was interested in the way extensive areas of peace and civilisation were created in Europe from the late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(middle ages onwards. Essentially a historical sociologist, he traced the process by which the gradual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centralisation of power in monarchical states changed human behaviour, so that the coarse and aggressive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demeanour of medieval people, especially men, was tamed. People became more courteous and considerate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of others, more calculating and rational in renouncing immediate gratification in favour of longer-term )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(benefit. In the genteelly competitive milieu of the monarchical court - and also in the financial and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commercial world, to which Elias seems to me not to pay enough attention - the people who almost always )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(won out would be those who knew how to restrain their affects, to foresee the consequences of their actions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and to behave prudently, reserving expressions of anger or aggression for the moment when they could have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maximum positive effect. The culture of the court then gradually spread to high society at large, to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professions, to the market place; it influenced anyone who wanted to get on in life and do well for him- or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(herself. The networks of human inter-dependence became more extensive and more complex, demanding of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(each individual a more generalised and impersonal bonhomie or tolerance, to cope with the repeated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience of dealing with strangers. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 213.968 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(16\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 213.968 119.811 m 233.960 119.811 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elias worked in the same field of the 'genealogy' of human feelings as Foucault, only he called it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('sociogenesis' and 'psychogenesis' instead. The difference is that, although he sees the importance of power, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he is not totally obsessed by it. He attributes more importance to 'agency' than Foucault, to what human )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beings decide for themselves, however strongly influenced by the 'structure' of the society and culture )] TJ ET endstream endobj 63 0 obj [61 0 R /Fit] endobj 64 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 65 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 235.3157 667.0855 255.3077 678.9655 ] >> endobj 65 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 66 0 obj [61 0 R /Fit] endobj 67 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 68 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 215.1557 457.7575 235.1477 469.6375 ] >> endobj 68 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 69 0 obj [61 0 R /Fit] endobj 70 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 71 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 213.9677 120.1255 233.9597 132.0055 ] >> endobj 71 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 72 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 75 0 R ] /Contents 73 0 R >> endobj 73 0 obj << /Length 7712 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(around them. I believe we can both verify and develop his insights by examining the different ways in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(human beings trust - accept, tolerate, etc - one another in different societies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elias indicates the ways in which networks of communication and the associated trust are extended to ever )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wider communities. That process accelerated sharply during his own lifetime. Today we may well be in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(closer touch with professional colleagues in Warsaw and Los Angeles, whom we have never met, than with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(our next-door neighbours, to whom we nod casually every day. This is exciting and fruitful, but there is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(downside. Trust of this kind is likely to be 'cooler', mediated through electronic text rather than through the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(warmth of handshakes, eye contact and the spoken word. In the globalised community human beings may )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feel depersonalised and spiritually empty, they may suffer from depression or the anomie which was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(principal concern of another analyst of social cohesion, Durkheim. So widening the radius of trust has its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drawbacks as well as its benefits.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Besides, reposing trust in any community implies distrust of what lies beyond its borders. The larger the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community the greater the distrust and the more destructive the resultant conflict, especially if it comes to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war. The national wars of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries have been the most destructive in human )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history. They offer ample evidence of the dangers of both trust and distrust when projected on large human )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communities. Later in his life, Elias wrote )] TJ ET BT 239.000 558.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Germans)] TJ ET BT 303.992 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which highlighted the dark sides of the spread of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civilised behaviour and impersonal trust in his own home country.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Some human communities face genuine crises or turning-points, at which they have to choose between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different forms of social solidarity. These are usually periods of acute conflict, for each version of solidarity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will have its convinced and determined proponents. A fairly simple example of the kind is the dilemma )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(faced by the socialist parties of Europe in August 1914. For some decades they had been preaching the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(virtues of superseding nationalism by creating an international proletarian community on socialist principles. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Now they were suddenly asked to jettison their version of social solidarity entirely and vote for the credits )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(required in order that their nation could make war on other nations, including the latters' proletariat. After a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(greater or lesser degree of agonised debate they nearly all did so; the only exceptions were the Russian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Trudoviks and Mensheviks \(who abstained\) and the Bolsheviks \(who voted against\), and the Italian left-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wing socialists, led \(ironically\) by the future fascist leader Mussolini \(who also voted against\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A similarly fateful choice was faced by the ordinary soldiers of the French and Russian armies in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(summer of 1917. There were serious mutinies in both armies, during which the soldiers refused to participate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further in offensive operations, declared solidarity with striking workers, expressed concern about their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(families at home and called for peace without annexations or indemnities. Ptain in France and Kornilov in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russia endeavoured to rally their troops by a mixture of harsh discipline and appeals to patriotic sentiment. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ptain was successful, but Kornilov was not. French )] TJ ET BT 287.984 292.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(poilus)] TJ ET BT 317.324 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( could be persuaded that they were 'citizen-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(soldiers' and that their democratic republic was worth defending against 'Prussian militarism'. Russian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(soldiers were not similarly persuaded by their experience of the Duma and the Provisional Government, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vested their solidarity instead in their own soldiers' committees or village communes, rather than in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russian army or the institutions of Petrograd. Many of them left the trenches and made for home, effectively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(condemning Russia to military defeat and political revolution.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 332.000 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(17\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 332.000 219.603 m 351.992 219.603 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A more complex example is presented by nineteenth-century Germany. In the course of the century, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germans were faced by a number of competing models of the kind of social solidarity appropriate for their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people. Broadly, one may say they were \(i\) monarchical-dynastic; \(ii\) ethnic-regional \(Bavarian, Rhineland, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Prussian, etc\), \(iii\) religious-confessional; \(iv\) international working-class; \(v\) all-German. Bismarck began )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his career as a convinced proponent of \(i\), but moved to \(v\) in a way that shocked some of his closest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supporters. Even after he had created the new German Empire in 1871, he continued to pay limited homage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(i\) and \(ii\) by allowing the existing regional dynasties to continue and even in some cases to maintain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(embassies in foreign powers. At the same time he endeavoured to cement all-German sentiment by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(launching bitter political campaigns against \(iii\) and \(iv\), the most threatening rival projects, as he saw it. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1870s he conducted the )] TJ ET BT 167.660 66.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kulturkampf, )] TJ ET BT 234.332 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a series of laws restricting the freedom of the Catholic Church, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which he suspected of being more loyal to the Vatican than to Berlin. When that was settled he turned )] TJ ET endstream endobj 74 0 obj [72 0 R /Fit] endobj 75 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 76 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 331.9997 219.9175 351.9917 231.7975 ] >> endobj 76 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 77 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 80 0 R 83 0 R 86 0 R 89 0 R ] /Contents 78 0 R >> endobj 78 0 obj << /Length 7998 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against the Social Democrats, as bearers of the un-German notion of international proletarian solidarity. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 535.256 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(18\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 535.256 795.075 m 555.248 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Trust is not an invariant entity, present in different societies at the same level and in the same forms. On the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrary, both its incidence and its social forms vary greatly. Some societies seem peaceful and stable, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their members relate to each other without acute or chronic distrust for generations; other societies are riven )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by apparently unceasing distrust, so that conflict between individuals or groups is always either present or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(latent, ready to break out at the slightest provocation. No society can survive, however, on a diet of total )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distrust. As Adam Smith once said, 'There is society even among bands of robbers and murderers, since they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(must at least refrain from robbing and murdering each other.' Furthermore, the transition from widespread )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trust to widespread distrust can take place remarkably quickly during, for example, an economic crisis, or a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period of ethnic strife. The Croat writer Dubravka Ugresic noted with alarm in 1992 'the terrifying speed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with which all [her] colleagues change colour, flag, symbols, the genres of oral and written confession with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which they cleanse themselves of Communism and Yugoslavism' in order to take up their new identity of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Serbs and Croats, denouncing each other.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 232.976 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(19\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 232.976 612.003 m 252.968 612.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 252.968 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The result was a drastic simplication and hardening of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identity, characteristic of a community faced with great danger. As the Croat Slavenka Drakulic remarked)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Along with millions of other Croats, I was pinned to the wall of nationhood ... That is what the war is doing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to us, reducing us to one dimension: the Nation. The trouble with this nationhood, however, is that, whereas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before I was defined by my education, my job, my ideas, my character - and, yes, my nationaltiy too - now I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feel stripped of all that. I am nobody, because I am not a person any more. I am one of 4.5 million Croats.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(20\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 514.467 m 54.008 514.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The opposite can also be true, as John Plumb remarked in the preface to one of the few historical works )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which explicitly aims to explain the onset of social cohesion: 'Political stability, when it comes, often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(happens to a society quite quickly, as suddenly as water becomes ice.')] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 369.116 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(21\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 369.116 459.699 m 389.108 459.699 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 389.108 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The association of freezing is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps unfortunate, but the physical metaphor of a critical stage where social molecules rearrange )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves quite rapidly in a different and more stable configuration is suggestive and I think appropriate for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certain junctures in the history of societies: for example the Solon reforms in late sixth century BC Athens; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Augustan peace in Rome around the year 0; 1688-1725 in England/Britain; 1945-50 in western Europe.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1. Athens, like other Greek communities, had been basically a tribal society. However, by the late sixth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, its growing wealth and the diverse networks of trade it had built up increasingly divided the rich )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the poor from each other, especially since the indebted became slaves to their creditors. This polarisation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not only generated serious social conflict, but also weakened the city's defences, since slaves could not serve )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the army. Customs appropriate to tribal society, where there was no such gap between rich and poor, were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sapping the vitality of a great trading city. The reforms of Solon redrew the property-owning map by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forgiving debt, freeing indebted slaves, redeeming their land and forbidding future debt bondage. Those of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cleisthenes, some decades later, reconstituted the tribes on a geographical basis, so that they formed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constituencies for a new kind of rule, the polis or city-state, governed by its own citizens, rather than by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tribal leaders or tyrants. These reforms represent the stage when Athenian society moved from the forms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trust associated with tribal society to those appropriate to a city-state, where one had to accept, tolerate and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work with people quite outside one's kin. They laid the foundations for Athens's prosperity and her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extraordinary culture over the next couple of centuries.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2. Rome of the first century BC was in a state of chronic crisis caused by the incapacity of city-state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions to cope with governing what by then had become a far-flung empire. A few oligarchs enriched )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves through colonial plunder, while much of the population was poverty-stricken. A former soldier )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might return after giving of his best in Rome's wars to discover that an oligarch had bought up his farm and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evicted his family. Much of the power in the state had devolved to military leaders who each took a province )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a base and used their wealth to provide for such impoverished soldiers, turning them into clients in private )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(armies. When Augustus seized power he used his own immense wealth and that of his treasury to outbid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those warlords by making provision for veteran soldiers in the entire army, as well to provide famine relief, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(municipal works and public entertainments for Rome's own poorest inhabitants. Acting as a kind of super-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patron, he was able - without admitting it - to supersede the city-state and erect administrative and financial )] TJ ET endstream endobj 79 0 obj [77 0 R /Fit] endobj 80 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 81 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 535.2557 795.3895 555.2477 807.2695 ] >> endobj 81 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 82 0 obj [77 0 R /Fit] endobj 83 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 84 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 232.9757 612.3175 252.9677 624.1975 ] >> endobj 84 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 85 0 obj [77 0 R /Fit] endobj 86 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 87 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 514.7815 54.0077 526.6615 ] >> endobj 87 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 88 0 obj [77 0 R /Fit] endobj 89 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 90 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 369.1157 460.0135 389.1077 471.8935 ] >> endobj 90 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 91 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 94 0 R 97 0 R ] /Contents 92 0 R >> endobj 92 0 obj << /Length 6788 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structures capable of governing the empire. His super-patronage enabled Rome finally to bridge the gap )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between city-state and a huge and diverse territorial empire. This was the basis for the )] TJ ET BT 449.924 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(pax Romana)] TJ ET BT 510.248 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(next two centuries or so.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3. Mid- to late 17th century England suffered from instability engendered by the attempt to impose a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European-style absolute monarchy on a nation some of whose structures of trust were intensely local, while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others were already supra-national, linking the home-country with overseas colonies. When William III )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seized power in 1688, the great landowners and city merchants bound him to a constitutional style of rule in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which they consented to being seriously taxed in order to establish trustworthy forms of public credit, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(return for gaining control over parliament, the army and navy, and the fiscal system. The result was what the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historian John Brewer has called the 'military-fiscal state', far more efficient than its great rival France at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(raising both taxes and loans, so that with more modest resources it was able to mobilise much greater )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic power for war-making purposes. Forms of trust came into being which subsequently underlay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both the nation-state and the international capitalist economy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4. After 1945 it was clear that the kind of solidarity which focussed on the nation-state, while it had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mobilised unprecedented human resources, had also brought unparalleled destruction and death to millions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Europe and Asia. It seemed imperative to set up international institutions which would prevent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalism getting out of hand again and enable nations to work together - to create in fact global structures )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of trust. That was the purpose of the United Nations, the Bretton Woods currency agreement, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(International Monetary Fund, the World Bank and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. The USA )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also distributed Marshall Aid, mostly in the form of grants, to European countries, to help them overcome )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(post-war economic dislocation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sociologists who have studied trust make a broad distinction between its forms in pre-modern and modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(societies. Perhaps the most persuasive is the exposition offered by Anthony Giddens. According to him in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pre-modern cultures of trust focus on \(i\) kinship structures, which 'may involve tension and conflict', but are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('very generally bonds which can be relied upon in the structuring of actions in fields of time-space', \(ii\) local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communities, of which something similar may be said, \(iii\) religious cosmology, which 'provides moral and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practical interpretations of personal and social life ... which represent an environment of security for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(believer,' and \(iv\) tradition, which 'sustains trust in the continuity of past, present and future'.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 479.780 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(22\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 479.780 374.163 m 499.772 374.163 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 499.772 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern world, by contrast, our trust reposes much more diffusely among friends and colleagues who may be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scattered throughout the world. Or we put our trust in impersonal systems, such as the law, the police, banks, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structures of professional expertise, and so on. Religious cosmology and tradition are replaced by reflexively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organised knowledge, so that our 'social practices are constantly examined and reformed in the light of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incoming information about [them].'\()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 212.828 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(23\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 212.828 302.883 m 232.820 302.883 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Giddens's account is a good start towards a historical examination of trust \(though I suspect in fact most of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(us are not as modern as it would suggest\). There is not, however, only one kind of pre-modern configuration )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of trust, but a great variety of different kinds. The species of trust which exists in any given society may be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taken as a kind of basic code-breaker for understanding the discourses and practices of that society, since )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trust is crucially involved in the following fundamental social phenomena.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1. Religion, which expresses in symbolic and ritual form the norms and values to which members of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society attribute the highest importance;)] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2. Myth, which articulates in narrative and discursive form those same values;)] TJ ET BT 34.016 127.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3. The armed forces, whose success depends not only on technology and logistics, but also on morale and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mutual trust;)] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4. The economy, which functions well or ill according to the degree of trust \(in economic terms, credit\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which actors place in its institutions and in its focal symbol, money;)] TJ ET endstream endobj 93 0 obj [91 0 R /Fit] endobj 94 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 95 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 479.7797 374.4775 499.7717 386.3575 ] >> endobj 95 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 96 0 obj [91 0 R /Fit] endobj 97 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 98 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 212.8277 303.1975 232.8197 315.0775 ] >> endobj 98 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 99 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 102 0 R ] /Contents 100 0 R >> endobj 100 0 obj << /Length 7121 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5. Politics, since no authority can coerce all its subjects all the time, but depends on acceptance generated in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part by the habit of obedience, in part by religion and myth and in part on security provided by the armed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forces and by the smooth functioning of the economy;)] TJ ET BT 34.016 729.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6. Science and philosophy, whose function is to increase our knowledge of the world and our capacity to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confront it with confidence, to cope with risk and reduce uncertainty, and to provide for our knowledge an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all-embracing framework;)] TJ ET BT 34.016 674.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7. Culture, which provides the subjective framework within which all our social intercourse takes place;)] TJ ET BT 34.016 648.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8. Law, which provides the objective framework within which all our social intercourse takes place and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 634.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when necessary allows conflicts concerning its interpretation to be settled in a peaceful and orderly manner.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 608.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The most important characteristic of any society is the form of solidarity by which it lives, that is, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reasons for which its members trust each other - or at least tacitly agree that their community forms the arena )] TJ ET BT 34.016 579.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within which their conflicts and disputes should be peacefully settled. Each form of solidarity is reflected in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 565.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religion, myth, military structure, law, politics, culture, even to some extent in science and philosophy, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 551.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the forms of economic exchange.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 524.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In my view, at least for European societies, one can discern seven fundamental types of social structure and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 510.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the structures of trust corresponding to each one.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 267.968 510.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(24\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 267.968 509.235 m 287.960 509.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 484.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1. )] TJ ET BT 46.016 484.373 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Tribal society)] TJ ET BT 116.348 484.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Confidence reposes in the tribal god and in the leader of the tribe, in his capacity to lead )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and his martial abilities. The dominant ideal is honour and pride centred in the kin, and fighting in the tribal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 455.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(army is the most prestigious occupation for men. Law is customary and unwritten. Myths are masculine, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 441.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heroic and elitist, and religion celebrates the ancestors and the tribal god. Barter, gift, tribute and other pre-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monetary forms of exchange predominate.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 43.016 401.093 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [( City-state. )] TJ ET BT 101.996 401.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Trust in the solidarity of the citizens \(note: citizenship is defined quite narrowly in most city-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 386.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(states\) is nourished by civic religious ritual and experience of fighting together in the citizen army. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 372.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(citizens are a male elite, and their dominant ideal is honour, centred above all in the individual, to a lesser )] TJ ET BT 34.016 358.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extent in the family. Law is established by citizens' assemblies and interpreted by citizens' courts. Myths are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heroic, but tragedy also establishes itself, as it shows the risks of trusting human beings rather than gods. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 329.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Science detaches itself from myth and philosophy from religion. Money is widely used in cities and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 315.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual household property is honoured, but debt has sometimes to be forgiven.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 289.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3. )] TJ ET BT 46.016 289.301 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Ancient empires)] TJ ET BT 129.668 289.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. These are confederations of tribes and city-states, and are still sustained by the forms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trust characteristic of those societies. But over-arching them empires need a multi-ethnic ruling class, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 260.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generates its own sense of honour and its own myths. Empires also have a multi-ethnic army, often including )] TJ ET BT 34.016 246.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('barbarians' recruited from just across the frontier. For these reasons religion needs to be universal, to rise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(above ethnos and city: Zoroastrianism, Confucianism, Christianity, Islam. Each of these religions creates its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own forms of trust, which is based on a universal morality, not just the principles of one elite or ethnos. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 203.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Similarly law needs to rise above ethnos: it becomes written and begins to generate its own science and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 189.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own specialists. Money is widely used, especially in cities, and in trade between provinces, and is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guaranteed by the emperor, whose image appears on the coins. What was most attractive about ancient )] TJ ET BT 34.016 160.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empires to their subjects was that they guaranteed extensive areas of peace in which life could be lived and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 146.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trade could be conducted with relatively slight risk: )] TJ ET BT 283.988 146.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(pax Romana.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 120.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 43.016 120.485 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [( Medieval feudalism)] TJ ET BT 146.348 120.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This involves a partial return to tribalism, except that now kinship is not its principal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feature. Armies now consist of lords or knights with their retainers, and the loyalty of the vassal to his lord is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 91.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the dominant social bond. Trust and loyalty to persons, not arising out of blood ties, have to be created )] TJ ET BT 34.016 77.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(artificially, through the oaths and ceremonies of commendation. Christianity or some other universal religion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reinforces these and now finally replaces tribal and city gods. Law derives from feudal institutions and from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other customary sources and is enforced by the lord over the vassal; or it is generated by the universal )] TJ ET endstream endobj 101 0 obj [99 0 R /Fit] endobj 102 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 103 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 267.9677 509.5495 287.9597 521.4295 ] >> endobj 103 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 104 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 107 0 R ] /Contents 105 0 R >> endobj 105 0 obj << /Length 12228 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religion and its institutions. 'Honour' is still a dominant sentiment, but is supplemented by new elements in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('chivalry', which implies a duty to protect the weak and also the sublimation of sexual desire into chaste )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(loyalty. Heroic myths \(Chanson de Roland, Nibelungenlied\) inspire the warriors, but also Christian ones, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culminating in Dante's )] TJ ET BT 145.172 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Divine Comedy)] TJ ET BT 219.488 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Religion is semi-magical and relations between the individual and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(God are mediated by a church hierarchy and demonstrated in miracles. The economy is largely local, apart )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from a few cities and merchants who specialise in very long-distance trade, which however is hazardous. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The most trusted forms of money are those issued by the most affluent cities \(Florence, Venice\) or by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(powerful kings. Risk is met by one's feudal lord.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4a.)] TJ ET BT 48.344 670.421 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [( The medieval church)] TJ ET BT 159.344 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( had its own arrangements for promoting peace and reconciliation in a fragmented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society. Monasteries endeavoured to offer a model of peace and harmony. Parish worship was organised so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as to keep the peace within the community, for example by withholding communion from parishioners still )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in a state of enmity with their neighbours. Confession was often public, and penance was also regulated and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public in such a way as to make manifest reconciliation with the community. In addition, the church did its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(best to prevent feuds, to keep Sundays, Lent and certain saint's days free from violence, and to protect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certain groups of citizens - women, children, merchants - from violence.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 380.936 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(25\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 380.936 583.491 m 400.928 583.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5. )] TJ ET BT 46.016 558.629 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Post-medieval monarchy)] TJ ET BT 173.000 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The art of war now focuses more and more on the monarch, with former feudal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elites becoming courtiers and officers in the royal army, which is a mixture of mercenaries and conscripts.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.000 RG 57.816 521.222 m 57.816 521.772 57.589 522.318 57.201 522.707 c 56.812 523.096 56.266 523.322 55.716 523.322 c 55.166 523.322 54.620 523.096 54.231 522.707 c 53.842 522.318 53.616 521.772 53.616 521.222 c 53.616 520.672 53.842 520.126 54.231 519.737 c 54.620 519.349 55.166 519.122 55.716 519.122 c 56.266 519.122 56.812 519.349 57.201 519.737 c 57.589 520.126 57.816 520.672 57.816 521.222 c f BT 64.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( )] TJ ET 0.48 w 1 J 1 j 87.816 506.966 m 87.816 507.516 87.589 508.062 87.201 508.451 c 86.812 508.840 86.266 509.066 85.716 509.066 c 85.166 509.066 84.620 508.840 84.231 508.451 c 83.842 508.062 83.616 507.516 83.616 506.966 c 83.616 506.416 83.842 505.870 84.231 505.481 c 84.620 505.093 85.166 504.866 85.716 504.866 c 86.266 504.866 86.812 505.093 87.201 505.481 c 87.589 505.870 87.816 506.416 87.816 506.966 c s BT 94.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Notions of honour evolve further through chivalry to courtesy \(court etiquette\) to civilised )] TJ ET BT 94.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behaviour.)] TJ ET 0.48 w 1 J 1 j 87.816 478.454 m 87.816 479.004 87.589 479.550 87.201 479.939 c 86.812 480.328 86.266 480.554 85.716 480.554 c 85.166 480.554 84.620 480.328 84.231 479.939 c 83.842 479.550 83.616 479.004 83.616 478.454 c 83.616 477.904 83.842 477.358 84.231 476.969 c 84.620 476.581 85.166 476.354 85.716 476.354 c 86.266 476.354 86.812 476.581 87.201 476.969 c 87.589 477.358 87.816 477.904 87.816 478.454 c s BT 94.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Myth now focuses both on the monarch and on the nation as a whole \(whether represented in )] TJ ET BT 94.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parliament or not\), and its ethnic origins; security and peace are now guaranteed by the large )] TJ ET BT 94.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(royal army and by the monarch's law courts.)] TJ ET 0.48 w 1 J 1 j 87.816 435.686 m 87.816 436.236 87.589 436.782 87.201 437.171 c 86.812 437.560 86.266 437.786 85.716 437.786 c 85.166 437.786 84.620 437.560 84.231 437.171 c 83.842 436.782 83.616 436.236 83.616 435.686 c 83.616 435.136 83.842 434.590 84.231 434.201 c 84.620 433.813 85.166 433.586 85.716 433.586 c 86.266 433.586 86.812 433.813 87.201 434.201 c 87.589 434.590 87.816 435.136 87.816 435.686 c s BT 94.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Law is increasingly statutory rather than customary, and its professionals - lawyers - are crucial )] TJ ET BT 94.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the functioning of the monarchy.)] TJ ET 0.48 w 1 J 1 j 87.816 407.174 m 87.816 407.724 87.589 408.270 87.201 408.659 c 86.812 409.048 86.266 409.274 85.716 409.274 c 85.166 409.274 84.620 409.048 84.231 408.659 c 83.842 408.270 83.616 407.724 83.616 407.174 c 83.616 406.624 83.842 406.078 84.231 405.689 c 84.620 405.301 85.166 405.074 85.716 405.074 c 86.266 405.074 86.812 405.301 87.201 405.689 c 87.589 406.078 87.816 406.624 87.816 407.174 c s BT 94.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Religion loses some of its magical features; the individual's relations with God become more the )] TJ ET BT 94.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responsibility of the individual him/herself. At the same time, perhaps in reaction to this )] TJ ET BT 94.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development, the church hierarchy becomes much more highly organised and qualified.)] TJ ET 0.48 w 1 J 1 j 87.816 364.406 m 87.816 364.956 87.589 365.502 87.201 365.891 c 86.812 366.280 86.266 366.506 85.716 366.506 c 85.166 366.506 84.620 366.280 84.231 365.891 c 83.842 365.502 83.616 364.956 83.616 364.406 c 83.616 363.856 83.842 363.310 84.231 362.921 c 84.620 362.533 85.166 362.306 85.716 362.306 c 86.266 362.306 86.812 362.533 87.201 362.921 c 87.589 363.310 87.816 363.856 87.816 364.406 c s BT 94.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Science detaches itself from religion and myth, and becomes the begetter of new systems of )] TJ ET BT 94.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge and, through technology, of new productive forces.)] TJ ET 0.48 w 1 J 1 j 87.816 335.894 m 87.816 336.444 87.589 336.990 87.201 337.379 c 86.812 337.768 86.266 337.994 85.716 337.994 c 85.166 337.994 84.620 337.768 84.231 337.379 c 83.842 336.990 83.616 336.444 83.616 335.894 c 83.616 335.344 83.842 334.798 84.231 334.409 c 84.620 334.021 85.166 333.794 85.716 333.794 c 86.266 333.794 86.812 334.021 87.201 334.409 c 87.589 334.798 87.816 335.344 87.816 335.894 c s BT 94.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The monarchy begins to conceive of the economy as being co-extensive with the kingdom, )] TJ ET BT 94.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indeed as a fiscal base for the monarchy itself, and tries to either administer or dominate it )] TJ ET BT 94.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accordingly: mercantilism. Coinage is national, and bears the head of the monarch.)] TJ ET 0.48 w 1 J 1 j 87.816 293.126 m 87.816 293.676 87.589 294.222 87.201 294.611 c 86.812 295.000 86.266 295.226 85.716 295.226 c 85.166 295.226 84.620 295.000 84.231 294.611 c 83.842 294.222 83.616 293.676 83.616 293.126 c 83.616 292.576 83.842 292.030 84.231 291.641 c 84.620 291.253 85.166 291.026 85.716 291.026 c 86.266 291.026 86.812 291.253 87.201 291.641 c 87.589 292.030 87.816 292.576 87.816 293.126 c s BT 94.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philosophy is increasingly universal and rational, seeking 'all-human' values \(Hume, Voltaire, )] TJ ET BT 94.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kant\);)] TJ ET 0.48 w 1 J 1 j 87.816 264.614 m 87.816 265.164 87.589 265.710 87.201 266.099 c 86.812 266.488 86.266 266.714 85.716 266.714 c 85.166 266.714 84.620 266.488 84.231 266.099 c 83.842 265.710 83.616 265.164 83.616 264.614 c 83.616 264.064 83.842 263.518 84.231 263.129 c 84.620 262.741 85.166 262.514 85.716 262.514 c 86.266 262.514 86.812 262.741 87.201 263.129 c 87.589 263.518 87.816 264.064 87.816 264.614 c s BT 94.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New artistic genres arise, some of them patronised by the monarchy: drama, ballet, opera. )] TJ ET BT 94.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Civilised society creates demand for the novel. Mass education, not just for an elite, begins to be )] TJ ET BT 94.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an object of government policy;)] TJ ET 0.48 w 1 J 1 j 87.816 221.846 m 87.816 222.396 87.589 222.942 87.201 223.331 c 86.812 223.720 86.266 223.946 85.716 223.946 c 85.166 223.946 84.620 223.720 84.231 223.331 c 83.842 222.942 83.616 222.396 83.616 221.846 c 83.616 221.296 83.842 220.750 84.231 220.361 c 84.620 219.973 85.166 219.746 85.716 219.746 c 86.266 219.746 86.812 219.973 87.201 220.361 c 87.589 220.750 87.816 221.296 87.816 221.846 c s BT 94.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New forms of human intimacy emerge. The cult of friendship blossoms; also of romantic and )] TJ ET BT 94.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(faithful conjugal love, glorified especially in the novel.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6. )] TJ ET BT 46.016 151.973 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Nation-state and market economy)] TJ ET BT 219.656 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Mass conscript armies are created, and the entire young adult male )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population is liable for service in them.)] TJ ET 57.816 114.566 m 57.816 115.116 57.589 115.662 57.201 116.051 c 56.812 116.440 56.266 116.666 55.716 116.666 c 55.166 116.666 54.620 116.440 54.231 116.051 c 53.842 115.662 53.616 115.116 53.616 114.566 c 53.616 114.016 53.842 113.470 54.231 113.081 c 54.620 112.693 55.166 112.466 55.716 112.466 c 56.266 112.466 56.812 112.693 57.201 113.081 c 57.589 113.470 57.816 114.016 57.816 114.566 c f BT 64.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( )] TJ ET 0.48 w 1 J 1 j 87.816 100.310 m 87.816 100.860 87.589 101.406 87.201 101.795 c 86.812 102.184 86.266 102.410 85.716 102.410 c 85.166 102.410 84.620 102.184 84.231 101.795 c 83.842 101.406 83.616 100.860 83.616 100.310 c 83.616 99.760 83.842 99.214 84.231 98.825 c 84.620 98.437 85.166 98.210 85.716 98.210 c 86.266 98.210 86.812 98.437 87.201 98.825 c 87.589 99.214 87.816 99.760 87.816 100.310 c s BT 94.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Political structures rest more and more on the principle of mass representative democracy, either )] TJ ET BT 94.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as republic or as constitutional monarchy.)] TJ ET 0.48 w 1 J 1 j 87.816 71.798 m 87.816 72.348 87.589 72.894 87.201 73.283 c 86.812 73.672 86.266 73.898 85.716 73.898 c 85.166 73.898 84.620 73.672 84.231 73.283 c 83.842 72.894 83.616 72.348 83.616 71.798 c 83.616 71.248 83.842 70.702 84.231 70.313 c 84.620 69.925 85.166 69.698 85.716 69.698 c 86.266 69.698 86.812 69.925 87.201 70.313 c 87.589 70.702 87.816 71.248 87.816 71.798 c s BT 94.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Law is largely or wholly statutory, and is generated by the elected representatives of the people.)] TJ ET 0.48 w 1 J 1 j 87.816 57.542 m 87.816 58.092 87.589 58.638 87.201 59.027 c 86.812 59.416 86.266 59.642 85.716 59.642 c 85.166 59.642 84.620 59.416 84.231 59.027 c 83.842 58.638 83.616 58.092 83.616 57.542 c 83.616 56.992 83.842 56.446 84.231 56.057 c 84.620 55.669 85.166 55.442 85.716 55.442 c 86.266 55.442 86.812 55.669 87.201 56.057 c 87.589 56.446 87.816 56.992 87.816 57.542 c s BT 94.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Science and technology now provide extensive mastery over nature and sustain increasingly )] TJ ET endstream endobj 106 0 obj [104 0 R /Fit] endobj 107 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 108 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 380.9357 583.8055 400.9277 595.6855 ] >> endobj 108 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 109 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 110 0 R >> endobj 110 0 obj << /Length 9207 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.000 RG 0.48 w 1 J 1 j BT 94.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(productive economies.)] TJ ET 0.48 w 1 J 1 j 87.816 785.318 m 87.816 785.868 87.589 786.414 87.201 786.803 c 86.812 787.192 86.266 787.418 85.716 787.418 c 85.166 787.418 84.620 787.192 84.231 786.803 c 83.842 786.414 83.616 785.868 83.616 785.318 c 83.616 784.768 83.842 784.222 84.231 783.833 c 84.620 783.445 85.166 783.218 85.716 783.218 c 86.266 783.218 86.812 783.445 87.201 783.833 c 87.589 784.222 87.816 784.768 87.816 785.318 c s BT 94.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Economy: the national bank guarantees a stable currency, taxation is high, but rests on )] TJ ET BT 94.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parliamentary consent, and public loans are backed by tax income. Risk is now met by )] TJ ET BT 94.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insurance and social welfare systems. National economies are increasingly integrated into an )] TJ ET BT 94.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international economy, usually colonial/imperial, but increasingly global. Its global nature is )] TJ ET BT 94.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often seen as a threat \(by some explicitly identified with the Jews\), and some states protect parts )] TJ ET BT 94.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of their economy by erecting tariff barriers.)] TJ ET 0.48 w 1 J 1 j 87.816 699.782 m 87.816 700.332 87.589 700.878 87.201 701.267 c 86.812 701.656 86.266 701.882 85.716 701.882 c 85.166 701.882 84.620 701.656 84.231 701.267 c 83.842 700.878 83.616 700.332 83.616 699.782 c 83.616 699.232 83.842 698.686 84.231 698.297 c 84.620 697.909 85.166 697.682 85.716 697.682 c 86.266 697.682 86.812 697.909 87.201 698.297 c 87.589 698.686 87.816 699.232 87.816 699.782 c s BT 94.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Myths are ethnic-national, celebrating the glorious past of the ethnos. Moral ideals are partly )] TJ ET BT 94.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those of the acquisitive, rational individual, partly those of the patriot dedicated to his/her )] TJ ET BT 94.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nation. There is a constant tension between them \(the subject of Wagner's )] TJ ET BT 450.440 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ring)] TJ ET BT 473.108 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the most )] TJ ET BT 94.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dramatic presentation of this conflict\).)] TJ ET 0.48 w 1 J 1 j 87.816 642.758 m 87.816 643.308 87.589 643.854 87.201 644.243 c 86.812 644.632 86.266 644.858 85.716 644.858 c 85.166 644.858 84.620 644.632 84.231 644.243 c 83.842 643.854 83.616 643.308 83.616 642.758 c 83.616 642.208 83.842 641.662 84.231 641.273 c 84.620 640.885 85.166 640.658 85.716 640.658 c 86.266 640.658 86.812 640.885 87.201 641.273 c 87.589 641.662 87.816 642.208 87.816 642.758 c s BT 94.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Widespread literacy creates demand for the novel as a form, and a more modest one for lyric )] TJ ET BT 94.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poetry; other genres continue, but focus more on the nation.)] TJ ET 0.48 w 1 J 1 j 87.816 614.246 m 87.816 614.796 87.589 615.342 87.201 615.731 c 86.812 616.120 86.266 616.346 85.716 616.346 c 85.166 616.346 84.620 616.120 84.231 615.731 c 83.842 615.342 83.616 614.796 83.616 614.246 c 83.616 613.696 83.842 613.150 84.231 612.761 c 84.620 612.373 85.166 612.146 85.716 612.146 c 86.266 612.146 86.812 612.373 87.201 612.761 c 87.589 613.150 87.816 613.696 87.816 614.246 c s BT 94.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In religion there is on the one hand secularisation and on the other a new emotionalism focused )] TJ ET BT 94.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the nuclear family and especially the woman's role within it. Religion increasingly becomes )] TJ ET BT 94.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an individual affair, but church hierarchies become increasingly institutionalised.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7. )] TJ ET BT 46.016 556.373 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(International community and globalised economy)] TJ ET BT 300.032 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. A reaction sets in against the very destructive wars )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engendered by nation-states. Armies tend to become smaller and highly professional. Moral ideals reorient )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves towards international institutions and an ideology of universal human rights, though most of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trust remains deposited in the nation-state. There is no international armed force: national units serve )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international missions.)] TJ ET 57.816 476.198 m 57.816 476.748 57.589 477.294 57.201 477.683 c 56.812 478.072 56.266 478.298 55.716 478.298 c 55.166 478.298 54.620 478.072 54.231 477.683 c 53.842 477.294 53.616 476.748 53.616 476.198 c 53.616 475.648 53.842 475.102 54.231 474.713 c 54.620 474.325 55.166 474.098 55.716 474.098 c 56.266 474.098 56.812 474.325 57.201 474.713 c 57.589 475.102 57.816 475.648 57.816 476.198 c f BT 64.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( )] TJ ET 0.48 w 1 J 1 j 87.816 461.942 m 87.816 462.492 87.589 463.038 87.201 463.427 c 86.812 463.816 86.266 464.042 85.716 464.042 c 85.166 464.042 84.620 463.816 84.231 463.427 c 83.842 463.038 83.616 462.492 83.616 461.942 c 83.616 461.392 83.842 460.846 84.231 460.457 c 84.620 460.069 85.166 459.842 85.716 459.842 c 86.266 459.842 86.812 460.069 87.201 460.457 c 87.589 460.846 87.816 461.392 87.816 461.942 c s BT 94.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(International law takes shape, sporadically enforced by international courts.)] TJ ET 0.48 w 1 J 1 j 87.816 447.686 m 87.816 448.236 87.589 448.782 87.201 449.171 c 86.812 449.560 86.266 449.786 85.716 449.786 c 85.166 449.786 84.620 449.560 84.231 449.171 c 83.842 448.782 83.616 448.236 83.616 447.686 c 83.616 447.136 83.842 446.590 84.231 446.201 c 84.620 445.813 85.166 445.586 85.716 445.586 c 86.266 445.586 86.812 445.813 87.201 446.201 c 87.589 446.590 87.816 447.136 87.816 447.686 c s BT 94.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Myths now centre around economic growth as the solvent of humanity's problems, and the )] TJ ET BT 94.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(model of the acquisitive, rational individual becomes dominant. International institutions )] TJ ET BT 94.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support the global market economy.)] TJ ET 0.48 w 1 J 1 j 87.816 404.918 m 87.816 405.468 87.589 406.014 87.201 406.403 c 86.812 406.792 86.266 407.018 85.716 407.018 c 85.166 407.018 84.620 406.792 84.231 406.403 c 83.842 406.014 83.616 405.468 83.616 404.918 c 83.616 404.368 83.842 403.822 84.231 403.433 c 84.620 403.045 85.166 402.818 85.716 402.818 c 86.266 402.818 86.812 403.045 87.201 403.433 c 87.589 403.822 87.816 404.368 87.816 404.918 c s BT 94.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Religion has largely detached itself from churches and focuses on the ideal of individual self-)] TJ ET BT 94.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fulfilment and universal human rights.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Jews cut across most of these categories, which is why they have played such a crucial and controversial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role in European history. Already in tribal times, they were a nation with a universal god; already in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feudal era, they were practitioners of a global economy. Yet they have also brought archaic tribal features )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the modern world.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Research might take two distinct but related paths:)] TJ ET BT 51.480 266.026 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(i.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the different forms of trust associated with different social structures, and/or)] TJ ET BT 48.144 251.770 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ii.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into particular historical conjunctures when trust relationships seem to take a quantum leap, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broadening the sphere of social cohesion.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Let me finally essay one speculative hypothesis. As we have seen above, each historical conjuncture where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social cohesion has rapidly crystallised was preceded by an act of economic generosity or of extremely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enlightened economic self-interest.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 156.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1. In late sixth-century Athens, Solon freed all slaves bonded for debt, redeemed their land, and forbade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(future debt to be incurred against the pledge of personal liberty.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 115.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2. The Emperor Augustus spent large amounts from his personal fortune on famine relief, municipal works )] TJ ET BT 34.016 101.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and public entertainments, as well as on providing for veteran soldiers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3. As part of the price they were prepared to pay for curbing the monarchy in 1689 and after, and for fighting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expensive wars in Europe and the colonies, English landowners and city financiers allowed themselves to be )] TJ ET endstream endobj 111 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 113 0 R 115 0 R 117 0 R 119 0 R 121 0 R 123 0 R 125 0 R 127 0 R 129 0 R 131 0 R 133 0 R 135 0 R 137 0 R 139 0 R 141 0 R 143 0 R ] /Contents 112 0 R >> endobj 112 0 obj << /Length 10207 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.000 RG 0.48 w 1 J 1 j BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taxed seriously as a way of establishing confidence in the state's finances.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4. After 1945 the US government distributed Marshall Aid, mostly in the form of grants, to European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(countries, to help them overcome post-war economic dislocation, with its associated poverty and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unemployment.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Today's global economic order was a great achievement in its time. It now operates, however, in such a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manner that it manifestly undermines trust between different nations, and especially between the affluent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(western \(and in part east Asian\) world and the rest. Just as one example: the affluent nations, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international financial institutions they dominate, expect developing ones to operate a free market policy and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to open their economies fully to international trade. But they protect the vulnerable sectors of their own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economies - agriculture, textiles, steel - from the competition that such free trade implies. Both within and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between nations, the systems of trust I have outlined above will only operate successfully provided they are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not seen to promote blatant inequities. Rebellions and wars break out when trust is clearly seen to be abused. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A history of trust is of necessity also a history of mistrust.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If we want to create a more stable global order and a more prosperous global economy, should the world's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rich nations perhaps attempt some act of economic generosity or enlightenment, analogous to those outlined )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(above, whether it lies in debt forgiveness, aid, redistribution of income or the opening of frontiers to trade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and labour? This is the kind of question historians should be posing.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Copyright July 2002 Geoffrey Hosking)] TJ ET BT 34.016 471.219 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 440.602 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 440.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Quoted in the opening Reith Lecture of Onora O'Neill, )] TJ ET BT 329.468 440.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Question of Trust)] TJ ET BT 423.812 440.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, BBC Radio 4, April 2002 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 426.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(see )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 86.336 426.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/reith2002/lecture1_text.shtml)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 86.336 424.947 m 369.656 424.947 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 372.656 426.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 386.648 426.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( for a full transcript of the lecture\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 412.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 410.691 m 118.004 410.691 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 397.834 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 397.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Niccolo Machiavelli, )] TJ ET BT 168.332 397.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Prince)] TJ ET BT 221.324 397.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford University Press: Oxford, 1984\), p. 56.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 452.960 397.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 452.960 396.435 m 506.948 396.435 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 383.578 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 383.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Niklas Luhmann, )] TJ ET BT 150.344 383.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Trust and Power)] TJ ET BT 231.020 383.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(John Wiley & Sons; Chichester, 1979\), p. 4.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 450.344 383.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 450.344 382.179 m 504.332 382.179 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 369.322 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 369.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Luhmann, )] TJ ET BT 116.012 369.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Trust and Power)] TJ ET BT 196.688 369.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p 25.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 226.688 369.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 226.688 367.923 m 280.676 367.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 355.066 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 355.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Steven Shapin, )] TJ ET BT 139.016 355.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Social History of Truth: Civility and Science in Seventeenth-Century England)] TJ ET BT 64.016 340.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(University of Chicago Press; Chicago, 1994\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 286.328 340.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 286.328 339.411 m 340.316 339.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 326.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 326.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J.H. Baker, 'The English legal profession, 1450-1550', in Wilfred Prest, ed., )] TJ ET BT 429.956 326.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lawyers in Early Modern )] TJ ET BT 64.016 312.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Europe and America)] TJ ET BT 164.000 312.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Croom Helm; London, 1981\), pp. 16-41, quotation on p. 35; Richard L. Abel, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 298.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Legal Profession in England and Wales)] TJ ET BT 276.020 298.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Blackwell; Oxford, 1988\), p. 38.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 439.664 298.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 439.664 296.643 m 493.652 296.643 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 283.786 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 283.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ranald C. Michie, )] TJ ET BT 155.012 283.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The London Stock Exchange: a history)] TJ ET BT 341.324 283.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford University Press; Oxford, 1999\), p. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 269.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20; P. G. M. Dickson, )] TJ ET BT 172.352 269.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Financial Revolution in England: a Study in the Development of Public )] TJ ET BT 64.016 255.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Credit)] TJ ET BT 94.688 255.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Gregg Revivals; Aldershot, 1993\), p. 590.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 303.332 255.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 303.332 253.875 m 357.320 253.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 241.018 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 241.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James S. Coleman, 'Social capital in the creation of human capital', )] TJ ET BT 388.964 241.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(American Journal of Sociology)] TJ ET BT 538.616 241.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 94 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 226.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1988\), S95-S120.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 152.348 226.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 152.348 225.363 m 206.336 225.363 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 212.506 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 212.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert D. Putnam, )] TJ ET BT 157.016 212.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community )] TJ ET BT 482.000 212.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Simon & )] TJ ET BT 64.016 198.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schuster; New York, 2000\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 198.992 198.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 198.992 196.851 m 252.980 196.851 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 183.994 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 183.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For full transcripts of all five of the 2002 Reith lectures, see )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 169.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/reith2002/thelectures.shtml)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 168.339 m 336.668 168.339 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 339.668 169.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 353.660 169.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 356.660 169.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 356.660 168.339 m 416.648 168.339 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 155.482 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 155.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Francis Fukuyama, )] TJ ET BT 159.008 155.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Great Disruption: Human Nature and the Reconstitution of Social Order)] TJ ET BT 64.016 141.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Profile Books; London, 1999\), pp. 49-52.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 267.008 141.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 267.008 139.827 m 326.996 139.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 126.970 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 126.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anthony Giddens, )] TJ ET BT 155.012 126.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Consequences of Modernity)] TJ ET BT 309.992 126.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Polity Press; Cambridge, 1991\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 470.660 126.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 470.660 125.571 m 530.648 125.571 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 112.714 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(13.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 112.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Le sujet et le pouvoir', in Michel Foucault, )] TJ ET BT 273.656 112.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dits et Ecrits)] TJ ET BT 336.992 112.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4 vols, Gallimard; Paris, 1994\), iv, pp. 222-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 98.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(43; Barry Hindess, )] TJ ET BT 157.340 98.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Discourses of Power: from Hobbes to Foucault)] TJ ET BT 385.328 98.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Blackwell; Oxford, 1996\), pp. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 84.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(118-23. Gramsci provides a similar account in his concept of 'hegemony', but it is anchored in a more )] TJ ET BT 64.016 69.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coherent theory of culture, and he locates power more unambiguously in certain social classes.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 518.252 69.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 518.252 68.547 m 558.248 68.547 l S BT 64.016 55.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 54.291 m 84.008 54.291 l S endstream endobj 113 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 114 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 86.3357 425.2615 369.6557 437.1415 ] >> endobj 114 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/reith2002/lecture1_text.shtml) >> endobj 115 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 116 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 411.0055 118.0037 422.8855 ] >> endobj 116 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 117 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 118 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 452.9597 396.7495 506.9477 408.6295 ] >> endobj 118 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 17 0 R >> endobj 119 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 120 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 450.3437 382.4935 504.3317 394.3735 ] >> endobj 120 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 121 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 122 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 226.6877 368.2375 280.6757 380.1175 ] >> endobj 122 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 25 0 R >> endobj 123 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 124 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 286.3277 339.7255 340.3157 351.6055 ] >> endobj 124 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 30 0 R >> endobj 125 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 126 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 439.6637 296.9575 493.6517 308.8375 ] >> endobj 126 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 33 0 R >> endobj 127 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 128 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 303.3317 254.1895 357.3197 266.0695 ] >> endobj 128 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 36 0 R >> endobj 129 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 130 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 152.3477 225.6775 206.3357 237.5575 ] >> endobj 130 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 41 0 R >> endobj 131 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 132 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 198.9917 197.1655 252.9797 209.0455 ] >> endobj 132 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 46 0 R >> endobj 133 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 134 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 168.6535 336.6677 180.5335 ] >> endobj 134 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/reith2002/thelectures.shtml) >> endobj 135 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 136 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 356.6597 168.6535 416.6477 180.5335 ] >> endobj 136 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 49 0 R >> endobj 137 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 138 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 267.0077 140.1415 326.9957 152.0215 ] >> endobj 138 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 52 0 R >> endobj 139 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 140 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 470.6597 125.8855 530.6477 137.7655 ] >> endobj 140 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 55 0 R >> endobj 141 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 142 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 518.2517 68.8615 558.2477 80.7415 ] >> endobj 142 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 58 0 R >> endobj 143 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 144 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 54.6055 84.0077 66.4855 ] >> endobj 144 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 58 0 R >> endobj 145 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 147 0 R 149 0 R 151 0 R 153 0 R 155 0 R 157 0 R 159 0 R 161 0 R 163 0 R 165 0 R 167 0 R 169 0 R 171 0 R ] /Contents 146 0 R >> endobj 146 0 obj << /Length 8480 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 796.474 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(14.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Les mailles du pouvoir', in Foucault, )] TJ ET BT 245.000 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dits et Ecrits)] TJ ET BT 308.336 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, iv, pp. 182-201.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 390.668 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 390.668 795.075 m 450.656 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 782.218 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(15.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The opening sentence of his entry on 'Pouvoir' in the )] TJ ET BT 319.640 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Encyclopdie)] TJ ET BT 384.284 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; D. Diderot, )] TJ ET BT 447.944 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Oeuvres Politiques)] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Editions Garnier Frres; Paris, 1963\), p. 35.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 277.988 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(15\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 277.988 766.563 m 337.976 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 753.706 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(16.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Norbert Elias, )] TJ ET BT 134.336 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Civilizing Process: Sociogenetic and Psychogenetic Investigations)] TJ ET BT 474.968 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, transl. Edmund )] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jephcott \(revised edition, Blackwell; Oxford, 2000\); Robert van Krieken, )] TJ ET BT 418.628 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Norbert Elias)] TJ ET BT 484.304 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Routledge; )] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London, 1998\); Stephen Mennell, )] TJ ET BT 229.340 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Norbert Elias: Civilisation and the Human Self-Image)] TJ ET BT 490.004 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Blackwell; )] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London, 1989\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 138.344 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(16\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 138.344 709.539 m 198.332 709.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 696.682 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(17.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Moon, 'Peasants into Russian citizens? A comparative perspective,' )] TJ ET BT 421.952 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Revolutionary Russia)] TJ ET BT 524.948 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 9 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1996\), 43-81.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 133.004 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(17\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 133.004 681.027 m 192.992 681.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 668.170 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(18.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Breuilly, )] TJ ET BT 135.020 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Formation of the First German Nation-State, 1800-1871)] TJ ET BT 427.688 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(Macmillan; Basingstoke, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1996\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(18\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 652.515 m 155.000 652.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 639.658 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dubravka Ugresic, )] TJ ET BT 157.652 639.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Culture of Lies)] TJ ET BT 250.664 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, transl. Celia Hawkesworth \(Pennsylvania State University )] TJ ET BT 64.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Press; University Park, PA, 1998\), p. 42.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 259.676 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(19\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 259.676 624.003 m 319.664 624.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 611.146 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Slavenka Drakulic, )] TJ ET BT 158.996 611.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Balkan Express: Fragments from the Other Side of War)] TJ ET BT 426.968 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(Hutchinson; London, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1993\), p. 51.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 125.012 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(20\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 125.012 595.491 m 185.000 595.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 582.634 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(21.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. H. 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His concept of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('ideological power' corresponds quite closely to the religious and mythological aspects of social )] TJ ET BT 64.016 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cohesion, as I envisage them.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 204.656 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(24\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 204.656 438.675 m 264.644 438.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 425.818 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 425.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H. E. J. 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