%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 30 0 R 38 0 R 47 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140721204059+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140721204059+01'00') /Title (Genocide on Trial: War Crimes Trials and the Formation of Holocaust History and Memory) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3950 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Genocide on Trial: War Crimes Trials and the Formation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Holocaust History and Memory)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Throughout the Second World War Britons and Americans had contemplated the post-war future of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germany. There was consensus on only one point; that it had to be changed. They discussed a variety of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alternatives ranging from punitive and vengeful policies, to those which were educational and advocated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reform. The War Crimes Trials have conventionally been viewed as part of the first category. Thus it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(refreshing to see the trials being regarded as part of the broad re-educative effort, rather than the usual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perception of a purely retaliatory exercise motivated by a desire for punishment. Bloxham asserts ?the trials )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were the chief means by which Nazism was examined in depth; they were the scalpel to the bludgeon of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(larger occupation and re-education policy, the foil to generalities.? \(p. 80\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This examination of British and American war crimes policy stands as a contribution to the growing field of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literature that considers the importance of memory and specifically Holocaust memory. The interesting facet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of this book is that it considers the ?memory? promulgated by the British and Americans at the War Crimes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Trials. The importance of both ?judicial? and ?collective? memory is stressed. It is within the ?collective? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sphere that the prosecutors at Nuremberg failed. The trials can thus be seen to be as much about Allied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(288)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 28 February, 2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Donald Bloxham)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780198208723)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(57.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(300pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ukcatalogue.oup.com/product/9780198208723.do)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wendy Toon)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6902 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of, and attitude toward, Nazi crimes, as they are a legal representation of Nazi criminality. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bloxham?s contention is an engaging and valid one. There is a general omission in the historiography of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occupation of Germany regarding the relationship between victors and vanquished. Studies have tended to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(see the process of change in a one-sided way, ignoring the fact that British and U.S. perceptions and attitudes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towards the former enemy countries also developed and changed as a result of interaction between them. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These trials had an important function not only in Germany, but also for the society that tried them. As a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(former American Occupationaire states, evaluation of the 'German and Japanese occupation experiences will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tell us something not only about our impact on post-war German and Japanese history, but particularly our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own.?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 63.008 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 63.008 681.027 m 77.000 681.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 77.000 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This study also aims to correct a failing in 'Nuremberg historiography'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book begins with an excellent introduction to the fundamental conception of and means of evaluation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(used in this study. It includes an explanation of the problems associated with the study of this topic and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essential problems faced in 1945. It is then divided into three parts. The first part is concerned with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implementation of the punitive aspects of the trials; and with British and American reaction to the immediate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(past. Trial policy thus stands as an example of )] TJ ET BT 258.656 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vergangenheitsbewltigung)] TJ ET BT 393.320 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(the mastery of the past\) in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wake of the Second World War. The second part concerns the representation of the past through the trials. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stresses their refractory nature, using the main metaphor of the courtroom as a prism. The third part )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considers the connections between the ?courtroom and posterity?. The major actors, such as American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representative Justice Jackson, were acutely aware of their historical responsibility. They were under no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illusions that what they were about to do was ?history?. Bloxham quotes Jackson thus: ?the documents make )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dull publicity, but they [seem] to me to make the sounder foundation for the case, particularly when the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(record is examined by the historian.? \(p. 61\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The trials are placed in their legal and historical context. The expansion of the rule of international law )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provided the precedent for further international courts and tribunals and had a distinctly American flavour. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American domination of the trials is reflected in the sometimes seemingly one-sided comparative aspects of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this book. The British are shown to be less committed to the trials. This can be explained by the fact that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain was labouring under great economic duress, in contrast to the United States. Thus the overriding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence of personnel and financial problems is shown to be particularly acute for the British. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proceedings are seen as an attempt at understanding Nazism and specifically Nazi criminality. ?The idea of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legal redress for state crimes was novel and contentious.? \(p. vii\) This idea was also 'novel' because it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerned a country in which neither Britain nor America had a direct national interest. The historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context is the close of the Second World War and the abiding relevance of study of this immediate post-war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period, despite the prolific amount of representations that have followed it, is correctly asserted.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This examination is an attempt to recontextualise the trials after the historiography has largely removed them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from their contemporary context. The trials, as well as the occupation of Germany as a whole, have to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(placed within the context of the burgeoning Cold War. Bloxham shows that the impact of the Cold War on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the objectives of the trials was entirely negative. The effects of realignment were detrimental to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successful prosecution of Nazi crimes and pragmatic nation-state interests began to override foreign policy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideals. For example, the image of the )] TJ ET BT 214.988 232.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Wehrmacht)] TJ ET BT 270.308 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was cleansed by the impact of the Cold War. In addition, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bloxham argues that ?the Allies did not prepare the ground for acceptance of the true breadth of German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guilt?. \(p. 132\) The fundamental problem faced by all of the occupation policies is that the Germans were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primarily concerned with staying alive. The devastation, hunger and disease were not sound bases for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moral regeneration of German society. As Brecht put it, ?)] TJ ET BT 310.292 175.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Erst kommt das Fressen, dann kommt die Moral)] TJ ET BT 541.604 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(?First grub, then morality?: quoted p. 137\))] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 63.0077 681.3415 76.9997 693.2215 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 25 0 R 28 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7583 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This re-contextualisation also involves the notion of the use of the trials as a re-educational tool. The idea of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(using a legal trial served a re-educative function, as a fair trial exemplified the democratic system. ?The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(educational intent of the IMT project was established, but it does not appear that the teachers were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly well informed about their subject matter.? \(p. 63\) This is attributed to ambiguities within British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and American responses to the Holocaust, as its true nature unfolded. For example, the British were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerned only with crimes that related directly to British citizens, while the Americans feared the use of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any ?atrocity? stories.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nazi criminality was frequently discussed during the War and the idea that the Nazi party represented an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organized form of gangsterism was prevalent, certainly within the U.S. The image of the gangster was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(repeated one in the popular press and film. The impression that the Nazi party was a criminal organization )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was an enduring stereotype. It was rife even at the highest levels. For example, in an address of August 1943 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Franklin D. Roosevelt stated ?we have been forced to call out ? the Sheriff?s posse ? that Gangsterism may )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be eliminated in the community of nations.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 240.344 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 240.344 600.003 m 254.336 600.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 254.336 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The decision to punish Nazi war criminals had been made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early on in the war. Roosevelt announced his plan to try Nazi war criminals on 7 October 1942.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 492.272 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 492.272 585.747 m 506.264 585.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 506.264 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The trials )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were also concerned with the )] TJ ET BT 176.972 572.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(causes)] TJ ET BT 208.964 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of Nazi criminality. This was the disease that had to be rooted out. Part )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the cure was re-education.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(During the prosecution of the trials, the Americans placed great emphasis on the idea of 'conspiracy'. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purpose of the War Crimes Trials was to prove this conspiracy theory. As a result, the Holocaust becomes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(merely a ?by-product of a monolithic German-Nazi conspiracy for European domination through war.? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12\) Bloxham asserts that this preoccupation accounts for the ?intentionalist? school and ?many of the blind )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alleys into which Holocaust scholarship has wandered.? \(p. 12\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bloxham?s major criticism of the trials is that, although they were successful in ?establishing a record of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nazi criminality and aggression? \(p. vii\), there was a failure to present the fate of the Jews as unique )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amongst Nazism?s other victims. In fact their fate was downplayed. Despite being seen as an end in itself, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their extermination was tied to Nazi attempts at world conquest. The Allies were ?authors of subtle re-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writings of the Nazi extermination projects.? \(p. ix\) Attention was focused away from the victims. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Presentation of Nazi atrocities and specifically the Holocaust were used in a peculiar way as part of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(punishment and re-education process.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is a dichotomy between the guilt-evocation campaign and policies that seemed unwilling to deal with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nazi murder. For example, the showing of the film )] TJ ET BT 281.648 323.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Todesmhlen)] TJ ET BT 345.644 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(?The Mills of Death?, a montage of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(images of death in various Nazi institutions\), the display of posters showing victims at Dachau declaring ?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Das ist Eure Schuld)] TJ ET BT 129.680 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? \(?This is Your Fault?\) and the forced viewing of recently-liberated camps by local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(populations, is at odds with the reluctance, during the war particularly, to use this type of atrocity story as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(propaganda, and with the separation of Germans from their Nazi leaders when considering responsibility for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(atrocities.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These contradictions are tied to the general ambiguities of American and British policy regarding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possibilities for Germany's future. Is she a country that is capable of being re-educated, or is she a nation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complicit in the crimes of the Nazis? Is there an 'other' Germany? Bloxham acknowledges the contradictory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature of assessments of culpability and efforts to differentiate between ?Nazis? and ?Germans?. Jackson )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would distinguish between Nazis and Germans in his opening speech of the trials; however, a question mark )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remained in general policy-making.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 127.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The question of German guilt or collective guilt \()] TJ ET BT 270.656 127.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kollektivschuld)] TJ ET BT 345.320 127.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) is central to any discussion of the War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Crimes trials as, of course, criminal proceedings are by their very nature based upon a premise of guilt and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(innocence. Attempts to prove the criminal nature of the regime seemed to declare all Germans equally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culpable. Yet this is in direct contrast to wartime proclamations, such as 'we bring no charge against the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German race, as such, for we cannot believe that God has eternally condemned any race of humanity.?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 526.208 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 526.208 69.555 m 540.200 69.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The trials themselves limited the guilt to a few individuals, thus implicitly exonerating the wider population. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 240.3437 600.3175 254.3357 612.1975 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 492.2717 586.0615 506.2637 597.9415 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 526.2077 69.8695 540.1997 81.7495 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 33 0 R 36 0 R ] /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 7303 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In this reviewer?s opinion, however, war guilt is only part of the concept of re-education and Bloxham?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study is not clear about a definition beyond the assertion that ?introspection ? was the key aim of this ?re-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(education.? \(p. 132\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bloxham here is in agreement with contemporary commentators, who argued that the moral renewal of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germany had to be attained by individual introspection and self-examination.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 405.968 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 405.968 726.051 m 419.960 726.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 419.960 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The idea of collective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German guilt was often viewed as the first step toward re-education. Contemporary critics, however, pointed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out that the guilt-evocation campaign could not be this 'first step', ?because it skips over the prior need to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(start reversing the process of the demoralization of the Germans.?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 349.940 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 349.940 683.283 m 363.932 683.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 363.932 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The usefulness of the trials of Nazis as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(re-educational tool was usually related to the prominence of the accused. The singling out of 'major' Nazi )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criminals is of interest, as it appears contrary to the policy of implicating the German people. This action )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exemplifies the ambivalent nature of postwar policy conclusions regarding the treatment of Germany and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germans.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The discussion of German guilt began with the liberation of the concentration camps and ended in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spring/Summer of 1947, with the announcements of the Truman doctrine and the Marshall Plan, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changed Germany?s role in the international system. The Germans were now separated from the crimes of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Third Reich, as they were now viewed as a trustworthy ally. As Bloxham acknowledges, this was pure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political pragmatism. Finally on the question of guilt, he raises an interesting hypothesis that the ?supposed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(innocence of the German soldier was transposed to the whole of the German population.? \(p. 12\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The trials are seen as falling short for a number of reasons. Bloxham shows that the British and American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempts to come to terms with Nazism failed and that this failure is exemplified perfectly by their inability )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to understand the Holocaust. The trial medium was also unsuccessful in capturing anybody?s imagination )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and later the western powers came up with sophisticated justifications for the release of war criminals. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primary reason for this seems to have been that the issue had become embarrassing. In addition, throughout )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the trial proceedings emphasis was permanently placed on the perpetrators of the crimes rather than the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(victims. Victimhood was not associated with the actual victims of the Nazi regime, as they were given little, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to no, attention. By the 1950s, with Cold War alignments firmly established, the victims had become the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German people as a whole. They were victims of a terrifying, all-seeing, all-knowing and brutal regime. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trials also failed, as their organisation meant that certain defendants were not tried. If a defendant?s profile )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did not fit a case, then it was possible for him to remain untried, despite the gravity of his crimes. Finally, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Allies were not concerned with motivations for these crimes. They contented themselves only with their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(causes. This can be seen as a serious omission.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bloxham argues ?that the racial murders committed by the Third Reich were expressions of the essential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quality of the regime, understanding those crimes was and is fundamental to understanding Nazism.? \(p. viii\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Through cataloguing British and American shortcomings in understanding these crimes, Bloxham thus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrates their failure to understand Nazism. The trials were also political trials, with proceedings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(affected by political biases, which in turn affected the representation of the past: ?Even in the courtroom the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(means and purposes of examining the past varied in accordance with the different political agendas of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period.? \(p. ix\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In a further omission, the proceedings failed to distinguish between the camp systems according to function, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leading to the longstanding confusion of concentration camps with extermination camps. The ?camp was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pre-eminent symbol of Nazi atrocity? \(p. 11\), but it was not properly defined. This explains the proliferation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the term 'concentration camp' as a generic term for Nazi atrocity. The Dachau trial was of particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance in this sense, especially to American thinking. However, this exemplifies again the effect of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these trials. An individual camp is taken out of context by not being located appropriately within the full )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(system of genocide.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(True understanding of the Holocaust was further hampered by Jackson?s belief in the documentary approach )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to evidence. This meant that journalistic interest was often not sustained and this contributed to the public?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lacklustre enthusiasm for the trials. In addition, the Tribunal maintained a continual suspicion of eyewitness )] TJ ET endstream endobj 32 0 obj [30 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 405.9677 726.3655 419.9597 738.2455 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj [30 0 R /Fit] endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 349.9397 683.5975 363.9317 695.4775 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 41 0 R 43 0 R 45 0 R ] /Contents 39 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Length 7596 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(testimony, despite the fact that stories were often corroborated by documentary evidence. Therefore while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some exaggerations originating with the trials have remained in the historical record, so have the omissions. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Bloxham gives the example of the murderous activities of some of the lesser-known police organizations.\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The trials' failure to assess the influence of certain groups -- for example, the Order Police -- meant that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these groups were for many years excluded from historical accounts. As Bloxham observes, ?The scale of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nazi criminality ultimately made every trial programme a selective venture.? \(p. 54\) Legal strictures, such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(limiting considerations to the period after American entry into the war, also had a particular effect in relation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to deliberations on the fate of the Jews; for example)] TJ ET BT 282.968 684.677 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 288.968 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this specific decision excluded discussion of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of the camp system prior to 1942. Concern regarding the Holocaust was not apparent and cases )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that could have highlighted it were not brought to the fore. This meant that the Shoah was not fully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understood.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The concentration camp became the symbol of atrocity, but again the Jewish factor was downplayed or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(avoided, with prosecutors preferring to place emphasis on political prisoners. The murder of the Jews is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(given a diminished role in the dominant interpretation of Nazism, since ?the British and the American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occupiers chose to build their re-educational edifices on the foundation-stone of ?Aryan? suffering.? \(p. 80\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Selective reporting of the trials cemented misrepresentations of the camps. Often reports made conditions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seem worse than they were, while the actual worst examples were ignored. The trials were also tinged by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preconceptions. For example, the trials perceived Nazism as an ideologically-driven monolithic system. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(again prevented a true grasp of its crimes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It seems that prosecutors were almost bored with the issue of the relationship between the Nazis and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jews. There was a prevailing mood that this had already been dealt with 'exhaustively'. However, three of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(four extermination camps \(Belzec, Sobibor and Treblinka\) were completely excluded from the proceedings. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The problem was not one of lack of information. Instead it points to dysfuntional)] TJ ET BT 425.648 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(processing and analysis of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this material. Important details were overlooked in the small number of eyewitness testimonies that were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(used. Research gathered seems to have been remarkably accurate but ineffectually exploited. It is only the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of victims that appears to have been largely overestimated and the exact murder methods slightly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confused. The emphasis placed on gassing shows the ?persistent and peculiar misconceptions regarding the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(methods of killing.? \(p. 117\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This monograph is clearly the product of a well-researched project and one of great interest. To see mention )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the important idea of re-education is excellent. Bloxham asserts that the trials can be seen as ?a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(microcosm of the whole ?re-education? process? \(p. 225\); yet)] TJ ET BT 333.272 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this conclusion is open to debate. If the trials )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are seen as a failure, does this mean that re-education was a failure also? This is a question not addressed by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bloxham. It would perhaps also have been illuminating to include discussion of the representations of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leading Nazis and Nazism during the Second World War, if only as background. The important stereotype of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gangsterism, for example, is not discussed.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 239.996 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 239.996 262.371 m 253.988 262.371 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 253.988 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( He does, however, deal skilfully and thoroughly with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trials' impact on history and particularly the history of the Holocaust. Bloxham?s treatment of ?memory? is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially interesting, as despite the trials' contemporary failings to come to terms with the recent past, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shoah has now taken centre stage in the popular memory of Nazi crimes -- perhaps even to the detriment of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the other crimes committed by the Nazis. Overall, this study is a significant addition to our understanding of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the preconceptions and purposes of the War Crimes Trials; but perhaps even more importantly, it addresses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the origins of our understanding of the history of the Holocaust.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 143.331 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 112.714 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 112.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert Wolfe, ed., )] TJ ET BT 155.996 112.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Americans as Proconsuls - United States Military Government in Germany and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 98.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Japan, 1944-1952)] TJ ET BT 151.340 98.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Southern Illinois Press; Carbondale & Edwardsville, 1984\), pp. xv-xvi.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 499.652 98.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 499.652 97.059 m 553.640 97.059 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 84.202 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 84.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Address at Ottawa, Canada, August 25, 1943, in Samuel I. Rosenman, ed., )] TJ ET BT 424.640 84.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Public Papers and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 69.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Addresses of Franklin D. Roosevelt: 1943 ? The Tide Turns)] TJ ET BT 350.672 69.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Harper & Bros.; New York, 1950\), p. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 55.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(365.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 85.016 55.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 85.016 54.291 m 139.004 54.291 l S endstream endobj 40 0 obj [38 0 R /Fit] endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 239.9957 262.6855 253.9877 274.5655 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 499.6517 97.3735 553.6397 109.2535 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 85.0157 54.6055 139.0037 66.4855 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 49 0 R 51 0 R 53 0 R 55 0 R 57 0 R 59 0 R 61 0 R ] /Contents 48 0 R >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Length 4362 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 796.474 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Samuel I. Rosenman, ed., )] TJ ET BT 190.004 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Public Papers and Addresses of Franklin D. Roosevelt: 1942 ? )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Humanity on the Defensive)] TJ ET BT 194.324 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Harper & Bros.; New York, 1950\), p. 410. This was a repeated aim. See )] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also 'The President asks that frontiers be opened to victims of Nazi oppression and declares that war )] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criminals will be tried and punished, March 24, 1944', in Samuel I. Rosenman, ed., )] TJ ET BT 465.140 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Public Papers )] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and Addresses of Franklin D. Roosevelt: 1944-45 ? Victory and the Threshold of Peace)] TJ ET BT 484.640 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(Harper & )] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bros.; New York, 1950\), p. 103.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 219.332 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 219.332 723.795 m 273.320 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 710.938 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Samuel I. Rosenman \(ed.\) )] TJ ET BT 191.996 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Public Papers and Addresses of Franklin D. Roosevelt: 1944-45 ? )] TJ ET BT 64.016 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Victory and the Threshold of Peace)] TJ ET BT 234.332 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 352-3.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 289.328 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 289.328 695.283 m 343.316 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 682.426 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Karl Jaspers, )] TJ ET BT 128.996 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Question of German Guilt)] TJ ET BT 275.660 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Dial Press; New York, 1947\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 425.300 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 425.300 681.027 m 479.288 681.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 668.170 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Percy Winner, ?The German road back: an inquiry into guilt, punishment and expiation?, )] TJ ET BT 495.284 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The New )] TJ ET BT 64.016 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Republic)] TJ ET BT 106.676 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(4 June 1945\), p. 779.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 214.664 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 214.664 652.515 m 268.652 652.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 639.658 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In an American training film, [)] TJ ET BT 211.988 639.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Here Is Germany)] TJ ET BT 295.292 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, War Department Orientation Film, O.F.-11, 1944] )] TJ ET BT 64.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for example, the filmmakers did not miss the opportunity to present Hitler and his gang visually and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(verbally as an assortment of 'dope addicts, perverts, bullies and cranks'.")] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 411.500 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 411.500 609.747 m 465.488 609.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET 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