%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140416041305+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140416041305+01'00') /Title (The Borderland of Imbecility: Medicine, Society and the Fabrication of the Feeble Mind in Late Victorian and Edwardian England) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4107 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Borderland of Imbecility: Medicine, Society and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Fabrication of the Feeble Mind in Late Victorian and Edwardian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.553 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(England)] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At least until recently, the explosion in study of the history of mental illness has not been mirrored in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparable studies of the history of developmental disability. In the last few years, that has begun to change, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the publications of major works by Mathew Thomson,)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 319.664 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 319.664 186.393 m 333.656 186.393 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 333.656 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( David Wright,)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 405.980 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 405.980 186.393 m 419.972 186.393 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 419.972 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and this work by Mark )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jackson. The work of these scholars is largely complementary. Wright focuses on the Victorian period and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomson primarily on the period following the introduction of the Mental Deficiency Act in 1913. Jackson's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work expressly places itself as bridging these two periods, examining the period from roughly 1890 to 1913 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when feeble-mindedness became a discrete category, and a matter of concern in social policy and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professional practice alike.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jackson's work is thus essentially about the birth of an idea and the creation of a perceived social problem. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this it is a very good read. It is not a radical book. The traditional themes of recent medical history, including )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the tension between benevolence and control, the rise of confinement, the rise of the role of the doctor and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(289)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 October, 2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mark Jackson)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780719054563)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(47.50)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(283pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.manchesteruniversitypress.co.uk)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.811 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Bartlett)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 319.6637 186.7075 333.6557 198.5875 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 405.9797 186.7075 419.9717 198.5875 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7436 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the intermingled roles of professionals and laity are at the core of this book. The usual suspects in the history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of mental deficiency, such as Mary Dendy, John Langdon Down, and Alfred Tredgold, all figure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prominently. The landmark events identified similarly present no surprises: the founding of Earlswood and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(four regional asylums in the nineteenth century; the establishment of special schools in the 1890s; the report )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Charity Organisation Society in 1893; the Report of the Departmental Committee on Metropolitan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Poor Law Schools in 1896; the Report of the Departmental Committee on Defective and Epileptic Children )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1898; the founding of Sandlebridge Boarding School in 1902; the Royal Commission on the Care and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Control of the Feeble-Minded in 1908; and the Mental Deficiency Act itself in 1913.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To this relatively traditional structure, Jackson brings the benefits of modern historiographical analysis. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrative can be seen as a 'success story', in that the reform movement he chronicles did move the question )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of mental deficiency to a prominent place on the public agenda by the beginning of the Great War, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jackson views doctors as having a particularly pivotal role in this development, but this is never the simple )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(story of 'science marches on'. While the benevolence of the reformers is never questioned, the issue of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control is never far in the background, and Jackson is at his best when explaining the influence of lay ideas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on medical thinking about mental disability. Thus in Jackson's account, the rise of mental deficiency on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social policy agenda is not merely the result of the fear that the condition was becoming increasingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common because of heredity and genetics, a fear for which medicine provided a scientific articulation. It was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also the association of feeble-mindedness with the social residuum, that cesspool which in the Victorian and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edwardian imagination constituted the root of social problems and social decay. As Malthusian logic had led )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the late Georgians and early Victorians to view the chronically poor as the time bomb that would bring about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the demise of civilised society, so in the Edwardian period, this role fell to the feeble-minded. A particularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting strand of his argument concerns the development of an association between mental deficiency )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and physical appearance, a theme explored by other historians of mental disorder in other contexts but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examined by Jackson with considerable insight.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is, in the best sense, a survey book. Ideas are by definition somewhat woolly things, and the history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an idea will, by definition, lack the methodological tidiness of, for example, an institutional history. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jackson's book is not a study of the application of social policy. Instead, it weaves a variety of thematic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strands into a narrative, to explain the rise of feeble-mindedness as a social problem. This is its strength, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in this it is very successful. I have no doubt that it will be a fundamental reference source for many years to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(come, and it certainly deserves a place on academic reading lists for courses relating to the history of mental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deficiency in the early years of the twentieth century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That said, the book raises a variety of questions that should provide meat for scholarly discourse for some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time to come. I raise these questions not by way of criticism of Jackson. The book already runs to 236 pages )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of text, and it is as full an account as one could ask of the project that Jackson has set himself. At the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time, the questions that the book raises, and of practical necessity leaves unanswered, are tantalising. Many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of these issues raise empirical questions to which the answers remain speculation pending further research: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jackson has provided a good story, but how did it play out in practice? We do not yet have the wealth of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ground-level studies to provide a convincing answer, but each of the core themes which Jackson presents )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(requires empirical assessment.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jackson demonstrates convincingly for example that medical doctors were engaged in the reform movements )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relating to feeble-mindedness in the late Victorian and Edwardian periods, and were vocal in that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involvement. It does not follow from this that they were influential. Jackson himself, at various points in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book, alludes to contemporary controversy as to the degree to which feeble-mindedness ought to be viewed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a medical concern, but the focus of the book does not provide an occasion for those conflicting views and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their potential importance to be considered in any depth. That said, his consideration of and respect for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work of Mary Dendy, herself not a doctor, itself suggests considerable influences beyond the medical in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('pathologisation' of feeble-mindedness. The fact that doctors were called as witnesses before the various )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(official committees suggests some degree of influence in the formation of policy, but examination of those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(committees suggests a more complex story. Thus, while the 1908 Royal Commission on the Care and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Control of the Feeble-Minded clearly gave serious consideration to medical testimony, such medical )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7406 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(testimony by no means monopolised Commission hearings. The Commission itself contained only two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doctors in its membership, one of whom was a medical statistician rather than a specialist in mental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deficiency. It seems more likely that policy was formed in the rough and tumble between medical views, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poor law and political doctrine, educational interests, charitable concerns, and a wide variety of vested )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interests. Certainly Mathew Thomson?s discussion of the passage of the 1913 Act does not suggest a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centrality of medical views in the practical politics of parliamentary debate \(Thomson, pp. 37-51\). Jackson?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work focuses on the history of the idea, rather than the story of policy formation, and therefore does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(address these issues.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If this complexity applied at the level of policy formation, it would have been even more relevant at the level )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of policy implementation. The construction of facilities for the feeble-minded, whether as specialist poor law )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institution or charitable facility, and the eventual admission of persons to those facilities, would have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involved a wide variety of actors at the local level: poor law officials \(who generally paid for care even in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(charitable facilities\) and family members at the very least would have to be convinced, in addition to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doctor signing the medical certificate. Recent studies on county asylums in England and Wales have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrated the complexity of these relations. Jackson periodically alludes to, but does not explore, similar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complexities in the case of the institutional care of the feeble-minded.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A similar set of questions could be asked about the importance of feeble-mindedness as a construct overall in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this period. Clearly, it developed an independence as a concept which it did not have in the mid-nineteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, but how far did the development of the new concept lead to an extension of state control, as Jackson )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggests? For children, Jackson is probably on strong ground. Few children were brought into the lunacy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(system in the mid-nineteenth century, and the explosion in numbers identified as feeble-minded by the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years of the twentieth century suggests a real expansion of provision of state services. Even with this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population, the rise in primary education for children after 1870 provided a new system of surveillance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through which such children could be identified, suggesting that the story may be more complex than one of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mental deficiency alone. For adults, the questions are more difficult to answer, for the lunacy and poor law )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(systems had always accommodated persons of marginal ability. Jackson notes that much of the concern in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the period he studies was with the feeble-minded poor; it is at least arguable that these were already within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the system of state provision either in county asylums, or in workhouses. Such workhouses increasingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offered dedicated accommodation for ?idiots and imbeciles? from the mid-nineteenth century, an obvious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(precursor to the dedicated provision Jackson describes. Since 1867, it had been possible to confine persons )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identified as 'weak-minded' in these workhouses. The obvious question is how far the development of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new category of feeble-mindedness resulted in new confinements, and how much it merely represented the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(re-labelling of those already in institutional care. The numbers of insane persons contained in institutions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grew unremittingly during the nineteenth century. Certainly, that growth continued into the twentieth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, eventually peaking shortly after the second world war, and certainly a considerable number of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were identified as feeble-minded. It is less clear whether these people constituted a new territory of persons )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confined, or whether they would have been confined in any event under the old categories.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jackson does not assist with that question, in that he does not engage in the nuts-and-bolts question of how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doctors and other social administrators determined whether an individual fell into the class of the feeble-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(minded. Certainly, there is a very interesting chapter on the use of photographic images in the development )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of feeble-mindedness as a concept, and Jackson further chronicles cross-fertilisation between medical and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lay ideas about the general meaning of the concept, but the actual way in which determinations were made is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(largely unexplored. Again, this is perhaps inevitable. Such an analysis would require a local study, or quite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possibly a series of local studies, since practices may well not have been models of consistency, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nonetheless I admit to an occasional feeling of frustration as I read the book, wondering who it was exactly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that was being discussed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The association of the feeble-minded as the 'new residuum' must also be placed in its context. A perusal of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(casebooks from nineteenth-century asylums demonstrates that the insane were viewed in judgmental and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moral terms for much of the century. The case book of the Leicester and Rutland County Asylum refers to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Healey, admitted in 1851, as possessed of ?a large amount of animal cunning, low trickery, and all the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 27 0 R 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 5096 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paltry, and petty devices of an abandoned character, his habits had become those of a confirmed drunkard, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(idle, dissolute, and intemperate'.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 188.828 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 188.828 780.819 m 202.820 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 202.820 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Such descriptions were not atypical of the mid-nineteenth century, and it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is thus not obvious that the use of such language for the feeble-minded at the end of the century was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly novel. While the association of the feeble-minded and other insane with the social residuum is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important, it is not obvious that it is a phenomenon restricted to the period of Jackson's study.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jackson's work raises a variety of questions about how the construction of feeble-mindedness related to other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social categories, and how the academic research in those areas will apply or not to questions of feeble-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mindedness. There are clear connections with the broader literature in history of madness, as for example on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions of administration and definition. Equally, if the feeble-minded were the new residuum, there must )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be interesting connections with the now substantial literature in the history of criminology.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It would be unfair to criticise Jackson for not addressing these issues, and not engaging with these broader )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literatures. They are not directly his subject. A fairer view is that )] TJ ET BT 347.288 615.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Borderland of Imbecility)] TJ ET BT 486.944 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( provides a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(starting point for wealth of scholarship waiting to be explored. As it stands, it is a highly engaging account )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the interplay between medical and lay ideas in the development of the concept of feeble-mindedness. It is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a book that will be required reading for those studying or researching in this area, for some time to come.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 537.987 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 507.370 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 507.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mathew Thompson, )] TJ ET BT 163.676 507.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Problem of Mental Deficiency: Eugenics, Democracy and Social Policy in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 493.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Britain, c. 1870-1959)] TJ ET BT 167.348 493.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Clarendon Press; Oxford, 1998\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 330.656 493.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 330.656 491.715 m 384.644 491.715 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 478.858 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 478.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Wright, )] TJ ET BT 136.340 478.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mental Disability in Victorian England: The Earlswood Asylum 1847-1901)] TJ ET BT 498.344 478.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford )] TJ ET BT 64.016 464.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University Press; Oxford, 2001\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 221.000 464.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 221.000 463.203 m 274.988 463.203 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 450.346 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 450.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Quoted in Peter Bartlett, )] TJ ET BT 184.340 450.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Poor Law of Lunacy: The Administration of Pauper Lunatics in Mid-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 436.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nineteenth-Century England)] TJ ET BT 202.340 436.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Leicester University Press; Leicester, 1999\), p 164; regarding )] TJ ET BT 64.016 421.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moralisation of the insane poor in the nineteenth century, see chapter 5 generally.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 454.604 421.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 454.604 420.435 m 508.592 420.435 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 395.573 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 381.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 376.591 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 358.811 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 358.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/289)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 357.417 m 322.316 357.417 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 332.440 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.040 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2694)] TJ ET BT 34.016 303.640 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 188.8277 781.1335 202.8197 793.0135 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 330.6557 492.0295 384.6437 503.9095 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 220.9997 463.5175 274.9877 475.3975 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 17 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 454.6037 420.7495 508.5917 432.6295 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 26 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 357.7315 322.3157 369.6115 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/289) >> endobj xref 0 37 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000629 00000 n 0000000725 00000 n 0000004884 00000 n 0000004993 00000 n 0000005103 00000 n 0000005212 00000 n 0000008773 00000 n 0000008901 00000 n 0000008985 00000 n 0000009014 00000 n 0000009142 00000 n 0000009178 00000 n 0000009207 00000 n 0000009335 00000 n 0000009371 00000 n 0000009436 00000 n 0000016925 00000 n 0000016990 00000 n 0000024449 00000 n 0000024561 00000 n 0000029710 00000 n 0000029740 00000 n 0000029868 00000 n 0000029904 00000 n 0000030032 00000 n 0000030087 00000 n 0000030215 00000 n 0000030270 00000 n 0000030398 00000 n 0000030453 00000 n 0000030581 00000 n trailer << /Size 37 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 30676 %%EOF