%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 23 0 R 46 0 R 54 0 R 80 0 R 106 0 R 164 0 R ] /Count 7 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140801033756+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140801033756+01'00') /Title (The Third Revolution. Professional Elites in the Modern World) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R 21 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4883 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Third Revolution. Professional Elites in the Modern World)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harold Perkin has been hailed as 'the Marx of the Salariat'.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 315.944 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 315.944 257.673 m 329.936 257.673 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 329.936 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The author of this sobriquet is thanked for his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('infallible intellectual and moral support', so it must be true.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 319.988 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 319.988 243.417 m 333.980 243.417 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 333.980 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Now it seems he is to be its Lenin too, for his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(latest book ends with a reprise of that foundation text, ' )] TJ ET BT 300.812 230.555 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(What is to be done? )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 399.140 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 399.140 229.161 m 413.132 229.161 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 413.132 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The distinction of being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(placed in such company is no doubt tempered by an understandable hesitation over the ability of the new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(battle cry of professionally enlightened self- interest to rival the recruiting power of the red banner of old. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For in this book Perkin has not only gone global, extending his concept of the professional revolution, first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adumbrated in relation to England, to a group of seven countries which possibly think of themselves as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constituting the essential 'world'; he has also gone incandescent. Naturally the book can be read, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(profitably read, as a serious analytical survey of the development of the seven countries since 1945 - with, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should be noticed, a somewhat surprising emphasis from the first professor of social history in Britain on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their economic performances - but it can also be read as a manifesto. This becomes explicit in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusion, which is addressed to the question 'What then can be done to save the debilitated Anglo-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American societies from the same fate as the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe?' and where the rhetoric rises )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to levels of denunciation which would not have disgraced E.P. Thompson when on the trail of error. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(free-marketeers in their hubris and their greed, Perkin writes, 'have committed themselves to laughable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(29)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 1 March, 1997)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harold Perkin)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780415143370)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1996)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(75.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(272pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Routledge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.routledge.com/books/The-Third-Revolution-isbn9780415143370)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Thompson)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 315.9437 257.9875 329.9357 269.8675 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 319.9877 243.7315 333.9797 255.6115 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 22 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 399.1397 229.4755 413.1317 241.3555 ] >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R 29 0 R 32 0 R 35 0 R 38 0 R 41 0 R 44 0 R ] /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 8969 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theories like the Laffer curve \("lower taxes produce more revenue"\) when it only produces massive budget )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deficits, and the "trickle down" theory \("tax breaks to the rich benefit the rest"\), a euphemism for "pissing on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the poor." There is little hope from them of self-correction and reform. We can only hope that they will run )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out of gas'.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 86.504 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 86.504 752.307 m 100.496 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 100.496 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( But there are plenty of signs in the body of the text that the manifesto element and its polemic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are much more than a postscript to a scholarly work: they are integral to its whole structure and purpose, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(signalled at the very beginning when 'the triumph of the Thatcherites in Britain, like that of the Reaganites )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Gingrich Republicans in the United States,' is described as 'the victory of the private sector professionals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over the rest of society', extremely dangerous because of the unrestrained selfishness and greed which it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sanctions, which produce 'social pathologies like crime, drug taking, homelessness, mental illness, riots, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rebellion.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 79.676 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 79.676 666.771 m 93.668 666.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 93.668 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( So the Third Revolution is also about the approaching fourth revolution that may come out of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these riots and rebellions, and the prescriptions for averting this revolution are embedded in the analysis, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(definition, of the third.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Two for the price of one is a well-recognised consumerist, post-industrial, ploy which could very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appropriately be used to promote Harold Perkin's special offer of a global contemporary history and an anti-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fat cat campaign document within single covers. The ploy is very successful. up to a point, largely because )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we are swept along by his command of the post-1945 stories and the cultural traditions of the seven leading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professional societies, and because the great majority of his readership will undoubtedly share his deep )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(antipathy to the elevation of unbridled greed into the supreme virtue and driving force of society. The time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comes, however, when the history does not seem to have solid enough foundations to carry the towering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusions it is expected to bear, and the manifesto seems longer on invective than on constructive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggestions)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The scheme of the book is to identify the 'three great social revolutions which encompass the whole of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(human history)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 103.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 103.016 457.443 m 117.008 457.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 117.008 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, to examine the working out of the post-industrial revolution in separate chapters devoted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the seven leading societies - the United States, Britain, France, the two Germanys, the Soviet Union, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Japan - and to conclude with a look at the globalisation of professional society. The first revolution was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Neolithic, enabling the transition from hunting- gathering to farming, which Perkin has not examined )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personally but which has profoundly impressed him so that the couple of pages devoted to it manage to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(repeat twice that 'above all, it created history itself', and 'above all, the priests and bureaucrats invented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writing, and so made history itself possible.")] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 248.240 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 248.240 371.907 m 262.232 371.907 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 262.232 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This revolution was indeed of enormous importance, 'a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mega- revolution' no less, which created great kingdoms and empires - Sumeria, Egypt, China, Persia, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rome, the Incas, and the Aztecs are mentioned - and on one reading produced the Renaissance, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reformation, the Scientific Revolution, and the Enlightenment before its force was spent. A revolution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which lasted for more than 7,000 years was a mighty thing, and so very peculiar that it ought not to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presented as the first in a series. Be that as it may, the second revolution is of course the Industrial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revolution, to whose interpretation Perkin has made a notable contribution and whose revolutionary nature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he now upholds against criticisms that it took too long to happen with the observation, most pertinent in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context, that 'in the longer time scale of human history two hundred years is short indeed.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 463.124 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 463.124 257.859 m 477.116 257.859 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 477.116 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The third )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolution is, it goes without saying, the post- industrial revolution: but it is worth saying, for in this book it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is interchangeably 'the revolution of information technology, automation, "lean production", or, as I prefer, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the rise of professional society'.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 185.816 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 185.816 215.091 m 199.808 215.091 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 199.808 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This is interesting, since in 1989 professional society was thought to have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(begun to rise, at least in England, from the 1880s, whereas 'lean production' was definitely unheard of much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before the 1960s and nothing much was felt to be post-industrial until the 1970s. Professional society is an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elusive concept with a hazy chronology. In the book which so dramatically placed it on the intellectual map )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the growth of a self-confident, self-regulating, professional class imbued with the idea of public service was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the key to the replacement of the market economy of the mature Victorian industrial society by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(corporatist welfare state which was firmly established in the 1950s and 1960s, and the backlash against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professional society, the revolt of the private sector against big government, regulation, and corporatism, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which gathered strength in the later 1970s was seen as marking a reverse for the 'professional society )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([which] thrived for over a quarter of a century after the Second World War, that is for as long as full )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(employment and a booming economy allowed it to meet all reasonable demands upon it for rising living )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(standards and welfare services. ")] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 191.192 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 191.192 58.275 m 211.184 58.275 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 211.184 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( But as with any great text passages can always be found to support )] TJ ET endstream endobj 25 0 obj [23 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 86.5037 752.6215 100.4957 764.5015 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj [23 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 79.6757 667.0855 93.6677 678.9655 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj [23 0 R /Fit] endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 103.0157 457.7575 117.0077 469.6375 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj [23 0 R /Fit] endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 248.2397 372.2215 262.2317 384.1015 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 37 0 obj [23 0 R /Fit] endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 463.1237 258.1735 477.1157 270.0535 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 40 0 obj [23 0 R /Fit] endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 185.8157 215.4055 199.8077 227.2855 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 43 0 obj [23 0 R /Fit] endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 191.1917 58.5895 211.1837 70.4695 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 49 0 R 52 0 R ] /Contents 47 0 R >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Length 8089 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different and even contradictory interpretations, and in the Rise this 'reverse' was also identified as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transition from a professional society dominated by public sector and welfare professionals to a more mature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professional society controlled by private sector professionals dedicated to a return to the rule of market )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forces, and the backlash against professional society was revealed to be a conflict between public sector )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professionals \(civil servants, university teachers, schoolteachers, doctors, clergy of the established churches, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(BBC broadcasters but not others, and presumably not dentists, lawyers, journalists, artists, writers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(architects\) and private sector professionals \(salaried managing directors and other top executives in business )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are presented as the principal actors, but presumably everyone else not in the public sector may qualify, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(since all workers and employees are said to have become professional\) a conflict for the possession of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(soul of professional society, so that the backlash ingeniously becomes also a forward surge.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In this book also 'the master conflict of professional society. . .is the competition between the public and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(private sectors over taxation and government spending.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 299.636 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 299.636 626.259 m 319.628 626.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 319.628 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Realising that this generalization can hardly be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extended to the professional societies of the Soviet Union and East Germany, it is prudently added that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(master conflict has been raging 'at least in the West': but on closer examination it figures prominently only in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the chapters on Britain, and to a lesser extent in that on the United States - where the private sector )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professionals enter government service on each change of government and chameleon-like become )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(temporary public sector professionals, thus further confusing the issue - and remains unremarked or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unidentified in the cases of France, Germany, and Japan. Although it helps in understanding the breakdown )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Britain in and after 1979 of the post- 1945 Butskellite consensus on the mixed economy, welfare state, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and full employment, the concept of this master conflict between different professional elites turns out not to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be the defining characteristic of the post-industrial world. In practice, somewhat playing down the shared )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(technology which is the fundamental common characteristic of the first world and the aspiration of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(second world economies \(China might well have been considered here\) but recognising the overmighty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supra-national potential of the giant multinational corporations whose growth has been a central feature of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the global economy, Perkin settles for a much looser, more elastic, unifying thread. Any society in which the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominant elite is not recruited by hereditary title, inherited wealth, or personal wealth amassed from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entrepreneurial profits, is by definition a professional society. This is a broad definition which nets a mixed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(catch of fish. The ruling elite may be composed of old style professionals from the liberal professions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(church, law, and medicine, or from the newer professions in similar mould which grew from the needs of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(urban and industrial society - engineers, architects, surveyors, teachers, for example - or from bureaucrats )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whose special education and supposed commitment to the public service placed them in the same camp, or it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can be composed of career politicians, themselves of extremely varied social, occupational, and educational )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(backgrounds, of military people, of the party faithful, of the chief executives and directors of major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manufacturing, financial, commercial, and service concerns, people who by and large are 'professional' in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same sense that a professional footballer or cricketer are professional. Indeed, if all post-aristocratic and post-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(owner-manager societies are to be dubbed 'professional' one wonders whether the term has any more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meaning than 'modern' or 'post-modern'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is a great deal of sense in lumping together the first world countries, which have had broadly similar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experiences since 1945 in steeply rising living standards and converging economies and, a little less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certainly, converging cultures. There is much less sense in trying to fit the Soviet Union and East Germany )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the same company, being forced to accept the accuracy of their hopelessly fudged and massaged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(statistics in order to claim that they, too, achieved massive increases in living standards \(one table, while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acknowledging that the figures are artificial, still claims that GNP per capita was higher, in 1966, in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(USSR and East Germany than in Britain, France, or West Gerrnany, a palpable absurdity\),)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 468.272 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 468.272 158.067 m 488.264 158.067 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 488.264 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( saw a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(massive growth in service industries relative to manufacturing and agriculture, a growth in giant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(corporations, and took part in forging the globalization of the world economy. These are identified as four of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ten major trends which mark the way in which professional society has transformed society from top to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bottom. The other six major trends are the shift from class divisions into a hierarchical structure of society, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the move from inheritance and privilege to meritocracy, the incorporation of women into the labour force, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the growth of government, the spread of the welfare state, and the expansion of higher education. While the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Soviet Union and East Germany definitely participated in these six trends, it was in authoritarian ways )] TJ ET endstream endobj 48 0 obj [46 0 R /Fit] endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 299.6357 626.5735 319.6277 638.4535 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 51 0 obj [46 0 R /Fit] endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 468.2717 158.3815 488.2637 170.2615 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 57 0 R 60 0 R 63 0 R 66 0 R 69 0 R 72 0 R 75 0 R 78 0 R ] /Contents 55 0 R >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Length 9052 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which singularly failed to deliver the cornucopia of affluence which is proclaimed as 'the whole point and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purpose of professional society)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 183.656 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 183.656 780.819 m 203.648 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 203.648 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( so that one is bound to question the logical or historical cohesion of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ten trends as the unitary package or model of the third social revolution. The Soviet Union and East )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germany are present in the scheme because Perkin needed a couple of command economies to complete the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(symmetry of his vision of 'the Great Arch', a spectrum of advanced professional societies stretching from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(United States as the most purely free-market, at one end, to the Soviet Union as the most unfree, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pathologically distorted version of bureaucratic professionalism, at the opposite end. An engaging conceit, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Great Arch is an imaginary concept which does not add anything to the serious matter in the book. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Soviet Union and East Germany are best left on their own as failed attempts to use the command economy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(route to rival the United States in material terms and surpass it culturally.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The ten trends are unambiguously present in the five advanced capitalist countries examined, which is to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expected since the trends have been empirically derived from the experiences of those countries. These five )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are treated as separate case studies, in what is termed 'a rolling comparison. ")] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 403.988 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 403.988 612.003 m 423.980 612.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 423.980 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This ingenious device in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effect means that differences between countries can be ascribed to their different pre-professional histories )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and traditions, while similarities can be claimed as manifestations of professional society at work. In practice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the problems of writing comparative history are dominated by Perkin's inevitable dependence on the existing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literature on the seven chosen countries, most of it written on a single-country footing and employing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diverse approaches, emphases, and categories, which render controlled comparisons well nigh impossible.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thus the account of the United States concentrates on the growth of the giant business corporations and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(propensity to behave like overmighty feudal barons, and is overshadowed by the looming decline and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disaster detected by doomsters in the relative contraction of the manufacturing sector because new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(technologies have been exported to lower-wage economies 'thus creating domestic depression, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unemployment, bankruptcies of satellite firms, and adding to the trade deficit.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 407.636 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(15\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 407.636 457.443 m 427.628 457.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 427.628 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The short-termism of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stock market is said to be stifling innovation, and the greed and irresponsibility of the neo-feudal giant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(corporations whose top executives pay themselves ludicrously gigantic rewards is propelling the U. S. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economy towards the point where it will collapse through its gross inequalities and internal contradictions. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This analysis seems to ignore the evidence of continuing innovations in the U. S. economy and to brush )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aside the record of rising per capita incomes, but it does furnish material for direct comparisons with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British case, where short-termism is also held to have inhibited innovations in industry, although it has often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been said that the British have made key inventions only to have them turned into successful innovations in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the United States. The outrageous salary increases which the likes of Cedric Brown and Sir Iain Vallance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have paid themselves, and the general selfishness and greed of the free-marketeers are held to be responsible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for Britain's continued, post-1979, decline, although the landed and capitalist ruling elites should take the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blame for losing an empire and losing Britain's former industrial and technological lead.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 457.124 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(16\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 457.124 300.627 m 477.116 300.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 477.116 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 'Britain's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decline...is entirely due to the failure of its political and business elites', and it is essentially this 'rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the obstructionism of British workers. . . [which] lies at the heart of Britain's economic decline.")] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 496.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(17\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 496.016 272.115 m 516.008 272.115 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The British chapter is focused on this decline, which in this context has been under way since at least the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beginning of the century, while that of the United States may, possibly, lie in the future. It is acknowledged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Britain's decline is relative to the more rapid growth of other economies, and that in absolute terms there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has been no decline in GNP per capita. By this measure the United States also has been in decline, in relation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to more rapid growth rates in France, West Germany, and Japan since 1950, and in Britain since 1960,)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 525.596 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(18\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 525.596 188.835 m 545.588 188.835 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but this has failed to become the object of consuming interest for economists, and economic and cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians to explain, perhaps for the rather obvious reason that the U. S. economy by and large seemed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extremely successful until the 1980s. Perkin, in company with many economic and social historians, is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obsessed with the problem of Britain's decline. He explains that although Britain pioneered the Third )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revolution just as it had the Industrial Revolution )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 276.692 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(19\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 276.692 117.555 m 296.684 117.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 296.684 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, it apparently had the wrong kind of society for a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(good, thoroughgoing, full-blooded, Third Revolution, because the class divisions created by the Second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revolution were too deeply embedded to permit the emergence of a properly effective and meritocratic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professional society. A landed, aristocratic, and capitalist hangover, as it were, has held back the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economy in the twentieth century.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.660 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(20\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.660 60.531 m 217.652 60.531 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 217.652 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This is a Wiener-type explanation, complete with the familiar, thinly-)] TJ ET endstream endobj 56 0 obj [54 0 R /Fit] endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 58 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 183.6557 781.1335 203.6477 793.0135 ] >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 59 0 obj [54 0 R /Fit] endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 61 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 403.9877 612.3175 423.9797 624.1975 ] >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 62 0 obj [54 0 R /Fit] endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 64 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 407.6357 457.7575 427.6277 469.6375 ] >> endobj 64 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 65 0 obj [54 0 R /Fit] endobj 66 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 67 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 457.1237 300.9415 477.1157 312.8215 ] >> endobj 67 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 68 0 obj [54 0 R /Fit] endobj 69 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 70 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 496.0157 272.4295 516.0077 284.3095 ] >> endobj 70 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 71 0 obj [54 0 R /Fit] endobj 72 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 73 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 525.5957 189.1495 545.5877 201.0295 ] >> endobj 73 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 74 0 obj [54 0 R /Fit] endobj 75 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 76 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 276.6917 117.8695 296.6837 129.7495 ] >> endobj 76 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 77 0 obj [54 0 R /Fit] endobj 78 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 79 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.6597 60.8455 217.6517 72.7255 ] >> endobj 79 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 80 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 83 0 R 86 0 R 89 0 R 92 0 R 95 0 R 98 0 R 101 0 R 104 0 R ] /Contents 81 0 R >> endobj 81 0 obj << /Length 9542 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(based, 'cultural' assertions about the anti-industrial effects of Oxbridge education and the anti-entrepreneurial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(infection of country-house culture.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 200.648 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(21\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 200.648 780.819 m 220.640 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 220.640 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It is a long-term explanation of a long-term decline, reaching back )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into that heyday of the Second Revolution when Britain was busily evolving a viable class society. At the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same time, however, Perkin seems to want to claim that Britain was doing fine for at least another hundred )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years, and 'had before the privatizations of the Thatcher era, the most balanced mixed economy, a pioneering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(welfare state, and one of the most concentrated business sectors in the free world.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 425.588 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(22\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 425.588 723.795 m 445.580 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 445.580 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( What went wrong, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(according to this version, was the emergence of the master conflict within professional society of private )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(versus public sector professionals \(a rivalry also described as being 'curiously backward'\) and the triumph of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the private sector lot in 1979 which has brought on really serious decline by rolling back the welfare state, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deliberately increasing unemployment, raising taxation while pretending to reduce it, and ushering in an era )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of greed, sleaze, and corruption.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 188.300 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(23\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 188.300 652.515 m 208.292 652.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This marks the point at which historical scholarship takes a back seat and politics, polemics, and prejudices )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(take over. It is not a point reached in the accounts of France, Germany, and Japan, where exemplary growth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(records are taken to excuse a certain amount of illiberal, paternalist, and elitist behaviour; each one in turn is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(credited with creating a model or ideal form of professional society, but in the final analysis it is only the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German model, with its apparently well-nigh perfect social market economy, which earns full marks.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 519.260 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(24\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 519.260 569.235 m 539.252 569.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These chapters, in which the 'master conflict' makes no appearances, are useful surveys of the post-1945 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic history of these countries, with an emphasis on government economic policies, and contain all that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a busy businessman may need to know about )] TJ ET BT 253.328 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(enarques, pantouflages, amakudari, yokosuberi, jinmyaku, )] TJ ET BT 537.968 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the )] TJ ET BT 51.680 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Leitungsgesellschaft )] TJ ET BT 152.684 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which is the West German achievement society. Likewise there is no sign of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(master conflict in the Soviet chapter, but naturally the )] TJ ET BT 295.316 499.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(nomenklatura )] TJ ET BT 364.976 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have a substantial airing, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paradox of a communist economy imploding because its privileged and grasping elite appropriated for itself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more surplus value than actually existed is duly savoured. What all seven countries, except Germany, are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(found to have in common are greed and corruption, from the wholesale fraud, embezzlement, and bribery )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practised by Soviet )] TJ ET BT 129.008 442.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(apparatchiks )] TJ ET BT 194.672 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, through the systematic bribery of Japanese politicians by the big )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(corporations, and the apparently general corruption in French local government contracts, to the more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('legitimate' but dubiously ethical machinations of junk bond merchants in the U. S. or take-over conmen in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain. This is attributed to the professional elites who are 'good servants but bad masters')] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 467.960 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(25\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 467.960 398.163 m 487.952 398.163 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 487.952 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they have power are liable to abuse it, exploit the masses, and line their own pockets. At this point one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cannot help concluding that there is nothing new under the sun, that ruling elites or cliques have always been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tempted to enrich themselves, and that corruption, even blatant and very large- scale corruption, is not an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invention of professional society. The infinitely rapacious emperor Bokhassa, who managed to appropriate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personally a significant fraction of the pitiful GNP of his impoverished country, might be an example of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary corruption on a colossal scale achieved without benefit of professional society.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is the sight, sound, and smell of corruption which ignites Perkin the crusader. Since everybody is against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sin and most right-minded people are against the particular sins which attract Perkin's attentions, his mission )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is likely to be sympathetically received. He is against the fat cats who help themselves to gigantic incomes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and golden handshakes while whittling away the social security support of the poor. 'The excessive greed of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some ruling elites is remarkable to behold,' he observes, 'as they simultaneously downsize their workforces, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cut the wages of those who remain, reduce the security of tenure of everyone but themselves. . .and disrupt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the career ladders which were the chief difference between the secure middle class and the declining )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(percentage of manual wage earners...In a word, the top professional elites are trying to deprofessionalize the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(employed professions.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 142.004 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(26\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 142.004 172.323 m 161.996 172.323 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 161.996 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( There are hints here of a sectional complaint from the salariat, or even echoes of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a time when the President of the Association of University Teachers was busy defending academic tenure. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The culprits are then narrowed down to the American and British elites, since the Japanese, French, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German ruling elites have not yet forfeited the trust of their societies and are unlikely to abuse their power )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grossly.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 71.684 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(27\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 71.684 115.299 m 91.676 115.299 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 91.676 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( But with 'the flaunting of excessive wealth. . .the homeless beggars on city streets, the rising )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(waves of crime, drugs, and violence met only by hysterical demands for more prisons and more draconian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(punishments' it is clear that 'the experiment under the Reagan-Bush and Thatcher-Major regimes with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deregulated free market has done more harm to their economic growth than either Hitler in the Second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(World War or Stalin, Khrushchev and Brezhnev in the Cold War.')] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 350.780 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(28\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 350.780 58.275 m 370.772 58.275 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 370.772 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The question becomes how to save )] TJ ET endstream endobj 82 0 obj [80 0 R /Fit] endobj 83 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 84 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 200.6477 781.1335 220.6397 793.0135 ] >> endobj 84 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 85 0 obj [80 0 R /Fit] endobj 86 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 87 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 425.5877 724.1095 445.5797 735.9895 ] >> endobj 87 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 88 0 obj [80 0 R /Fit] endobj 89 0 obj << /Type /Annot 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/Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 350.7797 58.5895 370.7717 70.4695 ] >> endobj 105 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 106 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 109 0 R 112 0 R 115 0 R 118 0 R 120 0 R 122 0 R 124 0 R 126 0 R 128 0 R 130 0 R 132 0 R 134 0 R 136 0 R 138 0 R 140 0 R 142 0 R 144 0 R 146 0 R 148 0 R 150 0 R 152 0 R 154 0 R 156 0 R 158 0 R 160 0 R 162 0 R ] /Contents 107 0 R >> endobj 107 0 obj << /Length 10763 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(America and Britain from collapse.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 203.648 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(29\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 203.648 795.075 m 223.640 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 223.640 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The obvious answer would seem to be to get rid of Reagan- Bush, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which has been done \(except that the appearance of Newt has been noted as a setback\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 448.880 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(30\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 448.880 780.819 m 468.872 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 468.872 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and of Thatcher-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Major, only half accomplished. But instead of ending his book with a rousing call for one more heave to get )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rid of the Tories, and a summons to vote New Labour, or possibly Liberal Democrat, Perkin retreats into a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coyly ineffectual academic shell, announcing that we must all strive to be like Germany, or perhaps Japan, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and that the only way to do this is to hope that the big bad free-marketeers will 'run out of gas', after which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(America and Britain can 'save themselves by cashiering the free-marketeers' which will not be easy since )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they are in control of most of the media and most ofthe state apparatus.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 375.296 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(31\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 375.296 695.283 m 395.288 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 395.288 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( After this conjuring trick has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been performed a new regime is to put back the clock to ensure that the producers of real goods are rewarded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while speculators, take-over raiders and arbitrage merchants are squeezed out, measures are taken to see that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no one of working age is allowed to be idle, beggars are treated as truants, the unemployed are set to work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on maintaining and improving the material infrastructure, and a high-wage, high-consumption economy is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(established.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 90.344 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(32\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 90.344 624.003 m 110.336 624.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The denunciatory part of this political manifesto is congenial enough, but the constructive elements, a weird )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mixture of physiocratic prejudices and hankerings after a German-style social market economy, are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unconvincing, while the guide to political tactics is no more than a wish-list and is definitely not worthy of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lenin. These are not solemn and illuminating pronouncements which need to be taken seriously by students )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of contemporary affairs, but they will certainly repay attention by providing entertainment as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instruction. As to the globalization of professional society since 1945, with which much of the book is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerned, professional society is so loosely and elastically defined that this process may well have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occurred. Certainly there will be general agreement with Harold Perkin that the cultural as well as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic and technological convergence of the advanced industrialised countries since 1945 needs to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studied, and one can but hope that his warning that the greed and corruption of their elites may lead to self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(destruction will be as generally heeded.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 421.683 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 391.066 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Marquand, on dust jacket of Harold Perkin, )] TJ ET BT 307.976 391.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Rise of Professional Society )] TJ ET BT 466.304 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1989\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 504.296 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 504.296 389.667 m 558.284 389.667 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 376.810 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(p. XVii.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 103.016 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 103.016 375.411 m 157.004 375.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 362.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pp. 202-18.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 119.012 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 119.012 361.155 m 173.000 361.155 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 348.298 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(p. 211.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 97.016 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 97.016 346.899 m 151.004 346.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 334.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(p. xiv.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 94.352 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 94.352 332.643 m 148.340 332.643 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 319.786 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 319.781 Td 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