%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 23 0 R 25 0 R 27 0 R 32 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140728175005+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140728175005+01'00') /Title (Prostitution and Sexuality in Shanghai: A Social History, 1849-1949 \(1\)) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R 21 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4512 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Prostitution and Sexuality in Shanghai: A Social History, 1849-1949 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Few settings in China?s modern history have been explored in greater depth than Shanghai. Moreover, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sexuality has been a 'sexy' topic in Chinese history for the better part of the past decade. And significantly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the French original was published hot on the heels of another major publication by Gail Hershatter )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 509.948 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 509.948 193.521 m 523.940 193.521 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 523.940 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exactly the same topic. All this naturally prompts the question as to why we need yet another book on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspects of sexual life in China.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The original manuscript was Christian Henriot?s )] TJ ET BT 270.656 140.147 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(thse d?tat, )] TJ ET BT 336.320 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extending to no fewer than 1200 pages. To )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reduce such a wealth of information to a publishable monograph undoubtedly required mature editorial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(judgement and structural discipline. The author begins his quest by placing the topic within a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiographical framework. Within the first few paragraphs, the author rejects the idea of prostitution as an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exotic theme of research, emphasising instead its quality as a marker of modernity. Drawing his inspiration )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from works by Louis Chevalier )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 187.664 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 187.664 67.473 m 201.656 67.473 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 201.656 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and Alain Corbin )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 290.984 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 290.984 67.473 m 304.976 67.473 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 304.976 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( on prostitution and crime in nineteenth-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France, the notion of prostitutes as a socially and politically subversive element needed to be tested against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(290)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 October, 2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christian Henriot)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nol Castelino)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780521571654)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(64.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(486pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.cambridge.org/catalogue/catalogue.asp?isbn=9780521571654)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lars Peter Laamann)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 509.9477 193.8355 523.9397 205.7155 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 187.6637 67.7875 201.6557 79.6675 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 22 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 290.9837 67.7875 304.9757 79.6675 ] >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 8107 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the background of Shanghai society, over a century of momentous change. The eventual result of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolutionary turmoil would be the forced closure of the city?s brothels by a victorious Mao Zedong in 1949. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While the phenomenon itself ? and prostitutes as a social group ? differed in many ways from the European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience, any study into prostitution in Shanghai promises deepened insight into the history of the city?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women, its criminal underworld and spheres of entertainment. Henriot's challenge was to integrate these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specific aspects into a cohesive and dynamic reflection of the social transformations Shanghai \(and by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extension also China, as the French title suggests\) was undergoing. The desire to capture the wider social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reality of the period under scrutiny is already evident from the structure.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The monograph is subdivided into four parts and fourteen chapters. Each part, except for the analytical third )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part, follows an internal chronology from the mid-nineteenth century to the end of the civil war in 1949. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chronological evolution of prostitution can be summarised as a cycle of commercialisation and social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decline. Whereas nineteenth-century prostitution was a socially varied phenomenon, encompassing extremes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at both ends of the social scale ? poor wretches eking out a living alongside murky alleys and canals, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrast to the well-paid and highly respected courtesans ? the twentieth century brought more 'modern' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leisure-time pursuits and a faster pace of life. Just as leisurely opium smoking gave way to the fast injection )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of morphine or heroin and 'trendy' cigarette smoking, the urban young opted for a quick fix in sexual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gratification. 'Modern' attitudes played as much a role in the decline of the late imperial courtesan as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(devastating blows to social order by warfare, mass migration and political upheaval. Part one begins with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beginning, that is, with the gradually eclipsing world of the courtesan. Akin to the Japanese )] TJ ET BT 475.964 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(geisha)] TJ ET BT 507.296 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(courtesans \()] TJ ET BT 91.664 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(shuyu)] TJ ET BT 119.660 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) were appreciated for their grasp of poetry, polite manners, elegance and beauty, not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primarily for their sexual services. Courtesans, in a word, were invited for their arts and for the prestige their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presence brought to the client, not for their bodies. This elegant, slightly surreal setting, which provided a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maximum degree of safety and dignity for the venal workers, could not withstand the emergence of a new, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(faster and more commercialised environment.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Part two is therefore devoted to the emergence of urban fast-sex. Whereas prostitution during the nineteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century saw the apogee of the distinguished courtesan, financially less fortunate classes of clients required )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the services of less fortunate classes of prostitutes. The ranks of the latter were being swelled by country )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(girls being lured into the metropolis in the hope that the streets be paved with gold. The reality was rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more prosaic, with most girl-prostitutes ending up trapped in the wetland mud huts outside Shanghai or in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the floating life of the canal boats, known in a French euphemism as 'jonques de tolrance'. Brothels and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hotels offering shelter to the courtesans? poor cousins, referred to as 'pheasants' \()] TJ ET BT 422.576 344.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(yeji)] TJ ET BT 439.904 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) soon mushroomed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(along the main roads. Within the walled Chinese city, the 'ten thousand flowers' \()] TJ ET BT 423.956 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(wanhua)] TJ ET BT 461.960 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) would appear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(every day after sunset in private doorways and public establishments, often opium houses, to 'seduce )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(innocent travellers', as contemporary scholar officials disapprovingly observed. In unison with all the other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic migrants arriving in the metropolis, prostitutes grouped themselves into regional communities, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most prominent being those of Ningbo, Zhejiang and Guangzhou \(Canton\). Cantonese prostitutes would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinguish themselves as the only group willing to serve Westerners.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Henriot \(p. 83\) contradicts the received wisdom that clients sought out their girls because of their place of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(origin. Instead, demand arose because of one simple imperative: sexual desire. In the decades straddling the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new century, only one category of venal women escaped rapid commercialisation, thus retaining a relatively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(safe and separate identity. The singing)] TJ ET BT 218.648 190.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( changsan)] TJ ET BT 267.644 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( courtesans averted the sexualisation of their trade by virtue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of their vocal talent, as well as by nurturing relationships with 'respectable clients'. Just as the socially more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elevated courtesans had done in previous decades, )] TJ ET BT 277.952 161.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(changsan)] TJ ET BT 323.948 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( frequently attained a more normal life style )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through marriage. Meanwhile, ordinary prostitutes were increasingly mired in misfortune. An intermediate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(category of venal servants, the 'tea house girls' \()] TJ ET BT 263.948 133.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(yao?er)] TJ ET BT 297.272 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), fell victim to an assimilation process which by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1930s would amalgamate all classes into one broad mass of prostitutes. The two concluding chapters of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Henriot's second part deal exclusively with the social identity of the prostitute and of the abuse and diseases )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(female sex workers had to suffer.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Part three contains a detailed analysis of the socio-economic dimension of the sex trade, focusing in turn on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the organised trafficking of provincial girls into the metropolis, their reception and accommodation in )] TJ ET endstream endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 7690 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shanghai, as well as the financial organisational logistics of the brothel business. Chapter eight in particular, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the second within this part, is of interest because of the author?s attempt to create a geography of prostitution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for each period of Shanghai?s expansion. The clear maps make this particular chapter a fascinating 'walking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tour' of Shanghai, illustrating in concrete terms what the preceding chapters set out in general.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final, fourth part deals with four separate aspects of attempts at abolition of the sex trade. True to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chronological pattern of the first two parts, abolitionist arguments are followed up from the late imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(twin-effort at tackling disease and immorality, over specific movements led by Shanghai residents and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nanjing officialdom to government programmes for the rescue and reintegration of prostitutes during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1930s. The increasingly overt exploitation of prostitutes was a symptom of the unbridgeable hiatus which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had opened up between the moneyed classes and the destitute, whose numbers swelled with every new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military conflict and every natural catastrophe in the hinterland. Shanghai?s municipal legislation, both in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the International and in the French concessions, reflected concerns which were being voiced throughout )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Republican China, where common prostitution was portrayed as concomitant to most other social evils ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including the irrepressible habit of opium smoking. And akin to the campaign against drugs, it was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American \(Protestant\) missionaries who campaigned most vociferously for the criminalisation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perceived 'vice'. The outcome of the attempted closure policy during the early 1920s was predictable, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although even the hardened municipal police was confounded by the rapidly shifting realities of the 'salt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meat market'. Forced out of the relative safety of their brothels, prostitutes remained the chattel of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(employers, but were subjected to the double hazard of crime-ridden streets and police brutality. Brothel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(owners and pimps meanwhile made use of their wealth and connections in order to abscond to new pastures )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? mainly within the less zealous French Concession. Blinded by their 'sincere faith', Henriot concludes \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(309\), the American abolitionists created a fertile environment for crime and corruption without being able to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eradicate the venal trade itself ? conditions which quickly led to the end of the abolitionist experiment.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whereas the evolution of prostitution is charted into the most minute details, the second half of the title )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remains relatively orphaned. True, the reader does obtain glimpses into sexual behaviour, concentrating on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the practices of the male elite, but more by accident than by design. We learn a lot about the consequences of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commercial sexuality, from venereal disease to undesired pregnancy, but next to nothing about the fulfilment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the desires so vividly described in Robert van Gulik?s )] TJ ET BT 309.320 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sexual Life in Ancient China)] TJ ET BT 447.320 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(E. J. Brill; Leiden, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1961\). Henriot is keenly aware of the limitations imposed by the nature of his sources, rightly pointing out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Qing \(1644-1911\) publications usually lacked the descriptive wealth of the sexual manuals and novels )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(penned during the Ming period \(1368-1644\). We do learn of certain fantasies by \(male\) customers, such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sharing the venal scene with another prostitute ? or even with another man. We also hear of ancient \(Daoist\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taboos, such as mingling one's sperm with that of other men inside sexually adept and popular prostitutes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(pp. 52-3\). Nevertheless, in order to do justice to his title, the author could have attempted to summarise his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(findings in a complete chapter dedicated to \(heterosexual and homosexual\) erotic practices.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the field of commercial sexuality, on the contrary, Henriot satisfies our curiosity to a much greater extent. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(So, what really went on inside a Shanghai brothel during the late nineteenth century? And what made the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience so specifically 'Chinese'? The answer is as prosaic as it is correct: Brothels during the late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperial period were primarily places of relaxation, in particular for the wealthy and educated, where men )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would gather in order to exchange views and anecdotes with each other and with the 'belles de Shanghai'. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a social universe where the genders were firmly segregated, brothels provided a unique opportunity for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(young men to meet women, to engage in harmless pursuits, such as bashful flattery and the recitation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poetry, as much as in the gratification of sexual desires. Houses of prostitution thus essentially fulfilled the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same social functions as public houses for the consumption of tea or of opium.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Opium ? this all-important social lubricant during the nineteenth century ? unfortunately only receives the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author's scantest attention. Opium smoking in brothels is mentioned several times, yet without actually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explaining its relevance. Mythologised as an aphrodisiac by generations of Chinese and European men, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opium has a cooling rather than exciting effect upon the libido. In our age of Viagra, this may appear as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(handicap rather than as an advantage, but opium smoking had an important role to play in commercial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sexuality, by preventing premature ejaculation. The need for prolonged sexual intercourse becomes evident )] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 30 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 8252 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when we remember that brothels were the only public spaces where young men could gather any sexual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience at all. Rather like in the societies of ancient Greece and of modern Thailand \(and to a certain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extent also of Victorian England\), accosting respectable girls for erotic romance was inconceivable, at least )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within the more elevated strata. A calmed libido thus ensured longer hours of sexual play and practice. For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(older clients, smoking opium in an aesthetically appealing ambience was often reason enough to solicit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brothels, with sexual intercourse receding as a primary objective. In the famous words of the Australian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prostitutes interviewed by the Royal Commission on Opium \(1904\) 'The man who has the opium habit is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(like another man; he does not care for women'.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 259.124 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 259.124 695.283 m 273.116 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 273.116 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( As Henriot points out \(p. 52\), this was also the case with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(homosexual men, who used visits to the brothel as a social alibi, rather than having any doubt cast on their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('manliness'. Since prostitution services within a brothel were usually free of time pressure, the opium-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(induced tranquillity provided considerable relief for the female staff. The substitution of alcohol by opium )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reduced the level of aggression and therefore effectively protected the women.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christian Henriot seeks to justify the publication of his monograph so shortly after the comprehensive study )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Gail Hershatter by virtue of differing historical methodologies. Henriot regrets \(pp. 13-14\) the tendency )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in his rival?s approach to 'represent' the phenomenon of prostitution through the eyes of the post-imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intelligentsia rather than analyse it as 'history from below', as an exercise in social historiography. Henriot )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thus criticises the relative lack of archival awareness in )] TJ ET BT 301.616 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dangerous pleasures)] TJ ET BT 403.940 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Having worked one?s way )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through Hershatter?s volume, however, it is hard to escape the feeling that the two authors are reaching the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same conclusions: that the existence of hierarchies within the profession was highly indicative of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(composition of Shanghai society at large, and also of the tremendous changes the latter underwent during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first decades of the twentieth century. More critically, Henriot does not intrinsically differ in the use of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources. His attempt to represent social conditions and change with the prostitute as the historical agent more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often than not falters due to an old historiographical truth, namely that the archives of the poor are silent. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Interviews with 'liberated' prostitutes after 1949 of course exist, but have to be approached with caution due )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the political bias they were frequently expected to display. Earlier first-hand evidence can also be found in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chinese sources, but much of the early statements fall into the category of anecdotal 'wild history' \()] TJ ET BT 510.596 428.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(yeshi)] TJ ET BT 535.256 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Instead, Henriot chose to employ pronouncements by Chinese literati on the topic ? from Wang Tao to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medical missionaries, from )] TJ ET BT 167.336 399.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Shenbao )] TJ ET BT 211.664 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(articles to the )] TJ ET BT 279.320 399.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fun yuebao )] TJ ET BT 345.308 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? stressing the caveat that such sources only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('represent' the views of the privileged few.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rather than seeking to contrast the two monographs in terms of methodological intention, it could be said )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the two authors differ in the use of their chronological framework. In this respect, Henriot?s work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appears more disciplined, and his argumentation ultimately also more coherent. For readers with a lot of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time, or for educational purposes, both monographs ought to be used in conjunction with each other rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than competitively. True differences with previous research do emerge when Henriot?s position on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('women?s history' is taken into account. The upsurge in historiographical interest in prostitution can be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regarded as an offshoot of the wider feminist discourse over the past thirty years. Henriot refutes the idea )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that 'women' should be seen as a separate historical subdivision of society, not least because trade in destitute )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men and children was a constant reality in late imperial China. The author implicitly also condemns the view )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the prostitute as the generic victim of exploitation, expounded by critics as diverse as foreign missionaries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(exploitation through 'evil'\) and communist intellectuals \('class' exploitation\). Without attempting to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(romanticise, Henriot \(e.g. p. 325\) depicts a situation of choice within hopelessness: not unlike sending boys )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of impoverished families to the imperial palace in order to seek their fortunes as eunuchs, many villagers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(saw prostitution as the only ray of hope for their girls and young women.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(All in all, )] TJ ET BT 82.688 147.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Prostitution and Sexuality in Shanghai )] TJ ET BT 271.700 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can be regarded as a brave attempt to illustrate the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evolution of a complex phenomenon through the personal experience of prostitutes and clients alike. A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(special word of praise to Nol Castelino, who produced an impeccable, almost entirely literal translation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Belles de Shanghai)] TJ ET BT 126.008 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Cambridge University Press, on the other hand, may be asked why the glossary of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(original was sacrificed, as well as the characters for Chinese names and titles in the bibliography. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(absence of characters is deplorable, reducing the usefulness of the translated version, in particular because )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many of the Chinese phrases cited in chapters dealing with pre-modern China do not correspond with )] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 259.1237 695.5975 273.1157 707.4775 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R ] /Contents 33 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Length 3323 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(today?s vernacular language. This omission ought to be rectified in any future reprint.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 761.571 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 730.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 730.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Original title: )] TJ ET BT 132.020 730.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Belles de Shanghai: Prostitution et sexualit en Chine aux XIXe ? XXe sicles)] TJ ET BT 505.976 730.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(CNRS )] TJ ET BT 64.016 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ditions; Paris, 1999\) ISBN 2-271-05331-5.)] TJ ET BT 48.816 702.442 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gail Hershatter, )] TJ ET BT 143.660 702.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dangerous pleasures: Prostitution and modernity in twentieth-century Shanghai)] TJ ET BT 64.016 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(University of California Press; Berkeley, 1997\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 298.316 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 298.316 686.787 m 352.304 686.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 673.930 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Louis Chevalier, )] TJ ET BT 147.008 673.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Classes laborieuses et classes dangereuses)] TJ ET BT 353.660 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Plon; Paris, 1958\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 449.996 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 449.996 672.531 m 503.984 672.531 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 659.674 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alain Corbin, )] TJ ET BT 133.016 659.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Les filles de noce: Misre sexuelle et prostitution)] TJ ET BT 368.660 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Aubier-Montaigne; Paris, 1978\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 532.304 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 532.304 658.275 m 559.964 658.275 l S BT 64.016 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 644.019 m 90.344 644.019 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 631.162 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Report of the Royal Commission on Opium \('Extracts from the minutes of evidence given before the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Royal Commission on alleged Chinese gambling and immortality ? '\), \(Eyre and Spottiswoode; )] TJ ET BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London, 1894\), vol. 1, appendix V, pp. 167-8.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 285.332 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 285.332 601.251 m 339.320 601.251 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 576.389 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 557.407 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 539.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 539.627 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/290)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 538.233 m 322.316 538.233 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 513.256 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 498.856 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2697)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.456 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 298.3157 687.1015 352.3037 698.9815 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 449.9957 672.8455 503.9837 684.7255 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 17 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 532.3037 658.5895 559.9637 670.4695 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 20 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 644.3335 90.3437 656.2135 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 20 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 285.3317 601.5655 339.3197 613.4455 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 29 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 538.5475 322.3157 550.4275 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/290) >> endobj xref 0 46 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000583 00000 n 0000000686 00000 n 0000005250 00000 n 0000005359 00000 n 0000005469 00000 n 0000005578 00000 n 0000009139 00000 n 0000009267 00000 n 0000009351 00000 n 0000009380 00000 n 0000009508 00000 n 0000009544 00000 n 0000009573 00000 n 0000009699 00000 n 0000009735 00000 n 0000009764 00000 n 0000009890 00000 n 0000009926 00000 n 0000009991 00000 n 0000018151 00000 n 0000018216 00000 n 0000025959 00000 n 0000026043 00000 n 0000034348 00000 n 0000034378 00000 n 0000034506 00000 n 0000034542 00000 n 0000034661 00000 n 0000038037 00000 n 0000038165 00000 n 0000038220 00000 n 0000038348 00000 n 0000038403 00000 n 0000038531 00000 n 0000038586 00000 n 0000038712 00000 n 0000038767 00000 n 0000038895 00000 n 0000038950 00000 n 0000039078 00000 n trailer << /Size 46 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 39173 %%EOF