%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140916083335+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140916083335+01'00') /Title (Monarchies, States Generals and Parliaments: The Netherlands in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4033 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Monarchies, States Generals and Parliaments: The Netherlands in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Some years ago, in the introduction to a paper given to the Low Countries Seminar at the Institute of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Historical Research, Professor Koenigsberger was described as being probably the only historian who had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worked in every major Habsburg archive in Europe. It is this impressive range of historical experience that is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brought to bear in this book, which builds upon his extensive research and writings on the constitutional and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutional history of the Habsburg monarchies. The synopsis of the book on the dust jacket comments that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?this book charts the history of the States General ? the parliament ? of the Netherlands and its relations with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two phases of monarchical rule?. It goes on to add that by 1600 ?the United Provinces became a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parliamentary regime, governed by the States General?. However, this is not a close study of the mechanics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the institution or of particular meetings, like some of the research on French representative assemblies, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as that of J. Michael Hayden and J. Russell Major, although parallels could be drawn with the latter?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Representative Government in Early Modern France)] TJ ET BT 288.296 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(Yale University Press; New Haven and London, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1980\). Rather, it is a study of the evolving political system within the Netherlands during the early modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period and the role which came to be assumed by the States General.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(292)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 1 November, 2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H. G. Koenigsberger)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780521803304)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(359pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://cambridge.org/catalogue/catalogue.asp?isbn=9780521803304)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrew Spicer)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7451 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At the heart of the book is the theme of )] TJ ET BT 225.320 784.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(dominum politicum et regale)] TJ ET BT 363.644 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the subject of Koenigsberger?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inaugural lecture to the chair of History at the University of London in 1975. This is the balance in terms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power between the ruler and the representative assemblies, which developed in different ways in Europe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the fifteenth century -- when Sir John Fortescue coined the phrase -- to the eighteenth century. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France, the crown assumed more extensive powers, becoming a )] TJ ET BT 342.944 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(dominium regale)] TJ ET BT 424.604 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and it came to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perceived that the crown could tax at will; elsewhere in Europe the )] TJ ET BT 357.944 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(dominium politicum et regale)] TJ ET BT 499.604 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, where the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crown did not possess such rights, was more common. It was a limited or mixed regime, in which the ideal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was for the representative assemblies and the monarchy to co-operate for the common good. Privileges were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(won and defended, as the means by which to maintain that balance between the prince and his subjects. But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it was not a relationship that went unchallenged. Charles the Bold?s policy of conquest and subjugation in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relation to the Duchy of Guelders demonstrates that the rights of a province could be simply set aside by a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strong prince. Even more powerfully, the relationship could be seen to collapse, as during the period of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revolt when the Duke of Alva was governor-general in the Netherlands.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dominium politicum et regale )] TJ ET BT 181.340 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was also a system that was easily adapted to the multiple monarchies of early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern Europe. The prince swore to uphold the privileges of particular constituent parts of his realms and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could in this way easily add to his territories, while retaining this balance between the representatives and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the government within each component. Koenigsberger comments in the prologue that ?a comprehensive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparative history of states generals would therefore approximate to a comprehensive comparative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political history of early modern Europe?. In the absence of such a study, Koenigsberger has decided to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concentrate on the evolving relationship between the rulers of the Netherlands and its representative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assembly over a two hundred year period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Koenigsberger traces the development of the States General from its beginnings in the fifteenth century to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the end of the sixteenth century, when two separate institutions had emerged as a consequence of the Revolt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Netherlands. In the north the States General was the governing body of ?a parliamentary regime?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whereas in the south the States General fell into abeyance in the early seventeenth century and was subject to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the wishes of the Habsburg monarchy. In some ways this is a traditional Whiggish account of the rise of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parliamentary institution, with the future importance and implications of concessions and privileges being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasised.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although representatives from the provinces had in earlier times met to discuss matters relating to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coinage or trade, the origins of the States General itself are traced back to the meeting of January-February )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1464. It was this meeting which first dealt with political matters, mediating in the dispute between Duke )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philip and his son Charles. It was not, however, a role performed again at subsequent meetings during his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reign, but in 1465 the States General was asked directly for a financial grant: no doubt as a matter of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convenience, rather than resorting to the more usual method of approaching individual provincial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assemblies. At this stage the body was not called the States General and only consisted of the representatives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of certain towns of the Netherlands. The most complete meeting of the States General was not held until )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1476, with delegates from Brabant, Flanders, Limburg, Outremeuse, Artois, Lille-Douai-Orchies, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Somme towns, towns of Picardie, Ponthiue, Hainaut, Holland, Friesland, Namur, Luxembourg and newly-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conquered Guelders. It was not merely the comprehensive character of this meeting that was important; it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was also marked by opposition to the spiralling military and financial demands of Charles the Bold and his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hectoring approach. As a consequence the States General, while protesting their loyalty, rejected the Duke?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demands.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It was the turn in the tide of events that gave this act of defiance and resistance to princely authority its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significance and precedence. Following the defeat of the Burgundian forces and the Duke?s death at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(battle of Nancy in January 1477, ?men with totally different motivations would look to the States General as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the instrument to achieve their aims and as the one fixed and acceptable institution in a suddenly fluid and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frightening situation?. In the wake of the French invasion, the States General were granted, in the Great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Privilege of Mary of Burgundy, the right to assemble without ducal summons and their permission was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(required for any defensive or offensive war. As Koenigsberger points out, few of the articles of the Great )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7693 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Privilege were unprecedented or unusual but what happened in 1477 was that these rights were extended to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all of the provinces. In sum, the Great Privilege marked a shift in the balance of )] TJ ET BT 419.276 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(dominium politicum et regale)] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, although in reality the States General were not able to capitalise and assert these rights, in particular the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(right to self-assembly.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Further developments on the road towards a parliamentary regime took place under the Habsburgs. In order )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to obtain a financial grant in 1512, Margaret of Austria responded to concerns about the waste in military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expenditure by agreeing that in the future, the Council and Estates should appoint, supervise and reform the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(gendarmerie)] TJ ET BT 95.336 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. In 1557 the government, with their experience of the Spanish Cortes, argued that the delegates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the States should be kept together for discussion and should have full powers to discuss relevant issues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and make binding decisions. But this was a policy which backfired for the government, as the States General )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(now provided a forum in which rights and privileges could be discussed, and in which matters of state were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also beginning to be debated. At the same time the States General ventured into the arena of foreign affairs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and defence and, by agreeing to the ?novennial )] TJ ET BT 262.952 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(aide)] TJ ET BT 283.616 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?, into financial administration. These were positions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that came to be developed during the course of the Revolt.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A sense of common purpose and identity is another theme that comes through in this monograph. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Koenigsberger argues that few monarchies in early modern Europe were national or unitary, but were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instead usually composite states, that could often be linguistically and ethnically divided. In this sense the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Netherlands was little different from other states. In the wake of the events of 1477, ?it was the estates of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provinces which, for all their preoccupation with their local interests and privileges, wanted the Netherlands, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the )] TJ ET BT 51.680 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(pays de pardea)] TJ ET BT 130.328 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, to survive as a political entity?. It was shared anti-Habsburg interests that brought the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Netherlands together again in 1576, but it is perhaps this sense of common purpose that was ultimately )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(destroyed by the Revolt.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It was in the area of religion that the relationship between the monarch and the States General came under )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stress and the mutual trust required for )] TJ ET BT 222.320 432.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(dominium politicum et regale)] TJ ET BT 363.980 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( foundered. Philip had made it clear in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dismissing the complaints of the estates of Brabant in 1562, that he regarded it as possible for privileges to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be set aside, on the grounds that ?cum summa sit ratio quae pro religione facit? and ?salus populi suprema )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lex sit?. With the king?s uncompromising religious stance, such views had serious implications and this was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(why, Koenigsberger argues, the conflict with the States led to war and made compromise impossible. For, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?those Netherlanders who believed in the fundamental nature of their privileges, even if they shared the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same religion, could not accept a ruler who claimed powers of omnipotence. However much he protested )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that, in his actions, he was representing God and his church, he could no longer be trusted? \(p. 204\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And yet the religious factors that characterised the outbreak of the Revolt and the subsequent course of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(events tend to be marginalised. The complexity of issues and motives which lay behind the outbreak of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Iconoclastic Fury is discussed but the radicalism of the image breakers is downplayed: ?they were not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolutionaries like the Huguenots in France?. While it is true that many did not support the revolutionary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stance taken by the city of Valenciennes, the Calvinists' direct action in seizing churches for worship, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including Antwerp, can not be lightly dismissed. It is this radical agenda that alienated sympathisers with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their cause and led to the movement?s ultimate failure in 1566-67. It is the political paralysis that the events )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(created which is at the heart of Koenigsberger?s analysis. Certainly, Margaret of Parma faced calls from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(States of Holland and the Knights of the Golden Fleece for the inquisition and the placards to be suspended )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and States General to be assembled, but the author does not consider the more radical constitutional claims )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being made at the time; for example, the Protestant Nicholas de Hames reasserted the right of the States )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(General to convene itself. Instead we have a picture merely of inertia in central government, whereas at a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local level routine business continued relatively unimpeded.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet it was religion that made the return to the )] TJ ET BT 255.320 109.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(dominium politicum et regale)] TJ ET BT 396.980 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of Charles V ultimately )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impossible. As the delegates at the Conference at Breda in 1575 came to realise, Philip?s opposition to any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(form of religious co-existence between the Catholics and the Calvinists meant that a return to princely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sovereignty could not be contemplated by the Calvinist sympathisers among the Estates. The actions of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spanish troops at Aalst, and then at Antwerp, led to a united front being taken against the Habsburgs in the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 3975 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1576 Pacification of Ghent, in which the States General assumed a central role in government, with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(king?s council of state in effect being subordinate to it. However, it was the practical failure of the religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clauses of the Pacification and the rejection of Orange?s policy of religious co-existence \()] TJ ET BT 464.912 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(religionsvrede)] TJ ET BT 534.236 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that ultimately wrecked the united front of the provinces and led to the demise of the traditional form of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(States General. The emergence of a ?Closer Union? with the Union of Utrecht, with its own war council and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(executive, following on from the Union of Arras, symbolised the fragmentation of the combined front )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against Habsburg authority. The ?merger? of the Union of Utrecht with the States General in 1580 coincided )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not merely with disappearance of the last vestiges of trust between the crown and the States General, but also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marked the demise of the old representative institution. With the Act of Abjuration the States General )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assumed sovereignty over ?The United Provinces of the Netherlands?. By concentrating on the political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(twists and turns that led to this outcome, there is a tendency for the religious factors ? such as the Calvinist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regime in Ghent ? to be dealt with cursorily, while Groningen and the Rennenberg revolt are not covered at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all. As a result only part of the wider picture is established.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Monarchies, States Generals and Parliaments)] TJ ET BT 255.668 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( provides us with the first detailed study exploring the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complex emergence and development of the States General. It offers an institutional overview of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political development of the Netherlands as it evolved from a composite monarchy during the fifteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century into two separate states by the beginning of the seventeenth century. But the monograph also reflects )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Koenigsberger?s breadth of research, in that this is an institutional history told against the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(background of not only the changing political circumstances in the Low Countries, but also within the wider )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context of the Habsburg monarchia. This is therefore an important scholarly contribution, not only to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study of the Low Countries in the early modern period, but also to Habsburg government in general.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 454.111 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 436.331 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 436.331 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/292)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 434.937 m 322.316 434.937 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 409.960 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 395.560 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2739)] TJ ET BT 34.016 381.160 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 435.2515 322.3157 447.1315 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/292) >> endobj xref 0 22 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000604 00000 n 0000000686 00000 n 0000004771 00000 n 0000004880 00000 n 0000004990 00000 n 0000005099 00000 n 0000008660 00000 n 0000008788 00000 n 0000008872 00000 n 0000008937 00000 n 0000016441 00000 n 0000016506 00000 n 0000024252 00000 n 0000024336 00000 n 0000028364 00000 n 0000028492 00000 n trailer << /Size 22 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 28587 %%EOF