%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 47 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140728142530+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140728142530+01'00') /Title (Ireland and the Jacobite Cause, 1685-1766: A Fatal Attachment) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4552 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Ireland and the Jacobite Cause, 1685-1766: A Fatal Attachment)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As the volume of books and articles on eighteenth-century Ireland continues to expand, so Irish Jacobitism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasingly stands out as a glaring omission. In 1998 Professor Breandn Buachalla produced a major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study, in Irish, of the place of the Stuarts in Gaelic Irish literature in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 243.417 m 48.008 243.417 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.008 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This apart, however, there remains no study of Irish Jacobite politics or culture to compare with the work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Evelyn Cruickshanks, Paul Monod or Murray Pittock. amonn Ciardha now offers to fill the gap. His )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study draws on extensive research in the full range of available sources - state papers, the Stuart and French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archives, private correspondence, newspapers, and Gaelic poetry. On this basis Ciardha documents the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scale of popular support for the Jacobite cause in the war of 1689-91, the continued contacts after 1691 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between Catholic Ireland and the exiled Stuart court, and the impact on both Catholic and Protestant society )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the subsequent ups and downs of the Jacobite cause, from the continued Irish investment in Louis XIV's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(campaigns of the 1690s to the last great surge of expectation inspired by the Seven Years War. He traces the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(various manifestations of Jacobite sentiment at home, from the activities of outlaw rapparees to the reported )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('insolence' of the Catholic mob in Dublin and the highly developed corpus of writing on the themes of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dispossession and deliverance developed by the Gaelic poets. He also offers a full account of the Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(element within the network of military and civilian exiles and hangers on that surrounded the Stuart court, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and gave Irish disaffection a distinctly international flavour. By the end of his 378 pages of text there can be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no question that Jacobitism was indeed the primary political loyalty of the great majority of Irish Catholics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(293)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 1 November, 2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amonn Ciardha)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1851825347)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(32.50)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(468pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Four Courts Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dublin)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sean Connolly)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 243.7315 48.0077 255.6115 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 23 0 R 26 0 R 29 0 R 32 0 R 35 0 R 38 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 8677 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(up to at least the 1740s, and that the threat it posed had a profound effect on the outlook and behaviour of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ruling Protestant minority.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(All this is of undoubted interest, and the story is told with an engaging enthusiasm. The problem is that very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(little of it is new. Dr Ciardha legitimately criticises Irish historians for not having paid more attention to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jacobitism. But he can hardly claim that they have failed to acknowledge its existence. As long ago as 1967 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Maureen Wall noted that 'the cult of the Stuarts was widespread among the Gaelic-speaking intelligentsia'.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 545.252 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 545.252 711.795 m 559.244 711.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The eighteenth century volume of the )] TJ ET BT 217.316 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(New History of Ireland)] TJ ET BT 328.316 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, published in 1986, included extended )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion of two important aspects of the subject. Brian Cuv offered an overview of the political themes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(found in the Gaelic literature of the period, while J.G. Simms's chapter on the Irish in continental Europe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(included sections on 'the Jacobite court as a focus for migration', and on the role of the Irish brigades in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jacobite military planning.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 162.344 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 162.344 640.515 m 176.336 640.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 176.336 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Roy Foster, so often denounced as the archetypal 'revisionist', included in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis of the 'hidden Irelands' of the eighteenth century 'a continuity of underground culture' in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poets 'expressed conventionally Jacobite politics in terms that by mid-century were necessarily visionary'.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 541.928 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 541.928 612.003 m 555.920 612.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomas Bartlett, discussing the background to the penal laws, insists that 'there was a Jacobite threat at least )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(until the 1740s'.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 110.516 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 110.516 583.491 m 124.508 583.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 124.508 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( David Dickson's well-regarded text book concedes that Ireland played no part in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(risings of 1715 or 1745, but nevertheless suggests that the ups and downs of the Jacobite cause were watched )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with a 'mixture of despair and providential expectation', and that 'the prospect of a Jacobite restoration ... )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remained the most powerful theme resonating in Irish-language political poetry for the next fifty years'.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 530.420 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 530.420 540.723 m 544.412 540.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(So what is required is not a strenuous assertion, however copiously documented, that Irish Jacobitism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existed, or even that it existed on a large scale. Instead what we need is an analysis of its extent, meaning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and significance.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Let us look at some of the issues such an analysis would explore. The first concerns the precise extent of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jacobite sympathy. Dr Ciardha has clearly been stimulated by the work of Evelyn Cruickshanks and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others who over the past two decades have promoted the study of English Jacobitism. However the unwary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reader would not necessarily gather from his text that these citations refer to only one side of a hotly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contested debate, in which an alternative body of literature emphasises the solidity of the Hanoverian regime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the strictly limited support for serious Jacobite conspiracy.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 335.648 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 335.648 400.419 m 349.640 400.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 349.640 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The reason why English historians have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been able to offer such widely conflicting estimates is, of course, the nature of the evidence: the transactions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerned were by definition secret or disguised, and genuine intelligence as to Jacobite proceedings has to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be distinguished from false accusations generated by malice, paranoia or the hope of reward.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dr Ciardha is clearly aware of these pitfalls. Yet his critical filter seems at times to be slightly askew. His )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account of the Wood's Halfpence crisis, for example, begins with the startling sentence: 'Jacobitism also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reared its head in other unlikely circles during this period' \(p. 211\). The five pages that follow \(pp. 211-16\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are devoted mainly to a detailed summary of a wildly unrealistic report on Jacobite prospects from a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholic bishop, followed by some ambiguous verses ascribed to Swift. Beyond these, we are offered only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hugh Boulter's claim, which Dr Ciardha himself characterises as 'a political ploy to quell rising )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opposition', that the campaign against Wood's patent had united Whigs, Jacobites and papists. A second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary comment, that 'nothing but the Pretender could create more unease in this kingdom', adds )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(precisely nothing to the analysis, though the resulting hint of guilt by association would have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appreciated by Walpole's propagandists. In the same way, Dr Ciardha takes largely at face value the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assurances of support given to Jacobite agents like the Dominican Ambrose O'Connor, who toured Ireland in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1708 \(pp. 122-3\), apparently ignoring the widespread evidence that at this time men of all shades of opinion, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in both Great Britain and Ireland, saw some level of contact with the Stuart court as a sensible insurance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy. Dr Ciardha also accepts contemporary allegations of a 'witch hunt' against the Jacobite Sir James )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cotter \(p. 332\), although recent research indicates that Cotter was in fact probably guilty of the rape for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which he was hanged in 1720.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 179.324 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 179.324 117.555 m 193.316 117.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This selective handling of questionable evidence is only part of the problem. Dr Ciardha's hunt for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jacobites also ignores some of the finer distinctions which people drew, at a time of agonising political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dilemmas, between different levels of acceptance or non-acceptance of the Revolution. Thus his discussion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Protestant Jacobitism brings in not just active supporters of the Stuarts, but non-jurors \(pp. 108, 123\), a )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 545.2517 712.1095 559.2437 723.9895 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 162.3437 640.8295 176.3357 652.7095 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 541.9277 612.3175 555.9197 624.1975 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 110.5157 583.8055 124.5077 595.6855 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 530.4197 541.0375 544.4117 552.9175 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 335.6477 400.7335 349.6397 412.6135 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 37 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 179.3237 117.8695 193.3157 129.7495 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 41 0 R >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Length 7734 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflation that makes it impossible to do anything like justice to the political position of large numbers of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Protestants, in both England and Ireland, in the years following the Revolution. Secondly, there is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persistent tendency to slip back and forth between a discussion of the actual extent of Jacobite conspiracy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and a discussion of establishment fears regarding the possible existence of such conspiracies. Thus Dr )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ciardha accepts that the outbreak of cattle maiming that disturbed western counties in 1711-12 was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primarily economic in motive, but goes on to add, accurately but with doubtful relevance, that 'this would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not have been so obvious to an uneasy Protestant populace' \(p. 131\). Later in the text, with no attempt to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(present further evidence, this observation expands into the claim that 'the Jacobite dimension with which the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Houghers have been credited may not be altogether unfounded' \(p. 293, n. 71\). In the same way, discussing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the revelations of what he himself describes as the 'notorious discoverer' Redmond Joy regarding a Franco-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jacobite conspiracy in 1702, Dr Ciardha observes that the truthfulness of such allegations 'is of less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance than the effects they had on the political nation'. If the aim is to investigate Protestant mentalities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this is to some extent true \(though the historian might still wish to know whether the fears that shaped )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political behaviour were soundly based or imaginary\). However Dr Ciardha goes on to say that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(willingness of leading office holders to take Joy's charges seriously 'should serve to caution historians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against dismissing such depositions as being purely alarmist or mercenary' \(p. 119\). It is by no means clear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(why it should do anything of the kind. Once again we seem to have slipped, imperceptibly but crucially, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(onto a different level of argument, away from what was actually happening to what contemporaries believed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was happening.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The same curious difficulty in distinguishing between related but separate issues is evident in the treatment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of another important question. Given that Jacobite conspiracy did exist, both at home and abroad, how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(serious a threat did it pose to the Hanoverian state? Dr Ciardha's opening position seems both clear and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(realistic. The great majority of Irish Catholics in the early and mid-eighteenth century were potential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supporters of a Stuart restoration. However the exile and dispossession of the Catholic landed class, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cowing into submission of the clergy, had left them unarmed, leaderless and disorganised, so that they did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not in themselves constitute a serious threat. Given these circumstances, Dr Ciardha can legitimately )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criticise those historians who have taken Catholic inactivity in 1715 and 1745 as necessarily indicating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indifference to the Stuart cause \(pp. 271-3\). What is less clear is how he can also accuse contemporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Protestants who took much the same view of Catholic military impotence of being 'smug', 'complacent' and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consistently wrong \(pp. 301, 127\). He also maintains that the state papers and other records in which such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perceptions are recorded are 'no less subjective as historical source-material' than the poetry of the Gaelic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectual elite \(p. 194\). This is of course true, and it is hard to believe that any reputable historian of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth-century Ireland has ever thought otherwise. But on this particular issue the state papers are, by Dr )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Ciardha's own account, a reasonably accurate depiction of the military situation. On the other hand he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(himself is driven to point out that his Gaelic literary sources can be taken seriously only if we recognise that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jacobitism was 'an ideology founded on unquenchable optimism' \(p. 194\), sustaining itself on 'extravagant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hopes' \(p. 214\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite its length, and the wealth of documentation on which it draws, Dr Ciardha's study shows curiously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(little interest in the internal dynamics of Irish Jacobitism. Earlier accounts of the period 1689-91 have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasised the divisions between competing ethnic groups and vested interests. Dr Ciardha, by contrast, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is concerned only with unity. Where others have noted the conflicts of interest that emerged between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English-centred king and his Irish Catholic supporters, he is content to cite an isolated expression of James's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sympathy for the dispossessed Irish Catholics \(p. 64\). He also ascribes clear political motives to the bands of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rapparees who served as irregular allies of the Jacobite army, despite contemporary evidence that these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preyed on Catholic and Protestant alike, and in some cases included renegade English and Scottish soldiers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 73\). At one point - rather oddly for a historian elsewhere insistent on the superior value of the Gaelic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literary sources - he goes so far as to condemn the poet Daithi Bruadair, who wrote against freebooting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rapparees, for having failed to understand their importance to the Jacobite cause \(p. 93\). Elsewhere too Dr )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ciardha shows little interest in those who do not follow the party line. The only systematic statement of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholic political principles in the first half of the eighteenth century is Cornelius Nary's )] TJ ET BT 461.468 73.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Case of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Roman Catholics of Ireland)] TJ ET BT 167.684 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1724\). Yet Dr Ciardha has almost nothing to say about Nary - presumably )] TJ ET endstream endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 45 0 R ] /Contents 43 0 R >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Length 7485 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because his pamphlet made the case for an acceptance of George I as )] TJ ET BT 368.228 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(de facto)] TJ ET BT 406.556 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( king. Other dissident voices, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(like Charles O'Conor, are likewise minimised or accused of vested interests.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Turning back to those who did give active support to the Jacobite cause, we must consider the question of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(motive. The formal core of Jacobite ideology was indefeasible hereditary right. It would be unwise to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assume that this principle meant nothing to Irish Catholics. It rested on a formidable body of both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theological and political doctrine, while the Gaelic Irish could also cite the elaborate genealogies that had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been fabricated to give the Stuarts a pedigree linking them to Gaelic Irish royalty. But Jacobitism was also a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mobilisation of Catholics behind a Catholic claimant to the throne. What was the relative importance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these two influences, dynastic allegiance and religious solidarity? How much weight, for example, do we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(give to those occasions when Jacobite planners considered abandoning the Stuarts and offering to place a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberated Ireland under direct French control? The problem becomes more urgent still when we turn from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jacobite elite to its rank and file. The dubious motives of the rapparees during and after the war of 1689-91 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have already been mentioned. What of the thousand or so men who went each year to serve in the Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regiments in the service of France and other Catholic European powers? Once again the importance of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideological commitment to the Stuarts should not be discounted out of hand: Dr Ciardha points to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence showing the importance recruits attached to warrants directly from the exiled court. At the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time, it seems legitimate to ask what proportion of this surplus manpower being exported from a poor rural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society would have been equally willing, if permitted, to serve in the forces of the British crown - as indeed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(large numbers were to do from the late eighteenth century onwards. Where political motives did exist, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(equally, they were not all of a kind. If some recruits talked of returning in triumph with the rightful king, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others seemed more concerned with settling accounts with the Protestant enemy, and others again with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(casting off economic servitude.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 184.652 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 184.652 483.699 m 198.644 483.699 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 198.644 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Further investigation may help to clarify what was clearly a complex )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(picture. What is not acceptable is to posit a self-explanatory and unitary motive, 'Jacobitism', running )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through every aspect of anti-Hanoverian activity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, an analysis of Jacobite motivation must also consider the Irish dimension. Jacobitism was after all a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British ideology. Dr Ciardha follows Dr Vincent Morley in finding this characterisation 'startling' \(p. 347, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(n. 84\). Their shared bewilderment suggests a regrettable blind spot at the very heart of the emerging genre of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irish Jacobite studies. Irish Jacobitism, like Scottish, may well have drawn much of its emotional charge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from resentment at national subordination to England. But the fact remains that the whole point of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jacobitism was to place a Scottish dynasty back on the united thrones of England and Scotland and on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dependent throne of Ireland. This makes it difficult, at first sight at least, to understand how Irish poets like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aogn Rathaille and Liam Inglis could celebrate the prospect of such a restoration in terms of the return of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Irish language to its former dominance and the eclipse of 'Beurla na m-br' \(the English of the boors\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(pp. 276, 159\). This is not to say that there is necessarily a contradiction. Dr Ciardha summarises a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fascinating memorandum from 1737 in which Ulick Burke, son of the earl of Clanricard, sketched out a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(restructured Stuart patrimony, with Scotland and Ireland, liberated from their inferior status, keeping a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(potentially rebellious England in check \(pp. 267-8\). But we need to know whether others recognised and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addressed the problem in similar terms. If they did, then their proposed solutions are surely an important part )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the history of Irish Jacobitism. If not, then the naive equation of a Stuart restoration with a triumph of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gael over English must cast doubt on Dr Ciardha's claims for the high level of political sophistication )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underlying the political poems of men like Rathaille and Inglis.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dr Ciardha's book should mark a turning point in the history of eighteenth-century Ireland. Given the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wealth of detail he has assembled, historians have no longer any excuse for failing to build into their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assessment the attachment of such a large section of the population to the cause of the exiled Stuarts. Now )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that this point has been so comprehensively demonstrated, it is time to move on to other tasks: to separate, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(best we can, real glimpses of conspiracy from bogus or fanciful accusation, to distinguish clearly between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Protestant fears, Catholic aspirations and military and political realities, and to uncover the varied and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changing meanings of Jacobitism to different groups within the population to whom it so clearly appealed.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 44 0 obj [42 0 R /Fit] endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 184.6517 484.0135 198.6437 495.8935 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 49 0 R 51 0 R 53 0 R 55 0 R 57 0 R 59 0 R 61 0 R 63 0 R 65 0 R 67 0 R 69 0 R ] /Contents 48 0 R >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Length 5788 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 775.827 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 745.210 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 745.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Breandn Buachalla, )] TJ ET BT 178.652 745.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Aisling Ghar: Na Stobhartaigh agus an t-Aos Linn 1601-1788)] TJ ET BT 490.664 745.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(An )] TJ ET BT 64.016 730.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clochomhar; Baile Atha Cliath [Dublin], 1996\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 295.004 730.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 295.004 729.555 m 348.992 729.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 716.698 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Maureen Wall, )] TJ ET BT 138.992 716.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Penal Laws 1691-1760)] TJ ET BT 271.328 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(W. Tempest; Dundalk, 1967\), p. 19.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 451.640 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 451.640 715.299 m 505.628 715.299 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 702.442 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(T. W. Moody and W. E. Vaughan \(eds\), )] TJ ET BT 259.640 702.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A New History of Ireland)] TJ ET BT 380.972 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, vol. 4: )] TJ ET BT 420.644 702.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Eighteenth-Century Ireland )] TJ ET BT 64.016 688.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1691-1800)] TJ ET BT 116.012 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford University Press; Oxford, 1986\), chapters 13, 19.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 396.632 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 396.632 686.787 m 450.620 686.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 673.930 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. F. Foster, )] TJ ET BT 126.692 673.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Modern Ireland 1600-1972)] TJ ET BT 258.008 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Penguin; Harmondsworth, 1989\), p. 196.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 461.660 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 461.660 672.531 m 515.648 672.531 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 659.674 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomas Bartlett, )] TJ ET BT 147.680 659.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Fall and Rise of the Irish Nation)] TJ ET BT 324.692 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Gill and Macmillan; Dublin, 1992\), p. 18.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 532.352 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 532.352 658.275 m 560.012 658.275 l S BT 64.016 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 644.019 m 90.344 644.019 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 631.162 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Dickson, )] TJ ET BT 142.340 631.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(New Foundations: Ireland 1660-1800)] TJ ET BT 324.668 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2nd ed.; Irish Academic Press; Dublin, 2000\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(p. 68.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 91.016 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 91.016 615.507 m 145.004 615.507 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 602.650 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See for example the judicious summary in Julian Hoppit, )] TJ ET BT 340.664 602.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Land of Liberty? England 1689-1727)] TJ ET BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Clarendon Press; Oxford, 2000\), pp. 392-7.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 276.320 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 276.320 586.995 m 330.308 586.995 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 574.138 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dr Ciardha himself \(pp. 192-4\) cites James Kelly's rejection of the charge against Cotter. For a full )] TJ ET BT 64.016 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account see Neal Garnham, 'The trials of James Cotter and Henry, Baron Barry of Santry: two case )] TJ ET BT 64.016 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studies in the administration of criminal justice in early eighteenth-century Ireland', )] TJ ET BT 467.456 545.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Irish Historical )] TJ ET BT 64.016 531.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Studies,)] TJ ET BT 101.684 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 31 \(1999\), 328-52.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 194.672 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 194.672 529.971 m 248.660 529.971 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 517.114 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These generalisations draw on my own review of some limited evidence relating to recruits: S. J. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Connolly, )] TJ ET BT 114.692 502.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Religion, Law and Power: The Making of Protestant Ireland 1660-1760)] TJ ET BT 460.688 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Clarendon Press; )] TJ ET BT 64.016 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford, 1992\), pp. 238-9, 243-4.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 221.660 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 221.660 487.203 m 275.648 487.203 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 462.341 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 443.359 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 425.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 425.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/293a)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 424.185 m 327.644 424.185 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 399.208 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 384.808 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4488)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.408 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 295.0037 729.8695 348.9917 741.7495 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 52 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 451.6397 715.6135 505.6277 727.4935 ] >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 54 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 396.6317 687.1015 450.6197 698.9815 ] >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 56 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 461.6597 672.8455 515.6477 684.7255 ] >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 25 0 R >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 58 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 532.3517 658.5895 560.0117 670.4695 ] >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 28 0 R >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 60 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 644.3335 90.3437 656.2135 ] >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 28 0 R >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 62 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 91.0157 615.8215 145.0037 627.7015 ] >> endobj 62 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 31 0 R >> endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 64 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 276.3197 587.3095 330.3077 599.1895 ] >> endobj 64 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 34 0 R >> endobj 65 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 66 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 194.6717 530.2855 248.6597 542.1655 ] >> endobj 66 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 37 0 R >> endobj 67 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 68 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 221.6597 487.5175 275.6477 499.3975 ] >> endobj 68 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 44 0 R >> endobj 69 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 70 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 424.4995 327.6437 436.3795 ] >> endobj 70 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/293a) >> endobj xref 0 71 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000571 00000 n 0000000660 00000 n 0000005264 00000 n 0000005373 00000 n 0000005483 00000 n 0000005592 00000 n 0000009153 00000 n 0000009281 00000 n 0000009365 00000 n 0000009394 00000 n 0000009520 00000 n 0000009556 00000 n 0000009682 00000 n 0000018412 00000 n 0000018442 00000 n 0000018570 00000 n 0000018606 00000 n 0000018636 00000 n 0000018764 00000 n 0000018800 00000 n 0000018830 00000 n 0000018958 00000 n 0000018994 00000 n 0000019024 00000 n 0000019152 00000 n 0000019188 00000 n 0000019218 00000 n 0000019346 00000 n 0000019382 00000 n 0000019412 00000 n 0000019540 00000 n 0000019576 00000 n 0000019606 00000 n 0000019734 00000 n 0000019770 00000 n 0000019835 00000 n 0000027622 00000 n 0000027706 00000 n 0000035244 00000 n 0000035274 00000 n 0000035402 00000 n 0000035438 00000 n 0000035592 00000 n 0000041433 00000 n 0000041561 00000 n 0000041616 00000 n 0000041744 00000 n 0000041799 00000 n 0000041927 00000 n 0000041982 00000 n 0000042110 00000 n 0000042165 00000 n 0000042293 00000 n 0000042348 00000 n 0000042474 00000 n 0000042529 00000 n 0000042656 00000 n 0000042711 00000 n 0000042839 00000 n 0000042894 00000 n 0000043022 00000 n 0000043077 00000 n 0000043205 00000 n 0000043260 00000 n 0000043388 00000 n trailer << /Size 71 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 43484 %%EOF