%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818075203+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818075203+01'00') /Title (Making a Living in the Middle Ages: The People of Britain 850-1520) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4223 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Making a Living in the Middle Ages: The People of Britain 850-1520)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This volume is the second published in the Yale University Press series, The New Economic History of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain. The New Economic History will eventually provide a continuum of scholarly surveys of the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economy from early times to the present, but in a more accessible form: that is, without the usual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impedimenta of footnotes or endnotes and with an eye to a less specialist reading market. Arguably the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(timing for such volumes could not be better, and this is particularly the case for the period of this book. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thanks to the recent celebration of the start of the third millenium, interest in the world at the beginning of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the )] TJ ET BT 51.680 173.531 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(second)] TJ ET BT 85.004 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( millennium has been correspondingly heightened. It resulted in a series of publications )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investigating the world around 1000, the most wellknown for Britain being Robert Lacey's and Danny )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Danziger?s )] TJ ET BT 90.992 145.019 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Year 1000)] TJ ET BT 161.660 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Little, Brown; Boston & London, 1999\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Laudable as these publications were to renewing interest in the middle ages, they have tended to paint the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(middle ages as a quaint and very distant world. One of the values of the New Economic History series is to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rescue these past worlds from the excesses of popular imagination and to provide a clearly interested lay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population with both the benefits of the current state of affairs in terms of research, but also to put a more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representative and richly textured picture of the human condition in Britain in times past. The titles of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(294)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 October, 2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christopher Dyer)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780300090604)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(443pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yale University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.yalebooks.co.uk/yale/display.asp?K=9780300101911)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Haven & London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Langdon)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7733 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two books published so far in the series \(the other being Keith Wrightson?s )] TJ ET BT 398.972 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Earthly Necessities: Economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lives in Early Modern Britain )] TJ ET BT 182.348 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([Yale University Press; New Haven & London, 2000] )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 443.972 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 443.972 780.819 m 457.964 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 457.964 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( clearly indicate the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authors? intentions of highlighting the ordinary lives of people in their respective periods. Both titles also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imply a commonality with the lives of people at other ages, even our own. Leading happy and productive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lives was certainly as much a concern of those in the past as it is for us today, and this connection perhaps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allows us to comprehend the actions of those in earlier ages more intelligibly. As Dyer writes in his preface: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Changes in the society and economy came about because men and women, as individuals or in groups, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made decisions and acted accordingly. We can therefore appreciate why they behaved and acted as they did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(if we can reconstruct their thinking in the light of their circumstances' \(p. ix\). Although this may sound old-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fashioned, it is perhaps in the realm of basic economic decisions that such an approach works best.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(So, how effectively does )] TJ ET BT 155.660 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Making a Living)] TJ ET BT 234.992 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( reconstruct a medieval economic past? For the most part \(and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the perspective of this reader\) it succeeds admirably. From the start, the erudition of the book is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extremely impressive. As an expert in English medieval local history, Professor Dyer has an unparalleled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(command of the minutiae of his subject, and he puts together this wealth of material in a very smooth and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well-organized fashion. Starting in the middle of the ninth century, the book takes us though the period of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(late Anglo-Saxon growth, through the turmoil of the Conquest and subsequent Norman consolidation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through the period of exceptional growth in the thirteenth century, and through the period of slowdown and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eventual demographic collapse from the early fourteenth to the early sixteenth century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(His handling of the myriad of issues involved is very surefooted throughout. Even when he is making )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(statements of some controversy - of which there are several, as discussed below - one has an implicit trust )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that they are being made in the most judicious way. Perhaps as a result of this deliberate approach, the tone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the book is often cool and measured, but Dyer is clearly sympathetic to the society he portrays. Indeed, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one of the great strengths of the book is the parade of characters which continually run through the narrative. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Some were scoundrels, like John, son of Adam Bray, who stole grain from his own father, admittedly in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time of famine in 1316 \(pp. 231-2\). Some were incompetents, like Stephen de Fretwell, who in 1219 was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forced to surrender his substantial landholding of hundreds of acres to pay creditors and in return for a very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modest pension for him and his wife \(pp. 148-9\). Some were unlucky, like Joan Edwaker, who died of a fall )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while doing the 'man?s work' of carting in 1389 \(p. 280\). Some were successful, like the thegn, Haehstan, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who came to Worcestershire from eastern England in the late tenth century and was able to trade on his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kinship with the Bishop of Worcester to lease two small estates in the county \(p. 32\). Throughout Dyer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides a very rich portrayal of the medieval economy and society, particularly of England.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The last phrase indicates the most obvious shortcoming in the book. Certain readers will claim, with some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(justification, that Wales and Scotland get short shrift in the book, and that, with a few exceptions \(such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the description of the early fourteenth-century crisis in Scotland, discussed on pp. 251-3\), the bits on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scotland and Wales are rather tacked on to the story of England. Part of this is unavoidable, due to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relative lack of sources for the rest of Britain apart from England, but one senses that had the book been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(written from the perspective of someone with expertise in Scotland and Wales the overall treatment would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been rather more balanced, although inevitably much of the complexity of the story about England )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have been lost.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The other potential area of criticism is that the book may seem rather descriptive in nature. This, however, is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a result of a conscious decision on the part of the author. Dyer clearly does not tie his account to any grand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theory, but prefers to engage theoretical issues as they come up at various times throughout the book. These )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moments are invariably well handled, the discussion of the debate around the theories of Michael Postan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being one good example \(pp. 246-51\), or his comments on the Brenner debate \(pp. 349-51\), but they are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(done with a very light touch. This may mean nothing more than that Dyer is not a generalist and prefers to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(retain the complexities of the issues rather than oversimplify them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Certainly he is not averse to making bold statements regarding a whole host of issues. One of these concerns )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his estimate of the urban component of the total population in Britain as being around 20 per cent rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 10 per cent that was long the traditional figure. Dyer has been the first to argue this in the literature and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 443.9717 781.1335 457.9637 793.0135 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7178 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he continues this line of argument strongly in this book. He feels that England?s urban population rose from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2 to 10 per cent from the 850s to 1086 and then again to 20 per cent by 1300, a level which it maintained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(until the early eighteenth century \(pp. 62, 200, 303\). As Dyer makes clear, this was a trend that survived )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even the calamity of the plague: 'the commercial outlook which had been established before the Black Death )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did not revert to a more primitive economy based on self-sufficiency' \(p. 304\). Many implications flow from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this, primarily that medieval society was much more commercially active and capable of supporting a non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agricultural population than formerly thought.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Even more controversial is Dyer?s feeling about the profile of demography over the period as shown in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Figure 2 on p. 235. The sudden rise of population he shows from the beginning of the thirteenth century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(rather than the more usual view of a gradual rise from Domesday to 1300\) and the equally sharp decline of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population after 1348, in which the preponderance of the drop is seen as occurring in the first attack of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plague with following attacks playing a virtually non-existent role, are bound to raise many eyebrows.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To these can be added many sage statements made about various other issues, such as his perceptive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comment on commoditisation of wheat prices as indicated by the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eleventh century \(p. 42\), peasants as consumers \(pp. 171-4\), the economic attitudes of lords generally \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(106 ff\), the 'shopping mall' discussion on pp. 217-18, all dispelling the idea of the middle ages as a primitive, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primarily subsistence-oriented time. Humour, in a very dry fashion, often breaks through the narrative, as in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the description of celebrations of the Holy Trinity Guild at Wisbech in Cambridgeshire: 'At the splendid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(annual dinner venison and veal were served, and minstrels provided the entertainment. By a rule announced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1506, the poor were allowed to eat the leftovers' \(p. 317\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, the view of society from the perspective of the poor is one of the areas where a medieval voice is left )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(silent. Dyer?s sources, generated by those in authority, mostly see the poor as a nuisance, and the misery in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which most of these people lived perhaps gets lost in the story. Another area, of course, concerned women. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dyer is as specific as he can be about their position in society, and makes some very interesting points about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their increased presence in the workforce, particularly after the Black Death \(for instance, the case of Joan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edwater above\), but some readers might again find this thinly covered. Aliens, of which there were always )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some number in Britain, whether Jews, Italians, Flemings or others, are also lightly sketched in - the Jews, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps because of their often brutal treatment at the hands of government and populace alike, getting the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most attention here. Finally, the issue of children - for example, their presence in the workforce - is left out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(almost completely. Again, this is largely due to the scarcity - almost non-existence - of specific sources )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the lives of children and the conditions in which they lived; certainly it is true that they scarcely figure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the available literature and, perhaps understandably, this book does not add much to this particular issue.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A couple of other small points might be mentioned here as well. Readers who prefer scholarly citations will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(find many references to them in the 'Further Readings' section at the end of the book, but may be frustrated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in not having the sources for many of the juicy examples which Dyer provides. A potential source of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frustration for some readers may be the rather specialised terminology that is sprinkled throughout the text. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These include words like 'assart', 'bladers', 'farmers' \(a particularly problematic word in studies of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval economy\) and the like. It is true that he tries very hard to provide definitions of these upon their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first appearance of the text, but all too often the reader who happens to miss the first reference is left to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scramble back through the text to find a term?s meaning. In the event of a second edition of the book, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(glossary giving these terms might be a good idea.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But it is unfair to dwell on these issues of omission or to expect this book to cover absolutely everything. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does admirably encompass a great swathe of issues, particularly those around which research has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concentrated since 1945. Those who want to know what scholars have been doing in the field will get a very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sure and up-to-date sense of it here. Moreover, as a view of the economic aspirations and achievements of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval people over nearly 700 years, this tells a very seductive and convincing story. Eventually, though, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dyer does perhaps succumb to the popular preconceptions about the medieval period and its end, by talking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the 'new world' that ushered in the early modern period.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R 25 0 R 27 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 5114 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But was it a 'new world' really? We have perhaps been too seduced by the development of gunpowder and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(printing, the phenomena of the Renaissance and Reformation, and the discovery of the Americas to notice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that, in terms of the basic necessity of making a living, things remained pretty much the same in Britain \(and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indeed much of Europe\) from the late medieval to the early modern period. Indeed, one could argue, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certainly Dyer gives plenty of evidence for it in this book, that - economically - his 'new world' was in fact )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ushered in during the thirteenth century. It was at this time that - proportionally - urban population reached )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its peak at around 20 percent and held there for four centuries; that a moneyed market economy also reached )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an apogee which it would hold for centuries; that also agrarian production, as shown by the work of Bruce )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Campbell and Mark Overton in particular, reached a level which it would also hold for four centuries; and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the level of monumental and other building reached a peak which would also not be bettered for many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centuries.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That these developments reached such a high peak relative to later periods was not solely because the advent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the plague arrested development for a prolonged period of time, but also because the medieval economy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and society was so profoundly transformed during the thirteenth century. Indeed, one could easily argue that, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structurally speaking, the renewed economic growth of the sixteenth century was simply a resurfacing of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(late thirteenth century economy rather than a newly reconfigured one. Certainly, the scale of the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern economy may have increased with the addition of American silver in particular, but fundamentally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its essentials were about the same.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That one can actually make this sort of conjecture is testimony to the suggestive powers of Dyer?s book. It is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a work of substantial interest and value for general and academic readers alike. Its appeal may well depend )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upon the perspective of the reader, however. As a survey of medieval English economic history with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparative looks at Scotland and Wales, this book is superb. As a comprehensive view of the economy of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the )] TJ ET BT 51.680 446.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(whole)] TJ ET BT 80.348 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of Britain at the time, it functions less satisfactorily, but even here readers should find much of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(value in it. Altogether, it is clearly an important addition to the literature and admirably justifies the decision )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Yale to create the series in the first place.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 383.427 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 352.810 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 352.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For a review of this book by Nigel Goose on this site, please click )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 383.648 352.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(here)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 383.648 351.411 m 404.300 351.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 407.300 352.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 421.292 352.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 427.292 352.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 427.292 351.411 m 481.280 351.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 326.549 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 312.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 307.567 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 289.787 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 289.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/294)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 288.393 m 322.316 288.393 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 263.416 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.016 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2746)] TJ ET BT 34.016 234.616 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/paper/gooseN.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.216 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 383.6477 351.7255 404.2997 363.6055 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/paper/gooseN.html) >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 427.2917 351.7255 481.2797 363.6055 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 288.7075 322.3157 300.5875 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/294) >> endobj xref 0 29 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000569 00000 n 0000000651 00000 n 0000004926 00000 n 0000005035 00000 n 0000005145 00000 n 0000005254 00000 n 0000008815 00000 n 0000008943 00000 n 0000009027 00000 n 0000009111 00000 n 0000016897 00000 n 0000016927 00000 n 0000017055 00000 n 0000017091 00000 n 0000017156 00000 n 0000024387 00000 n 0000024485 00000 n 0000029652 00000 n 0000029780 00000 n 0000029882 00000 n 0000030010 00000 n 0000030065 00000 n 0000030193 00000 n trailer << /Size 29 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 30288 %%EOF