%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140722093500+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140722093500+01'00') /Title (A Religion of the Word: The Defence of the Reformation in the Reign of Edward VI) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4144 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(A Religion of the Word: The Defence of the Reformation in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Reign of Edward VI)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book would have been a valuable addition to the historical literature on the English Reformation at any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time, but its publication now is particularly timely, as the Reformation debate begins to focus on early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English Protestantism with a set of questions previously unasked. Once upon a time sixteenth-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Protestantism needed no minute dissection of the sort provided by Catherine Davies, because the assumption )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was that we knew what it involved, just as we knew how successful it was. Much of the research of the last )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(twenty years or so has been devoted to questioning whether it was indeed as successful as once thought, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although this issue is still unresolved, we are now also beginning to question whether we understand the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature of English Protestantism as well as we used to think. In general, the Reformation debate seems to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have moved on from evaluating the relative success of Catholicism or Protestantism to the much more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting question of what, more precisely, both of those identities involved. This book provides a thematic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(survey of the printed material produced by Protestant reformers during the reign of Edward VI. Its detailed, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impartial and thoughtful treatment of the ideas deployed by a wide range of sources gives an unprecedented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insight into the mentality of those who defended the Edwardian Reformation, and thus a valuable entry into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the impassioned and fast-changing world of English Protestantism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The relationship between Protestantism and print was a very special one. Although everyone in the sixteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(295)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 October, 2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catharine Davies)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780719057304)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(288pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.manchesteruniversitypress.co.uk)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lucy Wooding)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7343 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century was becoming aware of the potential of the printed word, Davies argues that it was the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Protestants who made most conscious use of it to spread what was, for many, ?a religion of the word?. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reign of Edward VI was of particular importance in the development of this special relationship, as English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Protestantism moved from being largely clandestine to being a central aspect of royal identity and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government policy. This shift sets up the first of the fascinating tensions which Davies? book so carefully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analyses; Protestant literature was now giving expression to both official propaganda, and to autonomous, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independent expressions of religious zeal. Books could command and instruct in line with government )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy, but they could also preach and prophesy in ways which evaded official control and might well be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critical of the regime. Davies argues that we need to recognize ?the tension which existed between their new-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(found acceptance and support from the political elite, and their desire to distance themselves from actions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taken by that elite in the name of the reformation?. This tension may account, at least in part, for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extensive range of styles and approaches which Davies points out within the sources she has used, outlining, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for example, the contrast between the controversial, the didactic and the primarily entertaining. It is made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clear that even within these groups there was extensive variation in approach, a wide array of themes, some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(idiosyncrasy, and even some outright conflict.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author?s stated aim, however, is to hold back from attempting any explicit classification of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources, and although, as she admits, this ?risks downplaying the differences in background and approach of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the authors?, it is an approach which in many ways works well. This book seeks not to characterize, or to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(justify Protestant ideology, so much as to explore its literary manifestations with an open mind. Davies is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(therefore more open to exploring diversity where others have felt the need to prove homogeneity in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Protestant thought. She gives equal attention to what have been considered the ?negative? as well as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?positive? aspects of Protestant thought. She does continue to use the term ?Protestant?, but an author?s note )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at the start is careful to point out that this was not the term used by the Edwardian authors to refer to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves, and her justification for employing the term as a convenient organizing category seems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reasonable enough. Problems of terminology, after all, lie less in the terms themselves than in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assumptions which lie behind those terms, and Davies is clear-sighted in her approach to those old )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assumptions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The introductory chapter of this book is a brisk and perceptive analysis of the various historical debates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerning Edward VI?s reign. It deals clearly and convincingly with some rather tired issues of crisis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(versus continuity, the notion that Protestantism was about social progress, and the reputations of Edward and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his chief ministers. The suggestion is not merely that the model of ?mid-Tudor crisis? is clearly outworn, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that we should be more interested in what contemporary perceptions of crisis say about the Protestant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critique of reform and the prophetic and providentialist elements within Protestant discourse. Davies thinks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Geoffrey Elton was wrong to dismiss the idea of a ?commonwealth party? out of hand; the identity of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commonwealth men may have been disparate, but that is not to say the individuals so identified were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incapable of making important reflections on social and economic matters. She deals judiciously with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(case that these seven years constituted a religious revolution; there is much to be said on both sides of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(case, but with regard to the authors studied here, it is important to recognize that ?triumph over the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(destruction of the old piety and their celebration of the end of the Mass was always qualified by disillusion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and foreboding?. The assessments are both balanced and detailed, and a good introduction to the issues at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stake.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter 1 then deals with that aspect of Edwardian Protestantism which is not usually prioritized, namely its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anti-popery. This is a conscious decision, because anti-Catholic propaganda ?has too often been either )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ignored or dismissed as the regrettably bigoted face of Protestantism?. It allows an appreciation of the fact )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that anti-Catholicism was not an unchanging phenomenon; by Edward?s reign earlier themes such as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opposition to the papacy and purgatory, and issues of justification by faith alone, had been replaced by a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concentration on the Mass, and the issue of clerical celibacy. Davies identifies certain literary forms which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were put to use in the campaign against popery. Some of these seem unsurprising, such as the portrayal of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholicism as a tyranny over both body and soul, or the depiction of a disorder which embraced everything )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the alleged obscurity of Catholic theology to the of sexual disfunction of its priests and religious. The )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7434 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anticlerical tropes which could be employed in so many different ways were here put to use by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edwardian writers to accuse the Catholic clergy of perpetrating a conspiracy to preserve their domination.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But perhaps most interesting of all is the way that the fundamental dichotomy between the two faiths was in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many ways a literary construct, born of the need to emphasise the distance between the reformers and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(papists whilst at the same time denying any charge of schism. There were many layers to this, the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important of which were the oppositions between scripture and human learning, between light and darkness, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between spirit and flesh, and between the true and false churches. Thus the Reformation distinction between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(creeds which we tend to think of as automatic, is portrayed as something carefully manufactured in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interests of Protestant propaganda. Davies concludes that antipopery ?allowed protestants of varying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theological types to fight together in the same war, and present a united front?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter 2 looks at how the Edwardian writers confronted the enemy on the other wing, namely the religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(radicals. Davies thinks that the significance of Anabaptism far outweighed its otherwise rather limited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presence in Edwardian England, and that the seemingly disproportionate amount of propaganda aimed at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discrediting radicalism should tell us more about how anxious these writers were to prove their orthodoxy, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and their claim to ?right order? in both church and state. This chapter gives some fascinating glimpses of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more heterodox ideas in circulation at the time, as well as elucidating the endeavours of those who attacked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the radicals to demonstrate their respectability. Their attempt to depict Anabaptists and papists as essentially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alike, different facets of the same false religion opposing the true church, was perhaps not as successful as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they wanted it to be. It was far easier to conceal what they had in common with the Catholics than to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disguise the common ground they shared with more radical Protestants. But since the main target of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(propaganda was really the conservatives, this was perhaps unimportant; this campaign was an opportunity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the reformers to acquire a veneer of conservatism all their own. As Davies concludes, ?if such radicals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had not existed, it would have been necessary to invent them, and that, to a great extent was what protestants )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Having explored the ways in which these Protestant writers defined themselves in opposition to Catholics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and radicals, the book then turns to the more positive aspects of Protestant self-definition, and how they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perceived themselves within the various contexts of church, commonwealth, and history. Chapter 3 deals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the reform of the church, for which the English Bible was the foundation, its supreme authority the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(touchstone for all religious opinion. Access to that Bible was both personal and institutional: ?the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reformation was both the sum of a host of individual conversions and the means by which they could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(happen?. The chapter examines a number of contrasting elements within the ideas of the time. To many the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only church of importance was the ?invisible church?, and this was reflected in much of the literature, yet at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the same time these writers were struggling to shape and direct the fledgling national church which they saw )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as failing them in many important ways. There were various pieces of advice being given towards the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(solution of those problems. With, for example, the problem of an obviously inadequate body of clergy, we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(find Crowley threatening independent action, Latimer railing against indifference, Foxe as a lone voice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advocating a ministry based on forgiveness, and Joye demanding stronger moral discipline. Differing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attitudes could sometimes escalate into more violent clashes, such as Foxe and Joye disagreeing over the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boundaries between civil and ecclesiastical jurisdiction, or the unresolved problem of episcopacy. Yet these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writers shrank from advocating a wholesale reform of the church, clinging to the structures that were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(familiar even as they despaired over their inadequacies. Here the role of the monarch was crucial: this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reformation owed too much to the Royal Supremacy to risk questioning its future role.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Davies sees little clear idea of the visible church in the writings of the time, and surprisingly little comment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on how corporate public worship should be ordered, beyond the indications given by the two Books of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Common Prayer. This, she implies, was because to clarify such points as this might have involved venturing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the dark waters of more sweeping structural change. Reformers took refuge instead in ideas of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prophecy: ?the prophetic impulse needed no official sanction?. But they remained uneasy about admonishing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(too vigorously the authorities on whom they relied for official sanction as preachers. The result was an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?uneven picture of the church?, which whilst it could exalt the role of the ministry, was still unclear about its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of the Christian congregation: it could direct the few, but held back from trying to order the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7305 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Davies sees a strong compensation for this weakness in the idea of the godly commonwealth. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implication seems to be that since these reformers did not want to challenge the Royal Supremacy, they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sought instead to make it the linchpin of their vision of a godly future. The social hierarchy, with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monarch at its head, balanced the obligations of obedience on the one hand with those of justice and charity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the other. So the reformers sought to link traditional hierarchical models ? the cosmos, the family and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(body ? to Protestant ideology, and thereby create an ideal of the godly commonwealth which could draw on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditional social patterns as a sanction for a reformed theology. In this the idea of the godly magistrate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assumed a new importance, the doctrine of Christian obedience was re-emphasised, and exhortations to both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(justice and charity were linked, to proffer ?a vision which reflected both the law, giving each his due, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Gospel, loving one another?. Davies argues that the social and political criticism often associated with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Edwardian regime was not a separate ?commonwealth? ideology, but a corollary of this vision of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(godly commonwealth, being chiefly a lament when it became clear that its objectives had not been achieved. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Political and religious ideologies, far from separating, were here becoming even more closely intertwined.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final chapter seeks to evaluate how these reformers perceived their own place in history, and how they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understood both the dictates of the past and the possibilities for the future. It takes issue with those who have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taken the frequently pessimistic elements of Edwardian Protestant propaganda literally, and used them to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(construct the model of ?mid-Tudor crisis?. Instead, Davies argues convincingly that the many expressions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an apparently pessimistic nature only make sense if understood in the context of contemporary ideas about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(providence and prophecy. If success was taken as a sign of God?s support, then Edward?s accession initially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seemed to suggest that God was favouring England; but the reversals and difficulties experienced after 1549 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather suggested that God?s wrath was being felt instead. Even so, the gloom was not unremitting; there was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both hope and fear side by side. But since the reformers had also taken on the obligations of prophecy, it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(up to them to make clear the possible doom that awaited the nation if it did not heed their warnings. Yet if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their prophecies were intended to engender anxiety in their audience, they could also engender confidence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(among the reformers themselves, giving them a clear framework for understanding their plight on the basis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of obvious biblical models. Moreover, since disaster was a clear indication of the proximity of the last days, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and belief in the imminent end of the world was widespread among these reformers, their so-called )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?pessimism? could in fact be taken as an indication of their own imminent triumph. As with so many of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themes which Davies has so painstakingly detailed, these ideas have to be placed in the wider context of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edwardian Protestant mentality, if they are to be properly understood.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The great merit of this book is its non-partisan explanation of a range of ideas and polemics, exposing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(good, the bad and the ugly aspects within Edwardian Protestantism. It tries to steer clear of over-confident )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assertions concerning the overall nature of Protestant identity, and it also corrects the tendency to emphasise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?acceptable? face of Protestantism, such as its concern with social justice and reform, over less attractive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspects such as its rabid antipopery. More than anything, it supplies a wealth of carefully nuanced detail, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which renders any glib characterizations impossible. It is an assessment defined by its even-handedness. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This balanced approach is at the same time extremely welcome, and yet at times just slightly frustrating. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whilst thoroughly applauding Davies? moderation, it would still be good at times to hear her own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusions come through with more conviction.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are points, also, when it could perhaps be said that Davies slips back into a more secure world where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Protestantism? as a term needed no explanation. In particular, she seems at times to over-emphasise the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extent to which Protestant ideology was a single, coherent and harmonious creed, an implication which does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not appear entirely consistent with the evidence deployed. Davies argues that, despite all the examples she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adduces of conflicts and ambiguities within the ideas of Edwardian Protestants, ?the characteristics they had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in common outweighed those that separated them?, and she finds them as a body ?remarkably united?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is perhaps still a matter of interpretation. If it is true that they all shared a dedication to Scripture, an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anxiety to see the restoration of social order, and a desire to return to the primitive church, then that may )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(delineate less Protestant identity than merely sixteenth-century academic preoccupations, since the same )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7241 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could be said of so many of their Catholic contemporaries, whose printed works are also caught up in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scriptural and patristic authority, and a concern for the fragmentation of the commonwealth. And if divisions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between these Protestants had more to do with ?political circumstance and incompatibility of character?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(why must such sources of division qualify as less important than purely theological disagreements? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reformations could not separate out their reforming impulses from the political mechanisms or personal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(initiatives by which they hoped to achieve them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The evidence so carefully and beautifully deployed by Davies might be said to make a case for rather more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diversity within Edwardian attitudes than she always allows. It could also be said that any evidence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outright conflict between reformers is given perhaps slightly less attention than is its due. The chapter on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious radicals is by far the shortest in the book, and a comparison with Tom Freeman?s recent piece on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the freewillers in Peter Marshall?s and Alec Ryrie?s collection of essays, )] TJ ET BT 387.272 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Beginnings of English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Protestantism)] TJ ET BT 100.688 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge University Press; Cambridge, 2002\), shows just how much more there is to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(said here. The diversity which does get acknowledged is in any case not allowed to detract from what Davies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sees as a largely coherent body of ideas. It is argued, for example, that ?there was always a tension in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(protestant thinking between the imperative for the government to act to complete the reformation and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inability of ?worldly? policy to fulfil the task?. For Davies, however, this was purely a creative tension. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Similarly, the encounters with the more radical aspects of Protestantism are held to have reinforced the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boundaries of Edwardian orthodoxy, rather than undermined them. Uncertainties are seen as an acceptance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the limitations of the reformers? situation. She argues that ?acceptance of the impurity of the visible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(church was not necessarily a polemical weakness ... by emphasising the mixed nature of the church, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(protestants were accepting a reality which they found both in the Gospels and in contemporary hostility to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the reformation?. Perhaps it would be fairer to say that what did or did not constitute a ?polemical weakness? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cannot really be adjudged at this distance. Davies plays down the conflict, the division, the tension between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ideals of an invisible church and the painful failures of the visible church. Whether contemporaries came )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(away with the same overall appreciation of Protestant harmony, homogeneity and purpose is harder to say.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For Davies, the Protestant ideology of the Edwardian Reformation was something quintessentially English. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Acknowledging the deference of the English reformers towards some of the great continental figures, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the active interventions made by Martyr, Bucer, Bullinger and Lasco, she remains unconvinced that this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marked a ?continental phase? for the English reformation. There was a ?consciousness that all reformers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were participating in a movement which was going to transform Christendom?, but little more than that. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is a judgement, however, that perhaps requires additional evidence, beyond the scope of this book, to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entirely convincing. Davies has supplied a formidable analysis of the English material, but there is surely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much more to be said concerning its European context. The conclusion hints at a reluctance to dwell on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theological disagreements which has led the author to concentrate on the particular English circumstances in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which the Edwardian Reformation was hatched, thus emphasising the unity produced by those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumstances. ?The pressures created by these problems created more of a consensus than would emerge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from a study which focuses on theological differences?. Perhaps a slightly different approach might have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(called into question the picture of unanimity which Davies has given us. Yet even if these conclusions do not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(command instant agreement, they do command respect.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is only too easy to reduce Reformation convictions to a bare outline dangerously at risk of caricature. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kind of book is our best defence against that, and Davies does an excellent job. She says at the outset that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this book ?is not so much intended to put a new piece of the historical jigsaw in place as to show a shifting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(configuration of the historical kaleidoscope ? the reformation seen through protestant eyes?. She has clearly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(succeeded in this aim. There were other facets to the Edwardian Protestant experience, and it could be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argued that she might have given slightly more consideration to continental influences from abroad and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(divisions between reformers back home. The concluding emphasis upon Protestant unity and consensus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could undoubtedly be challenged. Nonetheless, this is a superb addition to the literature on this fascinating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject, and an invaluable guide to the intricacies of English Protestant thought.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 713 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 777.487 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 759.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 759.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/295)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 758.313 m 322.316 758.313 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 733.336 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 718.936 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2749)] TJ ET BT 34.016 704.536 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 758.6275 322.3157 770.5075 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/295) >> endobj xref 0 26 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000597 00000 n 0000000679 00000 n 0000004875 00000 n 0000004984 00000 n 0000005094 00000 n 0000005203 00000 n 0000008764 00000 n 0000008892 00000 n 0000008976 00000 n 0000009041 00000 n 0000016437 00000 n 0000016502 00000 n 0000023989 00000 n 0000024054 00000 n 0000031412 00000 n 0000031477 00000 n 0000038771 00000 n 0000038855 00000 n 0000039620 00000 n 0000039748 00000 n trailer << /Size 26 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 39843 %%EOF