%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 22 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140721153732+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140721153732+01'00') /Title (Feast and Famine: Food and Nutrition in Ireland 1500-1920) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3357 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Feast and Famine: Food and Nutrition in Ireland 1500-1920)] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clarkson's and Crawford's research at the Centre for Social Research and in this book builds on Kenneth H. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Connell's pioneering studies of population and of Irish diet. Making use of demographic data, manuscript )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources, parliamentary papers and local records, they contend that food and nutrition are mainstream matters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the study of Irish social history, and reiterate this via five main themes:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1. they examine the changes in patterns of eating and drinking over time and among social classes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2. They trace the widening chasm between the diets of the top two-thirds of the population and the bottom )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one-third during the decades before the Great Famine.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3. They challenge the assumption that the Irish were a people born to famine arguing that, except in times of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scarcity or famine, the Irish poor were well fed, and there were more good years than there were seasons of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failure)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(295)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 October, 2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(L.A. Clarkson)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(E. Margaret Crawford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(0198227515)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(91.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(336pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ukcatalogue.oup.com/product/9780198227519.do#.UicDPKNwbcs)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Maureen Murphy)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 5498 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4. They consider the relationship between food, nutrition and health.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 758.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5. They question why food and drink did not figure more prominently among the business of legislators )] TJ ET BT 34.016 743.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sitting in Dublin or London.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 717.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Irish diet of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries was reflective of their cattle economy: meat and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 703.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(milk products for the gentry and meat scraps, offal and milk products for the poorer Irish. They had long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 689.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultivated cereals and legumes. Potatoes made their appearance during this time, but they were meant only to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 674.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supplement other foods, and were not intended to be the primary, indeed the only, food source. Settlers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 660.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(record their disdain for some of the dietary practices of the native Irish, like bleeding cattle and mixing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 646.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blood with butter and salt. \(The Irish resorted to this practice during the Great Irish Famine, and today one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 632.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can observe Masai people of East Africa bleeding cattle for a food source.\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 605.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Post-Cromwellian settlements brought some changes based on population growth, the extension of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 591.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(settlement boundaries and labour surpluses that made it possible to move from a pastoral to a tillage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 577.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economy. The commodification of food was also a feature of the seventeenth century. The population of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland rose from about 2 million in 1700 to about 8.5 million on the eve of the Famine \(1845\). As the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 548.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population rose, incomes rose; however, the gap between rich and poor widened, and that gap had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequences for the dietary habits of the Irish.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 508.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The authors identify two distinct diets in the Ireland of the nineteenth century. The diet for the wealthy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 494.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consisted of large quantities of meat, fish, grain-based foods, dairy products, fruit and vegetables. They )] TJ ET BT 34.016 479.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consumed tea and coffee, wine and spirits. The Irish poor ate potatoes, and the authors estimate that there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 465.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were 3 million 'potato people' before the Famine, competing for smaller plots of marginal land. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 451.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditional dairy diet of the Irish poor declined as milk was used to feed cattle or to make butter, two export )] TJ ET BT 34.016 437.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(products. The diversion of milk is the subject of the 'hospitality rewarded' type legend collected in the Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 422.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(countryside, which describes a woman who takes the milk her husband has saved for calves and gives it to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 408.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poor children to drink. When her husband becomes enraged, he finds the milk miraculously restored.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 382.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Those who survived the Famine had more income to spend on food. There was not only more of it, there was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 368.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the possibility of a more varied diet; however, it was a less nutritious diet. In )] TJ ET BT 404.984 368.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Famine in Ireland)] TJ ET BT 34.016 353.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(published for the Dublin Historical Association by Dundalgan; Dundalk, 1986\), Mary E. Daly noted that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 339.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(post-Famine Irish changed from food producers to food consumers. She does not speculate on how much the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 325.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change was caused by the Great Irish Famine itself, or by increased commercialisation prompted by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 311.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coming of the railways. Other explanations for the change from agricultural self-sufficiency point to the shift )] TJ ET BT 34.016 296.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in agriculture from a tillage economy to a grazing economy, changes in the transfer of land from shared )] TJ ET BT 34.016 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inheritance to inheritance privileging the eldest son, and to population mobility from the countryside to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towns and via emigration.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Potato consumption declined as tillage land dropped by 50 per cent from the early 1860s to 1911. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 227.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cultivation of oats declined until the 1870s, and the traditional use of oatmeal dropped accordingly. Other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 213.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grain-based foodstuffs increased, including those produced from Indian meal. Cheaper wheaten flour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduced baker's bread or shop-made bread into labourers' diet. By 1900 butter consumption was limited to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 184.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(skilled workers, unless an agricultural labourer was fortunate to own a cow.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7387 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(E. Margaret Crawford brings her work as an historian of dietary aspects of the Famine to the chapter 'Food, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Famine and Ireland'. The authors ask whether the Great Irish Famine was 'Ireland's destiny', and in doing so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reject the Malthusian argument that famine was inevitable in places where the population growth exceeded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the food supply. They conclude that famine was rather infrequent in Ireland partly because the potato held )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Malthusian prophecy in check. When the fragile structure of the potato economy collapsed, famine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(followed. Using both the econometric model designed by Joel Mokyr, and Amartya Sen's theory of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entitlements which distinguishes between lack of food and lack of access to food, the authors refute a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Malthusian interpretation of the Famine.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While the authors argue that famine was not Ireland's destiny, they recognize the consequences of hunger )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and poor nutrition in their study of hunger-related diseases. They offer an historical survey of descriptions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irish suffering from hunger that begins with Sir William Wilde, who dated the first mention of famine in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland to 'Anno Mundi 4019' in his 'Table of cosmical phenomena, epizotics, epiphitics, famines, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pestilences in Ireland' \(in )] TJ ET BT 157.484 601.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Census of Ireland for the Year 1851)] TJ ET BT 351.152 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). They offer descriptions from a wide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(range of eye-witness accounts: from Edmund Spenser's description of the Irish as 'anatomies of death', to Dr. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Daniel Donovan's clinical descriptions of starvation in Skibbereen in 1848.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The observations and clincial descriptions make it possible to analyse the extent and severity of nutritional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deficiency diseases like kwashiorkor and marasmus and the less fatal vitamin deficiency diseases: scurvy, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(xerophthalmia and pellagra. The major causes of death during the Famine were fevers like typhus and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(typhoid, which were caused when people were dislocated from their localities and crowded into workhouses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or emigrant ships. Other infections like dysentery, measles, tuberculosis, smallpox, influenza and cholera )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preyed on people weakened from hunger. The effects of hunger were transmitted to the children of the post-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Famine generation. Nineteenth- and twentieth-century quantitative and non-quantitative dietary surveys )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provide the data for the authors' analyses of Irish nutrition. \(There is a single survey from the eighteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century.\) For earlier periods, the authors used the sixteenth- and seventeenth-century records of rations given )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to soldiers serving in Ireland.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The authors revisit the post-Famine shift in dietary habits again in their chapter 'Nutrition, Health and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Demography', where they study the consequences of abandoning nutritious home-produced oatmeal and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(potatoes, for less nutritious shop-bought foods: tea, white bread, commercially-produced jam, biscuits, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fatty American bacon. The ten-fold increase in sugar consumption between 1859 and 1904 contributed to an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increase in the rates of tooth decay and diabetes. However, the authors conclude it was climate, and not diet, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that was responsible for diseases like the scourge of tuberculosis, which was only brought under control in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Northern Ireland a decade after the Stormont government established a Tuberculosis Authority in 1941. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Similarly, in the Republic of Ireland, Dr. Noel Browne, Minister for Health in the Costello coalition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government, initiated a vigorous campaign to eradicate TB and it was these strategies which resulted in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sharp decline in the disease mortality rate in 1951.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When considering how food resources are spent, one must consider non-essential items in the household )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(budget, such as tea. While the authors quote Jacinta Prunty's study of the Dublin slums to establish that by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1820s 'tea was the general panacea of the Dublin poor', Maria Edgeworth's note to the phrase 'a raking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pot of tea' in )] TJ ET BT 96.836 194.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Castle Rackrent)] TJ ET BT 173.828 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1800\), that describes the gossip around the teapot after a dance in the big )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(house \(a custom Edgeworth attributes to the washerwoman and the laundry-maid\), suggests that tea drinking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had been introduced to rural Ireland by the end of the eighteenth century. The American reformer Asenath )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nicholson, who walked around Ireland in 1844-45 and who returned to contribute her own relief efforts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the Famine, disapproved strongly of tea which she believed produced the )] TJ ET BT 422.288 137.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(delerium tremens)] TJ ET BT 505.940 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. While he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was not a reformer, William Carelton's story, 'Barney Brady's Goose or Mysterious Doings at Slathbeg', in)] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tales and Stories of the Irish Peasantry)] TJ ET BT 224.684 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1864\), preached against the social evils of tea drinking.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clarkson and Crawford examine tea drinking in post-Famine Ireland, noting that while there was a good deal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of regional variation, tea consumption per capita increased from 0.5 pounds to 2.2 pounds between the late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1830s and the early 1860s. Tea drinking spread in the 1870s and the 1880s, so much so that by 1904 the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 6356 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irish were consuming more tea than tea drinkers in the British Isles. Not only did the Irish drink large )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amounts of tea, but they also drank the best available tea. The cost of tea and sugar for the tea that they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drank very sweet cost the Irish 20% of their food income in 1904. \(This writer recalls a conversation with an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irish tea merchant in Galway in the mid-1960s who said that Connemara people bought the highest quality )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tea.\) The social and economic history of tea drinking in Ireland certainly invites further research.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The authors conclude their study by asking why government efforts in matters of food and nutrition were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fragmented. They look at such government policies as food-related revenue \(duties on sugar, tea, coffee, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wine and spirits\), and they trace the legislative history of the Assize of Bread in Ireland which originated in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval Ireland with local assizes that controlled the standards \(price, weight\) of staples like bread, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which passed to parliament in the eighteenth century. Parliament was also concerned with adulterated food )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and passed legislation, including the Bread Act of 1838, and a series of food and drug acts in 1875, 1879 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1899.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The authors' discussion of government intervention of course looks at the government's relief efforts in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland. They review government intervention during earlier famines, including the embargo on food exports )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from Ireland during the 1741 famine; relief and public works to the Aran Islands in 1822; and the 1838 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1845 Poor Laws. They conclude that the govenment's response to the Great Irish Famine was a problem of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scale:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The debate of the adequacy of famine relief overlooks the fact that the Great Famine was the first occasion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the central government attempted on a large scale to deal with mass and prolonged distress caused by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hunger. It did so, moreover, in a philosophical climate that rendered its interventions tardy and insufficient.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the matter of food leaving the country, they suggest that had the food been retained in Ireland, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entitlement would have still been circumscribed and many of the poor Irish would have found such food )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inaccessible. In the absence of government initiatives, private organizations stepped in to provide for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poor. The Quakers' lead in these efforts is well-documented, but other relief associations also came to the aid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Irish. Indeed, the Great Irish Famine raised the question still debated today in works like Janet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Poppendieck's )] TJ ET BT 105.836 392.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sweet Charity? Emergency Food and the End of Entitlement)] TJ ET BT 396.476 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Penguin; London, 1998\), which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues that charitable organizations have contributed to America's failure to grapple in a meaningful way )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with poverty.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Were Clarkson and Crawford to extend their study beyond partition until the end of the twentieth century -- )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and this reviewer hopes they will -- they would necessarily explore the differences in matters of food and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nutrition between those living in Northern Ireland and those living in the Republic. The benefits of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(welfare state improved standards of living in the north after World War II. While the government of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Republic of Ireland experienced some major successes, such as the eradication of tuberculosis, many welfare )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(services in the Republic of Ireland continued to be provided by religious orders or charitable societies. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Caitrona Clear has demonstrated in )] TJ ET BT 209.660 251.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Women of the House. Women's Household Work in Ireland, 1922-1961)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Irish Academic Press; Dublin, 2000\), that the Irish Countrywomen's Association promoted education about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(better nutrition among its members, while the Irish Housewives' Association lobbied for a school lunch )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(program and were attacked in some quarters as a communist front for doing so.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thus, there is much more to say on the fascinating subjects of food and social history in Ireland, but )] TJ ET BT 516.956 182.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Feast )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and Famine)] TJ ET BT 91.676 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a brilliant beginning.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.229 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 127.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 123.247 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 105.467 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 105.467 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/295a)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 104.073 m 327.644 104.073 l S endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 104.3875 327.6437 116.2675 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/295a) >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 306 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 784.354 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 769.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4493)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000567 00000 n 0000000649 00000 n 0000004058 00000 n 0000004167 00000 n 0000004277 00000 n 0000004386 00000 n 0000007947 00000 n 0000008075 00000 n 0000008159 00000 n 0000008224 00000 n 0000013775 00000 n 0000013840 00000 n 0000021280 00000 n 0000021364 00000 n 0000027773 00000 n 0000027901 00000 n 0000027997 00000 n 0000028062 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 28420 %%EOF