%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 28 0 R 39 0 R 50 0 R 55 0 R 57 0 R 61 0 R 69 0 R 71 0 R 81 0 R 85 0 R 95 0 R 101 0 R 109 0 R 121 0 R 137 0 R ] /Count 17 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140424132906+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140424132906+01'00') /Title (Seeing the past: Simon Schama?s A History of Britain and public history*) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4493 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Seeing the past: Simon Schama?s A History of Britain and public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(history*)] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?The poetry in history lies in the quasi-miraculous fact that once on this earth, on this familiar spot of ground )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(walked other men and women as actual as we are today, thinking their thoughts, swayed by their own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(passions, but now all gone, vanishing after another, gone as utterly as we ourselves shall be, gone like ghost )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at cock-crow?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.648 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.648 279.057 m 118.640 279.057 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 254.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(I)] TJ ET BT 34.016 227.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(History made for television can do this. It can take you to the familiar spot of land, into the castles and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 213.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cathedrals, through the country houses and fields, into the bedrooms and private places. You can look out of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the windows royal prisoners looked out of, or sit at the tables they ate off. You can ponder the words they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wrote, and hear the clash of swords, and the thunder of horses? hooves. Portraits, tapestries, skulls, coins, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 170.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(statues, all speak of the dead who once were. In Simon Schama?s )] TJ ET BT 351.284 170.915 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A History of Britain)] TJ ET BT 446.960 170.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(16 episodes, BBC )] TJ ET BT 34.016 156.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000-2001\) the viewer experiences a rich diversity of the passage of human time in the British islands. In a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(range of locations, from the stone age coastal settlement on the west mainland of Orkney at Skara Brae, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through French, West Indian, North American, and Asian places all the way to Wigan Public library, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schama leads the viewer, as it were by the hand, through a first-class tour of ?our? history. Startling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(landscapes, brooding forests, stark ruins and tempestuous seas provide ample context for describing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development, evolution and confirmation of the geographic and imagined boundaries of tribal and national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 71.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identities. A recurring and powerful image, reinforcing the natural boundaries of the island, is of crashing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surf and precipitous cliffs. As well as the flora, the fauna of the land have a starring role. Deer, ravens, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(296)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 1 November, 2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Simon Schama)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(BBC)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.bbcshop.com/History/Complete-History-of-Britain-DVD/invt/bbcdvd2319)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(UK)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Justin Champion)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6477 279.3715 118.6397 291.2515 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 23 0 R 26 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7950 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hawks, rats, horses, and rather more exotic creatures like leopards, provide illustration and metaphor for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dynamic of the stories. The camera work and photography is spectacular and enchanting; sinuous general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(views, meandering close ups, and dramatic lighting mesh to display a succession of beautiful, evocative and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(powerful images. The camera-work is, at the same time both intimate and compelling, magisterial and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anatomical, presenting the viewer with a backcloth of powerful images over which spoken commentary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and/or musical themes gather purpose. The editing of these components ? image, commentary, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconstruction ? is masterful, in parts absolutely so, driving forward the narrative with energy and passion. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(places the montage of images, landscape, spoken sources and musical accompaniment provides the viewer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with entertainment and instruction for the eye and ear, the imagination and the mind.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(We see kings and queens, princes and courtiers, ordinary peasants, foot-soldiers and generals, slaves and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(workers, priests and heretics, revolutionaries and dictators, fanatics and children. We see where they lived )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worked, loved, played, plotted and died. At points we see reconstructions of people actually doing these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(things too. We also hear them: Welsh, Irish and Scottish voices as well as regional accents from the north, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(south, east and west of England. The inanimate residue of our past is also made to speak to the viewer: the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural function and meaning of plain church walls, of hearths, of gardens are all presented with explanation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and commentary. Leading all of the programmes from pre-title sequence to concluding voice over inviting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(viewers to pursue the issues and themes raised in the previous hour is the presenter who delivers over 300 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addresses direct to camera \(known as ?Pieces To Camera? [PTCs]\) and voice-over commentary. We see )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schama in location, peering through ruins, emerging from dungeons, walking hilltop ridges, handling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(objects, on beaches, explaining context, summarising narratives and describing events. The presenter is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thread that runs though each programme and between each episode, providing continuity and familiarity.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 537.596 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 537.596 497.955 m 551.588 497.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unlike a book, here the historian is a visual presence \(rather than a voice submerged in the reader?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consciousness\). The physicality of this presence, the aspect of performance and engagement is critical to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical authority of the project. Such televisual history contrives to be ?the foam and sparkle on the broad )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sea of historiography?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 143.660 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 143.660 440.931 m 157.652 440.931 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 157.652 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Its function is instrumental: to attract the viewer to plunge into the deeper reaches )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of knowledge about the past.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(II)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The rise of public history in a variety of media \(television, radio and the web\), but especially on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(television, raises all sorts of issues about the epistemological status of the ?history? presented in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medium. Despite at least four decades of public broadcasting, there has been little systematic attempt to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engage with the epistemic ?form? of televisual authorship. A common and lamentable response has been to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dismiss such products as intellectually feeble, shaped by demands of entertainment rather than erudition and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instruction. As a number of historians have insisted, history is always best presented in the traditional form )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of printed books or learned papers. Even this rather bold assertion of the priority of ?written? history, might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been a starting point for trying to think through how the conventions of print scholarship can be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(translated to the electronic media. Many historians are powerfully dismissive of the entire enterprise of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(making public history, protective of their intellectual ownership of the discipline, and fearful of film-makers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as usurpers of their knowledge and academic status. This is enormously shortsighted, both for the future of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the discipline qua academic subject, and as a discourse that has had ambitions of communicating with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broader public.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The world of electronic media is not necessarily an agent of academic decay and declining standards. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some areas of traditional erudition the new media have exercised a profound, liberating and positive impact )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upon research strategies and output. The shining examples of Jerome McGann?s Rossetti project and )] TJ ET BT 521.600 149.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Newton Project )] TJ ET BT 112.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(based at Imperial College, London show how the facilities of web-based databases and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(technology of hyper-text links can provide new academic resources, which are also available to a broader )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 67.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 67.016 105.555 m 81.008 105.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 81.008 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The electronic edition of a canonical text is capable of mobilising many more resources to be at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the disposal of the academic researcher than those contained in the material form of a printed text. This is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not to dismiss or traduce the traditional forms of publication and communication, but simply to point out that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new and unfamiliar ?forms? of media are not necessarily destructive or corrosive of academic potential. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, some historians are resolutely convinced that ?history? should, and must, remain the privilege of a )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 537.5957 498.2695 551.5877 510.1495 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 143.6597 441.2455 157.6517 453.1255 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 67.0157 105.8695 81.0077 117.7495 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 31 0 R 34 0 R 37 0 R ] /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 8239 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(learned community, cloistered between the \(preferably\) hardback covers of the scholarly monograph. This is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a myopic position that fails to recognise the historically contingent association between erudition and print )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture. The impact of a range of new public media \(TV, radio, the internet\) raises fundamental arguments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about whether historical ?truth? is simply confined to the material form of print culture. Much of the literary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(technology of scholarly communication \(footnotes, indexes, transcriptions\) has been designed and developed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by historical practice over the past two millennia. It has not reached an end point yet.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If one was to make a brief survey of the growth of the literary forms of historical scholarship and criticism, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from antiquity to the twentieth century \(perhaps put overly simply as the transition from scroll to codex\), it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would be possible to describe a story that bound in the increasing credibility and authority of historians and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical writing with the invention of a series of literary devices. As Anthony Grafton has elegantly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(established, the invention of the footnote was a manifestation of a culture of witnessing, testimony and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(citation, which was rooted deep in the rhetorical foundations of historical thinking.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 431.636 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 431.636 626.259 m 445.628 626.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 445.628 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Although footnotes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are fundamental to the invocations of creditable and ?true? history witnesses, they are still only an historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(product. Clearly one can have claims to historical credibility without the supporting fetish of ?citation?. A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recent example of this can be seen in the reception of works like John Brewer?s )] TJ ET BT 419.588 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Pleasures of the Imagination)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(HarperCollins; London, 1997\) or Blair Worden?s )] TJ ET BT 278.312 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Roundhead Reputations)] TJ ET BT 393.308 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Allen Lane; London, 2001\))] TJ ET BT 531.620 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Both works are mature products of eminent historical minds writing at the height of their powers. Because of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an intention to communicate with as broad an audience as possible, both works eschew the heavy scholarly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apparatus of footnotes, in favour of prose that engages and persuades. Although some reviewers have made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critical comments on the absence of references, no serious reader can suggest that the academic integrity or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical authority of the content of the books has been compromised.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Over the centuries historians have been clever at developing cultural strategies for avoiding the charges of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bias and subjectivity. Some of these claims have been exposed to scrutiny under the recent assault of literary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theorists and philosophers of language. While here is not the place to explore the challenge of post-modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critical theory, it is perhaps enough to underscore the thrust of much of this engagement, which makes the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinction between the past and writing about the past to expose the essentially literary quality of history. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Historians make ?truth claims? in a particular historical form; as Hayden White explained many years ago, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there are a variety of meta-historical tropes which underpin this communication.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 419.612 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 419.612 386.163 m 433.604 386.163 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 433.604 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( There are also new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forms and media: television being one of the more insurgent phenomena.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite the recent tyranny of the footnote, historical writing has always been primarily a mode of public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communication concerned to describe, challenge, even legitimate some form of political or religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institution, cultural value or ethical proposition. Even the apostle of modern objectivity Ranke preferred to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preserve the literary quality of his historical writing at the expense of his references, pleading with his first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publisher to keep the transcriptions and citations in a separate volume.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 371.636 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 371.636 288.627 m 385.628 288.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 385.628 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( As a form of moral discourse, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?history? has had cultural value as a medium of public communication. Whether it be Herodotus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memorialising and entertaining, Thucydides analysing and describing, or even Gibbon casting philosophical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dictum, historical writing has always had an author and an audience. The historian aims at telling some sort )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of plausible truths about something that had happened, inevitably drawing conclusions pertinent to some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moral concern.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This aspect of public communication has been marginalised in recent decades, as much of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(methodological and theoretical investigation has been focused upon the philosophical and epistemological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dimensions of historical argument. The concern with ?truth? and objectivity as primary problems has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deflected from the broader cultural and rhetorical function of the discourse. Many of the recent excursions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the nether world of francophone theory have avoided engagement with questions of audience, reception )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the reading of history. Raising the question of what is the ideal audience \(our colleagues, ?students? or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?general public?\) and how this determines the form of the communication, and the function of the ?truth? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussed, is seldom heard. The sins of falsification, forgery and propaganda bedevil much of our inward )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflection as a community, perhaps because there is still a very powerful function for the accurate historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(record. Claims to represent the past ?truthfully? have genuine public status, as recent developments in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Irving case only too evidently exemplify. Historians are cautious and almost embarrassed by the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj [28 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 431.6357 626.5735 445.6277 638.4535 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj [28 0 R /Fit] endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 419.6117 386.4775 433.6037 398.3575 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj [28 0 R /Fit] endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 371.6357 288.9415 385.6277 300.8215 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 42 0 R 45 0 R 48 0 R ] /Contents 40 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Length 5947 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public status of their discipline. Nowadays it is very rare for academic historical works to use the word )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?true? in their titles; only the most lurid popular work would dare use the word, almost by default prompting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scepticism about the integrity of its contents.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Popular history is not bad history. When written with integrity and moral purpose it is simply history written )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and communicated in a different way. One of the most popular historians, if we make the award by book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sales, is the children?s author Terry Deary who has sold over eight million volumes in the last decade. His )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(40 titles have been translated into thirty languages; his books account for 17 out of every 20 borrowed from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(children?s libraries.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 128.660 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 128.660 683.283 m 142.652 683.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 142.652 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( These books are entertaining. They have cartoons, games and quizzes which all aid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the digestion. Deary has acknowledged he writes because ?I want to change the world?. Convinced that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history is a means of communicating with a variety of audiences, Deary does this on a bed-rock of factual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(truth. His writing is passionate and entertaining, truthful and subjective: most importantly, it works. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Academic historians no doubt have barely deigned to open a copy of the )] TJ ET BT 384.284 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Stormin Normans)] TJ ET BT 469.292 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( or the )] TJ ET BT 502.952 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Terrible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tudors)] TJ ET BT 68.024 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, but if they did they might well be struck by the depth of research and acuity of characterisation. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Quite clearly, Deary?s books are designed for a particular audience and written in an appropriate style: who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is to say that his volumes contain more or less ?truth? than the equivalent volumes of the )] TJ ET BT 462.980 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Oxford History of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(England)] TJ ET BT 74.684 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? As Arthur Marwick, one of the most vocal commentators on the business of historical writing, has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recently reminded us, ?the main point I want to make is that a work of history should be judged by what it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(setting out to do, by the level it is aiming to operate on?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 304.676 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 304.676 540.723 m 318.668 540.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 318.668 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(p>)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(III)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In order to make fair assessment of the value of )] TJ ET BT 265.292 489.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A History of Britain)] TJ ET BT 360.968 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( one needs to engage \(in Marwick?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(words\) with ?what it is setting out to do?. Fortunately this is possible to do from a variety of public sources. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Most significantly Schama has described his own intentions in his ?The Burden of Television History?, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(keynote speech delivered to the )] TJ ET BT 188.312 446.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(World Congress of History Producers )] TJ ET BT 373.976 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Banff \(2001\). As way of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduction it is quite clear that Schama as a master historian has thought long and hard about the historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(form. As the case of his own )] TJ ET BT 174.656 418.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dead Certainties)] TJ ET BT 259.988 418.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(\(Unwarranted Speculations)] TJ ET BT 392.984 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Granta in association with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Penguin Books; London, 1991\) shows,)] TJ ET BT 223.688 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he has experimented with the boundaries between historical writing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and fiction. His own printed )] TJ ET BT 172.004 389.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(oeuvre )] TJ ET BT 207.656 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is both original in content and diverse in form. Without exception it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clear that he gives priority to clarity and elegance of prose: words are the primary tool of enchantment and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persuasion. The intellectual thrust of )] TJ ET BT 212.660 361.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dead Certainties)] TJ ET BT 294.992 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in particular)] TJ ET BT 356.312 361.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 362.312 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indicates that Schama has reflected at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(length on the business of communication. This has resulted in other, perhaps more adventurous televisual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(programmes about the murder of a Harvard professor in 1849.\()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 336.608 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 336.608 331.395 m 356.600 331.395 l S endstream endobj 41 0 obj [39 0 R /Fit] endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 128.6597 683.5975 142.6517 695.4775 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 44 0 obj [39 0 R /Fit] endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 304.6757 541.0375 318.6677 552.9175 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 47 0 obj [39 0 R /Fit] endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 336.6077 331.7095 356.5997 343.5895 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 53 0 R ] /Contents 51 0 R >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Length 7876 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In ?The Burden of Television History?, Schama pondered the recent rediscovery that history has an appeal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as ?mass entertainment?, speculating that as a form of ?time travel with happy endings [in the] costumed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(country of the imagination?, there is a temptation to see such products as a form of cultural escapism.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 520.940 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 520.940 754.563 m 540.932 754.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schama?s commitment is to more than this: as he explains \(in the context of September 11th\) ?it?s more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incumbent than ever on us to aim a little higher than escapist time travel; to recognise that history means )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most, has done most, has been a least frivolous luxury and most an urgent necessity, when it has freely and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(willingly assumed its heavy burden of tragic instruction?. Quite explicitly the assertion is made that it is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moral duty for the serious historian to produce TV history that engages with the ?thorny difficulty of truth?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Such a ?cautionary history? can educate a broad audience into engaging with the pressing issues of national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identity, cultural pluralism and civic tolerance. Schama is also quite clear about what he did not want to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(produce. His intention was to eschew televised tourism: ?a stroll down memory lane, stopping off at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obligatory stately home and Ye Olde Tea Shoppe; the Antiques Roadshow with ruins?. Again deliberately )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invoking the example of Macaulay, )] TJ ET BT 207.320 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A History of Britain)] TJ ET BT 302.996 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was intended to appeal to the imagination and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mind. Fully aware that there was a fundamental tension between the injunctions of rigorous academic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarship and the aesthetic aspirations of story-telling film-makers, )] TJ ET BT 368.972 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A History of Britain)] TJ ET BT 464.648 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was intended to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transcend the traditional structure of historical documentaries exploiting archive footage, academic talking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heads \(one-on-one interviews\) and voiceover commentary. Boldly he made the prediction, ?the future of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history, the survival of history is going to depend at least as much, if not more on the new media and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(television as on the printed page?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In attempting to characterise his approach to the making of public history, Schama identified four )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(components that were compounded to make engaging and instructive programmes. These qualities are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?immediacy?, ?empathy?, ?moral engagement? and ?poetic connection?. Fundamental to the programmes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was ?immediacy?:)] TJ ET BT 125.996 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what was defined as ?the audibility or the visibility of contemporary witness?. Put )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simply, this was allowing historical sources to have a place in the narrative structure of a programme. In the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(series this was a sophisticated and complex business, fundamentally shaped and led by the presenter. In each )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and every episode the flow of history was punctuated by historical voices; sometimes this involved a voice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other than Schama?s, reading out extracts from a particular source, accompanied by rostrum images of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(source or a montage of landscape and reconstruction. This was a powerfully effective way of allowing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(original ?primary? sources to penetrate the structure of the narrative. Among the many moments where this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achieved something beyond the capabilities of print media was in the very first programme, when extracts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from a cache of letters left by members of the community living around Hadrian?s wall were read out over a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(montage of images of the letters themselves, general views of the location and some dramatic reconstruction. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This moment was prefaced by Schama describing the discovery of the correspondence and inviting the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(viewer to ?imagine? the everyday lives of these ordinary people. Later in the series similar moments \(the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paston Letters, or the divisions within families during the 1640s\) are also effectively delivered. These )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moments of ?immediacy? can be thought of as forms of visual citation, replicating the business of quotation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and footnote reference in a far more human manner.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Crucial to building up the ?truth? of the accounts, these passages involve ?real? sources \(not always textual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources and voices, but sometimes objects, described and given meaning by the presenter\), establishing a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(firm empirical structure for the narrative. They also effectively reinforce the authority of the presenter who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acts as \(in Schama?s words\) an ?interlocutor between audience and protagonists?. In this role the presenter is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a sort of personal companion, contextualising, explaining, stepping back from the action to pass commentary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the significance of an object or voice, or to ?sustain the emotional and psychological momentum of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what?s just been seen?. Frequently the viewer is invited to ?imagine?, or ?imagine yourself? acting out the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(episode \(the battle of Hastings, the death of Becket\). In many of these examples there is effective editing to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convey immediacy and shared experience. The account of the death of Becket in episode three is a classic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example of this immediacy. Moving from a consideration of the technical issues of ecclesiology and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(jurisdiction, Schama narrates ?all was not as it appeared? over a distorted and unsteady view of cloisters. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Images of shutting doors, rostrum shots of contemporary documents, burning torches and upturned tables, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inter-cut with reconstructed drama of riding horsemen sets the scene for a walking PTC, narrating the falling )] TJ ET endstream endobj 52 0 obj [50 0 R /Fit] endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 54 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 520.9397 754.8775 540.9317 766.7575 ] >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 56 0 R >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Length 8032 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out between Henry and Beckett. Cut-away edits to a leaf swept along by the river and thunderous clouds )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collude to evoke tension and expectation. We all know what?s coming, but Schama deliberately and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(carefully slows the action down, locating the action at a precise day and time ?around three ? around 4:30 in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the afternoon?. The knights are named, bells toll. Schama delivers his dramatic PTC, recounting the murder )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the exact location, \('Becket was caught up with, [right] in here'\). These passages of the films bring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immediacy and authenticity. They tell us something of the ?truth? of the events, although they explicitly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appeal to visual and aural senses. These moments are not all so dramatic. Schama is just as powerful when in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(descriptive mode handling an object ? the so-called ?Talking heads?)] TJ ET BT 364.616 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(carved statues used by the ancient )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Druids\), the Alfred Jewel, a branding iron, or the foundling momentos of Coram?s hospital ? teasing out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meaning and significance. This is a profound historical skill, communicating the broader message of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obscure artefact. It?s difficult to imagine it done more effectively in the medium of print.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second component of the series was what Schama terms ?imaginative empathy?. In explaining this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dimension of the films, Schama used the example of the creative representation of Cromwell?s character in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Revolutions?. Here the passage combines modern drama, footage from Kevin Brownlow?s )] TJ ET BT 478.928 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Winstanley )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1975\), with general landscape views of bleak countryside. The objective was to represent the inner moral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(character of Cromwell?s religious fundamentalism by weaving together powerful images. Here the historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intention is supported by the aesthetics of ?film? techniques: the juxtaposition of live drama, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconstructed and ?managed? shots. The centre-piece of this passage is a tear drop slowly descending the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cheek of a young actress who was ?blessed ? with the perfect face to express what all the sects, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially the Quakers called "the receiving of the light"?. Here cinematic techniques are turned to provide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emotional effect, to support an historical argument about the character and intentions of Cromwell. Since the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theme of that programme was that ?Albion must be turned into Jerusalem?, the artistic efforts were contrived )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to suggest this different cultural context. Elsewhere, perhaps most dramatically in the presentation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?epic romance' of Wallace?s struggle against the English state, a combination of reconstructed action, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rostrum shots of contemporary maps, close-ups of swooping hawks, drawn swords, dramatic sunsets and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bleak landscapes, accompanied by mournful music, allows the viewer to imagine what it must have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(like. In these moments filmic techniques such as the use of tinting and handheld cameras \(and even the type )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of setting or film quality\) can be used to emphasise the dramatic or realistic dimensions of the footage. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Handheld shots \(routinely used in documentary news-type footage\) bring action and dynamic qualities to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these scenes. The montage of modern reconstructions of action over-laid)] TJ ET BT 385.604 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(onto authentic locations and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(landscapes similarly brings an imaginative immediacy that allows the viewer to empathise with the past.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(All of the episodes in the series exploit this essentially filmic process. At its most obvious and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(straightforward the use of modern reconstruction acts as a vehicle for ?bringing to life? some of the more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dramatic events of the past. Painting in images and music, as well as with words, simply brings a more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effective range of resources and )] TJ ET BT 190.280 287.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(color)] TJ ET BT 215.612 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to the palette. Much of the dramatic reconstruction \(especially in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earlier programmes\) is military: marching Roman legionaries, marauding Vikings and blood-feuding Anglo-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saxons. Here the shots are designed to evoke rather than describe: again, shooting in black and white, or in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?adjusted? colour and tone footage, are purely photographic techniques for representing events. Such images )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make a claim both on the imagination and the ?reality? of the historical past. The high point of this is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(probably the scenes edited in programme two on the Battle of Hastings \()] TJ ET BT 381.968 216.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Conquest!)] TJ ET BT 431.300 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). Here the capacity of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medium to combine a variety of sources, images and sound was powerfully effective. The entire programme )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was structured around a meditation and engagement with the Bayeux tapestry. Ample footage of Schama in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(location, examining and explaining the significance of the tapestry, is accompanied by images of women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supposedly embroidering the item, underscoring the human dimension of its manufacture. This is a source )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that was made by humans to represent a certain sort of case. The narrative of the events at Hastings are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(embedded in the ability of the camera to present a before \(then\) and after \(now\) picture of the location at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Battle as a premise for thinking about the ?bones beneath the buttercups?. Very cleverly, the extract moves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between rostrum shots of moments in the tapestry and real shots in location; images of trees being chopped )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(down in the tapestry overlaid with pictures of a real tree falling reinforce the slippage between historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(source and the here-and-now. The presenter?s injunction, looking down on the battlefield today, to ?imagine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(yourself? there, is powerful. The blurred and unsteady footage of real reconstruction, cut with images from )] TJ ET endstream endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 59 0 R ] /Contents 58 0 R >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Length 7843 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the tapestry, plus a soundtrack of battle noise, is impressive. Martin Davidson, producer of the series, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identified this extract as a high point technically. An average film of 60 minutes would contain perhaps 400 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(edits \(cuts between general views, rostrum, PTCs, and so on\); programme two was made by bringing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(together 1700 edits. To the historian this may sound like irrelevant boffin-like detail: but it is in the edit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(room that)] TJ ET BT 83.348 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(television programmes are refined and made. The drama and forward drive of a programme )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(equivalent to the page-turning ambitions of novelists, but not most historians\) is the quality that makes it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successful.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are also other purely televisual techniques that benefit the historical dimensions of the programmes. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The use of graphics and split screens is an effective way of summarising and juxtaposing ideas and content. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The generation of maps to indicate the passage of journeys, or in the case of programme two, the swivelling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the map of England around to make the point that the Norman Conquest turned the nation around from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scandinavia to Europe was very effective. The use of split screen in the programmes dedicated to an account )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Civil Wars saw Charles I facing off against Cromwell, or footage of ?Sealed Knot?-style )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconstruction matched against contemporary woodcuts representing chaos and disorder. Here these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dialogues between images engage the imagination of the viewer to think harder about the events. One of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most imaginative uses of this technology occurred in the episode devoted to the impact of the Reformations \()] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Burning Convictions)] TJ ET BT 133.688 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). Driven by ?one of the most poignant questions in English history ? "what did happen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Catholic England?"? ? the programme is firmly rooted in ecclesiastical locations. Setting the scene from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within an unnamed)] TJ ET BT 129.008 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(priory in Norfolk, Schama comments ?there are ghosts in this place?. The historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thrust of the episode is to engage with an incredibly complex historiography about the impact of ?the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reformations? on English cultural life. There is an explicit mission both to show how and why this change )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(took place: attention is devoted to political context and personality. The characters of Henry VIII, Cardinal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wolsey \(?Jeeves with an attitude?\) and Anne Boleyn are given attention \(complete with beautiful rostrum )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(portraits to allow a visualisation of the people concerned\). The most powerful aspects of this programme are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the visual locations. Footage of modern day Walsingham populated by devout pilgrims and Protestant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(protestors give the viewer a sense of the still-persisting antagonisms between Catholic and Protestant.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The episode is book-ended by two powerful images. At the conclusion we see Schama emerging from a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(priest-hole, to reinforce a commentary that suggested Roman Catholicism had become a ?cloak and dagger )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(church ? a faith on the run?. The opening of the programme is dominated by the attempt to reconstruct a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?lost world? of Catholic culture. This is achieved by a skilful blend of montage, commentary and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sophisticated graphics. Set in Holy Trinity, Long Melford and exploiting a source written by the recusant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roger Martin in the Elizabethan period recalling the fabric and richness and beauty of worship in the parish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before the iconoclasm of Edward?s reign, this extract powerfully reconstructs late medieval piety. Footage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the bare walls of the church as it exists today, is accompanied by voiceover readings from Martin?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account \(in a Suffolk regional accent\) describing the furnishings and iconography of the church. Carvings, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rood-screens, paintings of the apostles, statues of the Virgin are described in meticulous and pious detail. As )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the voiceover describes the stained glass, the painted walls, the wood-carvings, by use of graphic software, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the plain white footage of the interior of Holy Trinity is slowly and incrementally painted in, to become a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(glorious riot of colour illuminated by the flickering light of candles. This is an imaginative reconstruction, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(painted colour spiralling up the columns, or blocking in the windows. It is unclear how exactly historically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accurate this might be, but it makes the point far more powerfully than even the most elegant and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imaginative of printed accounts can manage.\()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 252.632 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 252.632 186.579 m 264.632 186.579 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 264.632 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) The transition from this visual experience to the close )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(covert surroundings of the priest?s hole is an effective visual device for explaining the fate of Roman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholic public religion. Here, without dispute, televisual history is a superb medium for the communication )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of historical insight. It is not unique in the series either; other high points where camera image and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commentary collude to reinforce the majesty of historical evidence can be seen in the presentation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ruben?s )] TJ ET BT 78.344 116.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Apotheosis of James I)] TJ ET BT 183.332 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in the Banqueting House.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The third important dimension of the programmes identified by Schama is what he labels ?Candid moral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engagement?. Schama has not delivered, and never intended to deliver, dispassionate history. Committed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what he describes as ?television that simultaneously kick-starts the imagination while not sending the mind )] TJ ET endstream endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 60 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 252.6317 186.8935 264.6317 198.7735 ] >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 63 0 R 65 0 R 67 0 R ] /Contents 62 0 R >> endobj 62 0 obj << /Length 8874 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to sleep? \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 83.336 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(13)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 83.336 795.075 m 95.336 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 95.336 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), )] TJ ET BT 105.332 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A History of Britain)] TJ ET BT 201.008 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( has arguments and ideas. It engages with processes of nation building )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and state formation; it describes holocausts and persecutions; it condemns where it sees need; it readily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identifies ?turning-points? and transforming events. Speaking about Edward I?s project for dominion in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terms as the most ?colossal exercise in colonial domination anywhere in Europe?, or condemning the ?ethnic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cleansing? of the islands of Jews in the 1290s, indicates a clear-minded moral tone to all of the programmes. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The inclusion of the voices of the oppressed Celtic nations \(spoken by actors in regional accents\) and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?expression of national identity? \(accompanied by Irish pipes\), as well as the unconditional censure \(in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spoken commentary\) of the conduct of the Civil wars \(?Eden had become Golgotha?\) and in particular the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?war crimes? of Cromwell in Ireland, or Butcher Cumberland in eighteenth-century Scotland, show an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unambiguous commitment to the moral function of history)] TJ ET BT 315.680 668.165 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 318.680 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The episode devoted to ?the exhilarating and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terrible story of how one small group of islands came to dominate the world? \()] TJ ET BT 411.296 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Wrong Empire)] TJ ET BT 503.288 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) engages )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(head-on with both exploration and exploitation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schama deliberately eschews the format of formally weighing and judiciously arbitrating between different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical traditions in )] TJ ET BT 142.352 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A History of Britain)] TJ ET BT 238.028 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. In this format this is a good thing. There are the odd allusions to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?some historians? or the fact of the existence of considerable debate about particular events or processes. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The intention of )] TJ ET BT 114.344 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A History of Britain)] TJ ET BT 210.020 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is, however, clearly not to give an account of the often impenetrable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and internecine conflict between historiographies and historians. Televising such material is hard: historians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in debate are often intensely focused on particular elements of a subject that may appear recondite or obscure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the general viewer. The technical aspects of filming and editing such conversation and then meshing it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the narrative structure of the programmes are complex. The overriding character of )] TJ ET BT 457.232 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A History of Britain)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is to submerge these arguments and issues into the narrative plot. Schama has commented directly on this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspect of the films when he suggested they introduced ?debate by stealth?.\()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 395.276 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(14)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 395.276 483.699 m 407.276 483.699 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 407.276 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) In answer to a question about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how it was possible to approach translating ?History? into ?Television?, the emphasis was placed upon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(producing stories with an argument. As he put it, ?We wanted to deliver that question gently and if we could, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enchantingly? to ?seduce people into paying attention?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is commonplace for difficult issues of historiography to be represented by a succession of interviews with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?talking-head? experts. This sort of television has been mercilessly parodied by the comedians David )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Baddiel and Robert Newman in their sketch )] TJ ET BT 247.652 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History Today)] TJ ET BT 316.652 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(supposedly loosely modelled on the fierce )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(polemical encounters between A.J.P. Taylor and Hugh Trevor-Roper\) where academic debate soon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deteriorates into vicious personal exchanges. There is no doubt that the sort of forensic discussion and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presentation of rival opinions can work in the media. Amanda Vickery?s recent series, )] TJ ET BT 451.592 344.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Trouble with Love)] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, driven in one sense by an academic curriculum, needed to engage in detail with the evolution of)] TJ ET BT 500.264 330.533 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 506.264 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contestations between, different historical viewpoints: this was achieved by plotting discussions and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interviews with ?other? voices into the arguments of the programmes.\()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 373.292 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(15)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 373.292 300.627 m 385.292 300.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 385.292 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) Since these programmes were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dealing with issues in the history of cultural ideas \(love, emotions, the self\), rather than a narrative of events, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions and individuals, the structure of the visual time was not disrupted, by cut-aways from location or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rostrum shots to the cut and thrust of verbal exchange. As Vickery has commented, she realized from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outset that the thematic history would be more palatable if conveyed via stories. Therefore, in each episode, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she took a case study/source that exemplified a problem, paradox or particular context. The troubadour lyrics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(around Eleanor of Aquitaine enabled her to recreate some of the culture of courtly love. Lady Anne Halkett's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(autobiography revealed the balance of love, honour, security and passion among the civil war gentry. A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1740s church court case uncovered the rules, rituals and pitfalls of courtship before Hardwicke's Marriage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Act of 1753. Shelley's poetry and letters exemplified a radical vision of free love. Rosamond Lehmann's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(letters and novels captured the attempt to find 'modern love' after the Great War. And finally the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reminiscences of Maureen Freely, David Self and Frank Longstreth were used to chart changing mores in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wake of the permissive legislation of the late 1960s. The challenge of these programmes lay in interweaving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the narrative, the history of ideas, and the cultural context of the period under discussion into one coherent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(package. To hold the three threads in tension, all the while entertaining the viewer at 7.30 p.m. \(a time when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(programme makers do not expect to have the audience's full attention\) was Vickery's burden.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A History of Britain)] TJ ET BT 129.692 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( produced sixteen programmes that combined a narrative of events across a period, with )] TJ ET endstream endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 64 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 83.3357 795.3895 95.3357 807.2695 ] >> endobj 64 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 65 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 66 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 395.2757 484.0135 407.2757 495.8935 ] >> endobj 66 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 67 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 68 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 373.2917 300.9415 385.2917 312.8215 ] >> endobj 68 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 69 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 70 0 R >> endobj 70 0 obj << /Length 7920 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a broader historical argument illustrated or illuminated by those stories. In one sense, Schama is explicitly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempting to replicate in a modern medium what historians in classical antiquity thought was a morally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appropriate function for ?history?, that is, ?teaching philosophy by examples?. History is never simply the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?when and how?, but also the ?why and what it means?. Just as ancient historians \(and in fact most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practitioners up until the nineteenth century\) were steeped in the injunctions and techniques of eloquence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and rhetoric, so Schama knows how to manage his texts, images and words to persuade and convince, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well as entertain. The purpose of such ancient history was very often to educate a political elite into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(arcana)] TJ ET BT 68.012 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of civic life: to teach principles of political prudence, diplomatic strategy or military prowess. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(point of history was that it taught one something valuable about the way the world worked. )] TJ ET BT 474.308 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A History of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Britain)] TJ ET BT 68.024 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( too, has these ambitions. Throughout the programmes one is encouraged to ponder the moral role of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leaders and kings, the processes of state-building \(the relationship between tax and war, or between political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power and representative institutions\) or broader cultural matters such as the connections between religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authority and minority rights.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In )] TJ ET BT 47.012 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Wrong Empire)] TJ ET BT 139.004 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Schama engages with the creation and legacy of British imperial ambitions and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achievements. Here, in about an hour, he covers the American colonies, the slave trade in the West Indies, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the growth of imperial power in India. This is impressive. Some responses have made the criticism that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the programme covered too much ground in too short a time. The programme again blended reconstruction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with powerful shots of locations in America, the West Indies and India. Schama?s emotional account of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appalling conditions experienced by African slave in transportation and on the plantations, is reinforced by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the fact that his commentary is delivered while handling \(and then describing\) a branding-iron. The tone of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moral condemnation is explicit and profound. This is history with a cutting edge. It may only be a starting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(point for engaging with the more detailed accounts and historiography, but everyone has to start somewhere. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the programme the experience of slavery is presented in a number of visualised and aural ways. We see )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chained feet walking on beaches, hear brutal accounts of life on board ships, view rostrum shots of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary drawings, accompanied by a commentary that gives an analysis of the profits and benefits to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plantation owners. One of the supporting images adding to authentic description of life and labour on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plantations is film footage \(archive\) of sugar making from a Barbadian location. This ?archive? footage is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clearly genuine, and it supports the ?truth? of the appalling conditions in which men, women and children )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(laboured in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. However effective this moment is at expressing a valid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and acceptable condemnation of imperial economics, some historians have expressed concerned about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practice of using such footage. As Schama acknowledges elsewhere, these archive shots are from a private )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(film shot in the 1930s ?but using technology which had hardly changed in two hundred years?. Anxieties )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about ?misuse? of sources and anachronism seem misplaced here. The section of the film includes modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconstruction, contemporary voiceover and commentary; the Barbadian footage provides powerful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supporting witness to the material conditions. The function of these pictures is to make us see history and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(think about it; it is not to provide a reconstruction of the past ?as it was?. Once again the importation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ambitions and protocols of referencing and citation from print culture are simply not relevant in this media. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Throughout the programmes, Schama does build empirical and material credibility for his commentaries and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguments though speaking in locations \(?it happened here?\), handling artefacts \(?this branding iron was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(used for ??\) and pointing to sources \(?these letters say?, ?Magna Charta argued?\). As viewers, we have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confidence in the moral tone of the arguments and commentary because the account is plausible and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persuasive. Unlike when \(as academic historians\) we read each other?s published work and forensically pore )] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over footnote references and accuracy of citation, we ought to watch a programme to get the overall point, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enjoy the images, to consider the wider issues. Unlike perhaps the majority of the public, academic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians need to learn to watch and listen to such programmes in different ways than they are accustomed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to consume ?scholarship?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Each of the programmes in )] TJ ET BT 166.988 116.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A History of Britain)] TJ ET BT 262.664 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( engages with a general argument. Here Schama uses the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?pre-title? section of each programme to raise issues, to map out the overarching case he will engage with, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and to pose some rhetorical questions. In the structure of each episode these ?pre-title? arguments provide a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subtle spine around which the narrative weaves. As Schama has pointed out, some of the issues raised were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(serious and difficult but the charge of the ?author-presenter? abusing his monopoly point of view is rebutted )] TJ ET endstream endobj 71 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 73 0 R 75 0 R 77 0 R 79 0 R ] /Contents 72 0 R >> endobj 72 0 obj << /Length 8711 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because of the priority of dramatic flow; ?we didn?t want the texture of the narrative to be broken by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anything close to an academic seminar?. Reinforcing the idea that one of the key functions of this form of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history is to act as a prompt and portal to further discussion and investigation, it is important to note that at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the end of each programme the presenter invites the audience to pursue the subjects raised in a variety of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ways. Certainly the evidence of the BBC website supporting the series indicates that the public took )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advantage of this.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final theme Schama defines is what he terms the heart of the matter - ?poetic connection?. Here the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(series engages with a debate \(that once again has its roots in classical antiquity\) about the relative merits of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poetry, philosophy and history as devices for speaking about what it is to be human. The rise of that \(so-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(called\) ?noble dream? the pursuit of historical objectivity, \(concomitant with the professionalisation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discipline\) has compromised the poetic and literary dimensions of historical writing. )] TJ ET BT 441.980 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A History of Britain)] TJ ET BT 537.656 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one bold attempt to try to put the majesty of poetic connection back into history. Some of the adjectives that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been used about the programmes express these intentions well: magic, glamour, enchantment ? all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(words that conjure up a world of image, icon and ?representation?, rather than the \(oftentimes\) arid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(landscape of dense prose and an undergrowth of footnotes. As John Willis commented, ?The direct, personal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(style and the sheer narrative strength of Starkey and Schama, pull the viewer in so that he or she starts to live )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the history?. As he explained it was clear that narrative certainty had replaced the ?customary historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(process of weighing and assessing evidence?.\()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 256.628 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(16)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 256.628 540.723 m 268.628 540.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 268.628 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) The benefits of marrying commentary and image with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dramatic reconstruction are evident; )] TJ ET BT 209.972 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A History of Britain)] TJ ET BT 305.648 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was an attempt at animating the past. Putting the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spirit back in, while sticking as broadly as possible to the facts, in order to try to illuminate ?what it means to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be human? was the task. As Schama clarified, ?we are in the business of representing something that?s no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(longer there?. It is a mistake to suggest that this means the programmes were intended to reproduce a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?replica? of the past. In language derived more from theatrical discourse than Elton?s )] TJ ET BT 447.248 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Practice of History)] TJ ET BT 539.240 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schama explains, ?what we do is persuade our readers or our viewers to suspend their disbelief; to spend a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while imagining they are indeed in a world akin, I suppose to dreams or memories, a fugitive universe?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When historians have criticised Schama they often forget that )] TJ ET BT 332.960 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A History of Britain)] TJ ET BT 428.636 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a series of films rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than successive chapters in a book. The filmic quality of this history is fundamental to its intentions. It is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worth pausing here to tease these issues out for proper consideration because the discipline, aesthetics and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even logistics of making films is remote from the craft of researching, writing and publishing books, and is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not commonly encountered by historians. Martin Davidson, a key figure in making the programmes, points )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this out when he summarised the project which was six years in the making and involved film-making )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worldwide. Originally conceived as comprising 26 parts, the first issue was resolving the problem of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(delivering a series over months of viewing time. As he commented, ?we knew the series would stand or fall )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the quality of its narrative, with the dramatic power of its big story unfolding through countless smaller, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concrete details?. Adopting a ?classical approach? marrying narrative, location, and reconstruction, )] TJ ET BT 513.560 287.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History of Britain)] TJ ET BT 119.360 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ?would avoid gimmicks, and would try to marry the drama and eloquence of Simon?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(script, to photography of the highest order?. The priority was then to make a series that people would watch )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and stay watching, which preserved the authenticity of historical integrity.\()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 394.292 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(17)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 394.292 243.603 m 406.292 243.603 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 406.292 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) Film and factual detail do not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessarily mesh together.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The tensions between what academic historians regard as scholarship and the protocols of the aesthetic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dimensions of filmmaking are legend. One historian has commented, ?No matter how serious or honest the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(filmmakers, and no matter how deeply committed they are to rendering the subject faithfully, the history that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(finally appears on the screen can never fully satisfy the historian as historian \(although it may satisfy the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historian as filmgoer\). Inevitably, something happens on the way from the page to the screen that changes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the meaning of the past as it is understood by those of us who work in words.?\()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 414.308 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(18)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 414.308 131.811 m 426.308 131.811 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 426.308 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) Typically \(according to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(polemical parody\), historians want to stuff the screen with verbal footnotes and narrative-clogging )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(qualifications, while film-makers simply abuse the historical record to achieve an attractive but fictional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(picture. In these stereotypes there is both a measure of truth and woeful misunderstanding. Very recently, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one historian has excoriated most ?telehistory? for failing to get to grips with evidence and the sifting and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assessment of arguments, preferring anachronistic and feeble reconstructions.\()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 410.252 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 410.252 60.531 m 422.252 60.531 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 422.252 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) Both historians and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 73 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 74 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 256.6277 541.0375 268.6277 552.9175 ] >> endobj 74 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 75 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 76 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 394.2917 243.9175 406.2917 255.7975 ] >> endobj 76 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 77 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 78 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 414.3077 132.1255 426.3077 144.0055 ] >> endobj 78 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 79 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 80 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 410.2517 60.8455 422.2517 72.7255 ] >> endobj 80 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 81 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 83 0 R ] /Contents 82 0 R >> endobj 82 0 obj << /Length 5457 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(documentary film-makers aim at achieving an engagement with the truth of the past: they simply have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different methods and instruments at getting there. These almost incommensurable approaches can be most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(readily seen in many of the reviews of films that the )] TJ ET BT 286.976 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(American Historical Review)] TJ ET BT 422.960 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( has started to publish. A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sample of these from the last few years shows that the tendency of historians reviewing ?historical? films is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to assess the value of the film in terms of its success in achieving a measure of historical accuracy. Clearly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, the objective of most \(especially Hollywood\) directors is not to transcribe the latest finding of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiographical research into celluloid or videotape. The relentless exposure of historical mistakes is what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians are good at, but in the case of film they may be missing the bigger picture. One of the commonly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expressed anxieties about such error-strewn work is that such faulty representation of the past will mislead )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the viewer in to holding inaccurate beliefs about the past. This may be fair, but it is also premised upon an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acknowledgement that the medium of film is a powerful one; to repeatedly dismiss it as inadequate and an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(improper medium for the ?serious? business of scholars is to ignore a resource that is a dominant cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(form.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The tensions between scholarship and film are well illustrated in an interview with Ken Burns, one of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(America?s leading documentary film-makers, for the )] TJ ET BT 291.620 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(American Historical Review)] TJ ET BT 427.604 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in 1995 ,which focussed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upon the issue of ?Historical Truth?.\()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 213.320 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 213.320 569.235 m 225.320 569.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 225.320 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) Burns has produced powerful and well-received series on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American Civil War \(1990\) and baseball \(1994\); many of them have won or been nominated for Oscars, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Emmys and Peabodys. He describes himself as a storyteller and an ?amateur? historian. His objective as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(film-maker is to communicate with a broad audience, ?some would say, [to] rescue history from those who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(teach it and the scholars who only wish to talk to themselves about it, and to return history to kind of a broad )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dialogue? \(p. 742\). Despite being beholden to Aristotelian poetic in appealing to emotion rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellect, Burns insists that authentic engagement with the past is upper-most in his films. Discussing Jean )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Luc Godard?s sentiment that film is ?truth 24 times a second?, Burns responds by insisting that ?It?s also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lying 24 times a second ? I think we have to remember that it?s )] TJ ET BT 340.640 456.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(all)] TJ ET BT 353.312 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( selection. Just as the scholar, when he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writes )] TJ ET BT 66.344 442.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(this)] TJ ET BT 83.684 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( sentence, he has not written a hundred million )] TJ ET BT 310.988 442.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(other)] TJ ET BT 336.320 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( sentences?.\(p. 757\) The point to reinforce )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(here is that a director of a film has a different set of ?limitations? in constructing a programme: time, visual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clarity and structure, as well as the uncertainties of performance and material factors \(access to locations, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lighting conditions, weather, etc.\). There are different rules of the game, but as Burns powerfully points out, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there is ?overlap? between discourses. To borrow a theme from Burns, it is possible for an historian to write )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a book about Oliver Cromwell and liberty, but also for an opera, a ballet, a sculpture, or a play to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(produced on the same subject; all of these activities will have some sense of authenticity, some point. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Historians prefer to read history books; the general public may prefer television.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 83 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 84 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 213.3197 569.5495 225.3197 581.4295 ] >> endobj 84 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 85 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 87 0 R 89 0 R 91 0 R 93 0 R ] /Contents 86 0 R >> endobj 86 0 obj << /Length 9044 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the frequent words used by film-makers is ?rhythm?. Comparing the experience of reading a book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with watching a programme is instructive. As Burns summarises, reading a book is a variable process: ?you )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could read a paragraph and then set it aside and come back to it, read that again, [even] speed-read through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the thing?. Watching a film is about sequencing and ordering a very different experience.\(p.759\) The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decisions about the content and structure are driven by the need to produce pace and thereby keep the viewer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interested. The final product is based, though, upon the sort of scholarly work any historian would recognise: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?it is ? an archival, retrieval, research ? huge research ? job at every aspect. The hands-on, painstaking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship to the evidence of the past [requires] that I will spend five and a half years on )] TJ ET BT 467.924 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Civil War)] TJ ET BT 535.928 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(four an a half years on )] TJ ET BT 144.644 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Baseball)] TJ ET BT 186.644 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.? \(p. 760-61\). The process of collection and analysis in this sort of work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involves both historical method and most frequently real, live historians; it is simply that the final output is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in a different form. These tensions between method and product, between what we could call television, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(documentary and history have also been evident in other major British series like the )] TJ ET BT 443.960 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(World at War)] TJ ET BT 509.960 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Thames )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Television, 1975\))] TJ ET BT 118.676 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(. )] TJ ET BT 124.676 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Classically described \(like )] TJ ET BT 254.324 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A History of Britain)] TJ ET BT 350.000 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) as a ?landmark in the history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(television?, the 26-part series has been commended as both good history and good television.\()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 485.624 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(21)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 485.624 597.747 m 497.624 597.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 497.624 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nevertheless, there were frictions between the television-makers and the historians, most profoundly over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?script? and its length. As Chapman comments, ?the historian invariably wishes a script to impart more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(information than a documentary maker considers appropriate?. Put simply if there is too much detail the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(programme becomes too dense for the audience to engage with. At its most fundamental, this is a practical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(requirement of the medium that ought to be acknowledged by academic historians.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If we think of the process of making 60 minutes of film from the point of view of the director, it may be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possible to bring home to the academic historian the practicability of what the medium requires. Making a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(film could be thought of as boiling down the content and time of a standard lecture into a 10-15 minute slot.\()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(22)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 457.443 m 46.016 457.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 46.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) Take any subject ? the Third Reich, the English Reformation, the Norman Conquest, the Empire ? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(try to outline what the key elements of a presentation would be. Inevitably in this process one will have to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exclude all sorts of key events, important facts, subtle digressions and important qualifications. One can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imagine that any such exercise, if modelled against the full-length lecture, and then the compound ranks of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the broader historiography, would be open to repeated and constant challenge. Schama?s achievement is to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have attempted to do this for the wide sweep of English history. The techniques of montage and editing that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are brought to the screen in )] TJ ET BT 167.984 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A History of Britain)] TJ ET BT 263.660 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( supplement the written approach of most history. The screen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brings a multi-dimensional perspective to the business; at any one moment I can see horses, landscapes, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(catch glimpses of authentic sources, hear music and commentary. In one sense this is a more challenging )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience than simply reading a book. Some historians have dismissed this poetic dimension as a ?sleight )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of hand?. The power of the editing process bringing together these diverse elements does, as Marwick has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggested,?violence to the complex problems of historical study?\(p. 236\). This is to miss the point by a long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chalk.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(IV)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The reception of )] TJ ET BT 116.324 235.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A History of Britain)] TJ ET BT 212.000 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( has been exceptional in terms of popular appreciation and participation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(both viewing and follow-up activities such as web discussion groups\). A minority of commentators and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians have been hostile. The critical response from academic historians \(rather than television )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reviewers\) to )] TJ ET BT 99.992 192.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A History of Britain)] TJ ET BT 195.668 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( has taken two quite predictable forms. Some have insisted that ?proper? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history simply is not suitable for the media.\()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 246.680 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(23)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 246.680 176.835 m 258.680 176.835 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 258.680 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) The other general approach has focused on the content )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than the form, and has raised issues about style, narrative and approach. Whereas the thrust of the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(type of criticism laid down charges of ?dumbing down? and the fundamentally misguided prospect of having )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(serious history in such a media, much of the second type of complaint focused \(inevitably\) on what had been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(left out or what had been included \(too many kings and queens, not enough empire, etc.\).Will Hutton, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writing in the )] TJ ET BT 101.684 106.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Observer)] TJ ET BT 146.336 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, acknowledged that )] TJ ET BT 245.648 106.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A History of Britain)] TJ ET BT 341.324 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was ?Great television, but is it great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history?'. As he explained, ?We are not watching the History of Britain. The programmes are too selective to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitute a true representation of our history?.\()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 262.304 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(24)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 262.304 77.043 m 274.304 77.043 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 274.304 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) Taking on the standard argument that English history is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simply much more complicated than that presented in the series, Hutton perhaps made the elementary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mistake of referring to ?The History of Britain?, when in fact the series was very deliberately called ?A )] TJ ET endstream endobj 87 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 88 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 485.6237 598.0615 497.6237 609.9415 ] >> endobj 88 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 89 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 90 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 457.7575 46.0157 469.6375 ] >> endobj 90 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 91 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 92 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 246.6797 177.1495 258.6797 189.0295 ] >> endobj 92 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 93 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 94 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 262.3037 77.3575 274.3037 89.2375 ] >> endobj 94 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 95 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 97 0 R 99 0 R ] /Contents 96 0 R >> endobj 96 0 obj << /Length 8828 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(History?. Although the programmes exploit the magisterial tone of the )] TJ ET BT 374.984 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(autor)] TJ ET BT 400.988 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(/presenter, it is clear throughout )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the programmes that this is a personal view: there are no pretensions to exclusivity. As Schama?s response )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tartly noted \()] TJ ET BT 96.008 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Observer)] TJ ET BT 161.660 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 23 June 2002\) ?television history is not just about transcribing learned books )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(onto the small screen?. Other historians, most notably Bruce Lenman in a review of the associated ?book of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the series? \()] TJ ET BT 91.328 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(H-Net Reviews)] TJ ET BT 162.980 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), let rip with some pretty hostile remarks. In commenting on the ?essentially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mindless nature of the television medium' where 'Its thirty second long visual shots inherently lend )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves to over-simplification, not least because of the appallingly limited minds of those who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commission and make these films?, Lenman dismissed the project as ?no great event in historiography. It is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(likely to be as successful and ephemeral as many of the late A.J.P. Taylor?s books and television )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(performances?. Most of this criticism misses the point because it avoids engaging with the work as public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In trying to make an assessment of the value of )] TJ ET BT 263.312 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A History of Britain)] TJ ET BT 358.988 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( we need to think more flexibly about its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intentions and also its cultural context. As the newspapers and journals repeatedly proclaim, ?History is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new cooking/gardening/black/rock and roll' \(delete as appropriate\). It is, at the present, at a highpoint in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popularity. As a sign of the commercial potential, only recently \(October 2002\) a new channel \()] TJ ET BT 493.592 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(UKHISTORY)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), devoted to the broadcast of historical documentaries, was launched in partnership between the BBC and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Telewest Communications. Ambitious to provide page-turning history, it will broadcast ?the highest quality )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history programming, offering the authority, integrity and depth of analysis that British factual programming )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is famous for?. Importantly, the publicity strategy for the launch of this venture emphasised that is was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(providing a resource for ?generations that have previously felt disenfranchised by ?old school? history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(teaching?.\()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 86.996 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 86.996 497.955 m 98.996 497.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 98.996 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) A glance at the television schedules illustrates that there is an explosion of historical subjects )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on display. The quality and form of this public history is enormously diverse. There are some programmes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that focus on the material past, combining detective research with the revelation of a lost past ? in the case of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the successful )] TJ ET BT 104.000 456.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Time Team,)] TJ ET BT 160.664 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( literally unearthing history. Other programmes are tied closely to a more focused )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(academic point, providing means for access to distance learning degrees. Some are constructed to provide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(celebrity ?entertainment? in historical form. More recently the )] TJ ET BT 336.284 428.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Great Britons)] TJ ET BT 402.620 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( series was an attempt to project )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a critical and engaged debate about the role of personality in British history: a double-whammy of celebrity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presenters defending the public?s heroes and heroines. Some of this recent television history has been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(innovative. Juniper TV's production for the Channel 4 series )] TJ ET BT 326.804 385.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Plague, Fire, Treason, War)] TJ ET BT 459.464 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( on the Great Plague )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(won a Royal Television Society award for its creative reconstruction and editing of academic opinion and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research. It would be foolish to forget the radio too. There have been some genuinely innovative and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant historical programmes in the past years engaging with the histories of language, science and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(powerless. Here, although the medium allows for more robust academic exchange, teasing out digressions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and qualifications, it is still driven by the task of painting mental pictures and telling stories. Public ?history? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is thriving, but is also diverse in its form and content. )] TJ ET BT 293.012 299.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A History of Britain)] TJ ET BT 388.688 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is one exemplary model of what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can be achieved.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While many historians will acknowledge the achievement, there is still a residual mental reservation: ?it?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(okay, but it?s only television?. There is still a profound sense in which the academy regards such public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history as a secondary or marginal business compared with the tasks of preparing ?learning? for peer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assessment \(or even state sponsored Research Assessment Exercises\). This is a mistake. One need not go as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(far as Robert Rosenstone, who has argued in )] TJ ET BT 250.976 202.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Visions of the past: the challenge of film to our idea of history)] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Harvard University Press; Cambridge, MA, 1995\) that visual media have become the dominant form of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communicating historical argument in modern culture, to recognise that unless historians engage with such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(media they will have no voice. Engagement will require some intellectual retooling. It will also require some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deep thinking about the various artistic forms ?history? can assume.\()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 363.968 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(26)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 363.968 143.811 m 375.968 143.811 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 375.968 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) Historians have persistently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patrolled the boundaries between truth and fiction, proclaiming factual objectivity to be the foundations of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their authority. Despite some robust, and philosophically acute, assaults upon the epistemological status of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the discipline, the majority of historians think of themselves as doing things with real facts about the past. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Even those unconvinced by the empiricism of the dominant discourse and who have embraced the more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fashionable languages of ?representations? and ?readings?, still \(presumably\) think their publications have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some value at explaining how the world works. Undoubtedly it is possible to unhinge ?historical truth? from )] TJ ET endstream endobj 97 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 98 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 86.9957 498.2695 98.9957 510.1495 ] >> endobj 98 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 99 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 100 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 363.9677 144.1255 375.9677 156.0055 ] >> endobj 100 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 101 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 103 0 R 105 0 R 107 0 R ] /Contents 102 0 R >> endobj 102 0 obj << /Length 9182 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the shackles)] TJ ET BT 95.336 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of ?objective? writing. To borrow the words of Natalie Zemon Davis, there is fiction in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archives. Both the general public and academic historians can learn from the representation of these ?truths? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the large and small screen.\()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 177.980 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(27)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 177.980 766.563 m 189.980 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 189.980 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Even in the form of print culture historians can learn to engage with the past in a different mode. In recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years, perhaps shadowing the increase in visual media, there has been a growth in literary ?fiction? written in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an historical genre.\()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 129.656 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(28)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 129.656 711.795 m 141.656 711.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 141.656 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) The works of Alfred Duggan and Julian Rathbone have long provided a route for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general reader into the past. More recently there have enormously successful works which exploit historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources in an effective way: Umberto Eco?s )] TJ ET BT 248.288 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Name of the Rose)] TJ ET BT 353.612 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Secker and Warburg; London, 1983\))] TJ ET BT 536.900 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(,)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rose Tremain?s )] TJ ET BT 114.668 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Restoration)] TJ ET BT 170.672 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Hamish Hamilton; London, 1989\) and most recently, Iain Pears' )] TJ ET BT 488.132 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(An Instance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the Fingerpost)] TJ ET BT 104.348 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Jonathan Cape; London, 1997\). These works are clearly powerful works of fiction, but they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rest upon a foundation of deep historical research. Pears, in addressing an academic seminar in the Institute )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Historical Research, pondered the connection between the hours spent crafting his prose, and those spent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(researching the sources in various Oxford libraries. In works like Pears? and Eco?s, ?real? figures, past )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(events and texts are cited, surveyed and adapted. When prompted by a query about whether his account of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(natural philosophy in the restoration of the 1660s ought to supplant the more heavy academic studies, Pears )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dissented, insisting that his works were fictions and could not compete with the ?real? history books. Despite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this division of cultural status, it is clear that historians teaching the history of science and the intellectual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debates of the period do encourage undergraduate historians to read )] TJ ET BT 361.928 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(An Instance of the Fingerpost)] TJ ET BT 504.584 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(means of imaginatively encountering a sense of the period. A little like watching )] TJ ET BT 424.628 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A History of Britain)] TJ ET BT 520.304 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reading such novels allows the imagination to work so that we can empathise with the past.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Some novelists have taken this intimacy between the past and fiction even further. William Boyd?s recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(works, )] TJ ET BT 69.344 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nat Tate. An American Artist: 1928-1960)] TJ ET BT 268.676 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(21 Publishing; Cambridge,1998\) and )] TJ ET BT 456.008 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Any Human Heart)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Hamish Hamilton; London, 2002\), engage with the difficulty of distinguishing true history from true )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fiction. The first work apparently described the life and work of a little known \(and mediocre\) artist. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Complete with footnotes, citations, images and photographs, the work appears to be a \(short\) authentic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical account. It is of course a fiction \(exposed only after many had welcomed it a justified rediscovery )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a marginalized painter\). In this \(fake\) monograph on Tate, Boyd suggested that he had been alerted to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(artist's work through the writing of the ?British writer and critic Logan Mountstuart, 1906-1991... )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biographer, )] TJ ET BT 92.000 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(belle-lettriste)] TJ ET BT 155.996 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, editor, failed novelist', whose journals he suggested he was editing \()] TJ ET BT 488.780 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nat Tate)] TJ ET BT 530.456 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11\). These journals, with annotation and other scholarly paratexts, were published in 2002, although extracts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were evident in the earlier work. Some reviewers have suggested that Boyd?s fabrication of Mountstuart?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(journals are a ?device allowing Boyd to write about 20th-century celebrities in the pastiche idiom of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary observer?.\()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 157.304 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(29)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 157.304 314.883 m 169.304 314.883 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 169.304 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) There are various ?celebrity cameos? of Hemingway, Fitzgerald and Woolf, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which allow Boyd some literary fun. But the book is attempting much more than just)] TJ ET BT 444.668 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literary cleverness. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(form of the fiction is the intimate diary or journal, edited, annotated and indexed; these paratextual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apparatuses are intended to make the reader think about the ?historical? status of the text. When we read the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(journals, do we read them as ?real? historical sources \(and therefore try and ?spot? the references to ?real? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people?\), or as a deliberate fiction calculated for narrative and literary ambitions? Reading the journals \(as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an historian\) is akin to reading ?authentic? sources? they deliver a fractured, meandering, rather sad and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unfulfilled life. They have the obscure, unfinished, intriguing elements of 'real' historical sources )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(biographical dead-ends, unexplained references\). As in history, the ?plot? is provided by the life. Like the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earlier work )] TJ ET BT 95.324 187.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nat Tate,)] TJ ET BT 140.000 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Logan Mountstuart?s diaries expose the fragility of the boundary between historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(truth and fiction. Unanchored from its published form, extracts from the journals would, I suggest, be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficult to distinguish from historically authentic sources. Boyd is asking the reader to ponder this. Boyd?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achievement is to have created a life that is engaging and repellent, tragic and stupid, fantastic and mundane. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Having finished the book one hankers after more \(Mountstuart?s correspondence, the novels, perhaps an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exhibition of the paintings he owned?\). Such historical fiction whets the appetite for more. This is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparable effect to that)] TJ ET BT 156.644 102.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A History of Britain)] TJ ET BT 252.320 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( delivers: the appeal to imagination is a powerful way of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provoking an interest in the past)] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Timothy Garton Ash has argued recently that the ?frontier between the literature of fact and the literature of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 103 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 104 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 177.9797 766.8775 189.9797 778.7575 ] >> endobj 104 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 105 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 106 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 129.6557 712.1095 141.6557 723.9895 ] >> endobj 106 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 107 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 108 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 157.3037 315.1975 169.3037 327.0775 ] >> endobj 108 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 109 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 111 0 R 113 0 R 115 0 R 117 0 R 119 0 R ] /Contents 110 0 R >> endobj 110 0 obj << /Length 8616 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fiction is open, unmarked. Some very fine writers stray across it quite casually?. Garton Ash directly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discusses Schama?s )] TJ ET BT 132.668 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dead Certainties)] TJ ET BT 215.000 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1991\) which contains an eyewitness account of the Battle of Quebec, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acknowledged to be a ?fiction? constructed from number of ?real? historical sources. Embracing Schama?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plea that ?history as story telling, as literature, must reclaim the ground it has lost to history as science, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pseudoscience?, Garton Ash also adds a note of caution: ?from this particular literary device it is not a long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(step to the postmodernist conclusion that any historian?s "story" is as good as any other?s.? Acknowledging )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that in creating a literature of fact, ?we have to work like novelists in many ways. We select. We cast light )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on this object, shadow on that. We imagine. We imagine what it is like to be that old Albanian woman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weeping over the body of her murdered son, or what it was like to be a fourteenth century French serf?.\()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 534.224 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(30)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 534.224 681.027 m 546.224 681.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 546.224 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(All public literature of fact should pass what he terms ?truth tests?: they should be subject to moral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assessments of facticity and veracity. To fail such tests is to teeter dangerously on an abyss of distortion and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Academic historians have charged )] TJ ET BT 201.968 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A History of Britain)] TJ ET BT 297.644 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and in fact the whole genre of telehistory, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crossing this boundary between a literature of fact and fiction, and therefore by default compromising )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?academic? truth. Indeed, it may be possible for each and everyone of us to dissent with the narratives, style )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and content of Schama?s )] TJ ET BT 156.656 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A History of Britain)] TJ ET BT 252.332 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: this is quite right. Despite the claims of many critics, such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disagreements are not fundamentally about the ?truth? of the past, but about the style and form of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communication \(rather about the medium than the message\). Schama has succeeded in creating a visual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?literature of fact?, even though its filmic form may be uncongenial to more traditional historians. Like all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(good history, the work has provoked debate, raised hackles, and engaged a community beyond the groves of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(academia in conversation. History that closes the book is dead. )] TJ ET BT 338.636 499.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A History of Britain)] TJ ET BT 434.312 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( has exposed the past to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new insights, and to new audiences. If academic society can open its eyes \(and tune its ears\) to these new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pictures and sounds, it may have much to learn, but at the same time also discover a new platform for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communicating its learning and moral integrity in an energised and enthusiastic public sphere. Martin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Davidson defined these ambitions when he commented ?We want )] TJ ET BT 353.624 442.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A History of Britain)] TJ ET BT 449.300 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to become our very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own Bayeux Tapestry for the twenty first century, a graphic and gripping account of our place in the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nations, and their place in the world?.\()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 218.648 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(31)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 218.648 412.419 m 230.648 412.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 230.648 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) Like the Bayeux tapestry, )] TJ ET BT 363.956 413.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A History of Britain)] TJ ET BT 459.632 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a powerful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(document representing the ?truth? of past events in a particular form, from a particular point of view. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However much we might dispute specific elements, or even the overall narrative plot, nevertheless engaging )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the drama, the details and the power of the story, provides the imaginative audience with ample food )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for historical thought. The best history can do no more.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(December 2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 295.635 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 34.016 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(* I am grateful to a number of colleagues \(both historians and filmmakers\) for various conversations that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have helped form some of the views developed here: in particular Mike Braddick, Amanda Vickery, Senara )] TJ ET BT 34.016 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wilson, Helen Britton, Charles Miller, Melissa Fitzgerald, George Conyne and Mark Jenner.)] TJ ET BT 48.816 210.250 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 210.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(G. Trevelyan, )] TJ ET BT 133.328 210.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Clio: A Muse)] TJ ET BT 197.324 210.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Longmans & Co.; London, 1913\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 367.988 210.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 367.988 208.851 m 421.976 208.851 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 195.994 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 195.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Interestingly the )] TJ ET BT 145.340 195.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Oxford English Dictionary )] TJ ET BT 277.004 195.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(definition of ?presenter? indicates some of the different )] TJ ET BT 64.016 181.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legal and dramatic contexts for the role. ?1. One who presents a person to a benefice, or to any )] TJ ET BT 64.016 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(position or office, or for a degree; one who formally introduces a person, esp. at court; in quot. 1597, a )] TJ ET BT 64.016 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sponsor. \(See also PRESENTOR 1b.\) 2. Law. One who makes a presentment \(of a fact, or an offence, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(etc.\); = PRESENTOR 1a. Now rare. 3. One who makes a present; a donor, giver. 4. One who )] TJ ET BT 64.016 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?presents? a part in a play; an actor. arch. or Obs. 5. One who presents an address, petition, memorial, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an order, bill, cheque, etc. 6. One who \(or that which\) presents something to the mind or to notice. 7. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One who presents or introduces a programme on radio or television. 1967 Listener 24 Aug. 249/2 A )] TJ ET BT 64.016 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(few words spoken into a camera by a presenter can smooth..an awkward script.?)] TJ ET BT 48.816 67.690 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 67.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I am grateful to my colleague Dr Sam Barnish for offering this phrase.)] TJ ET BT 48.816 53.434 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See the websites at )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 158.000 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://jefferson.village.virginia.edu/rossetti/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 158.000 52.035 m 366.992 52.035 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 369.992 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 383.984 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 39.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.newtonproject.ic.ac.uk/.)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 37.779 m 236.996 37.779 l S endstream endobj 111 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 112 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 534.2237 681.3415 546.2237 693.2215 ] >> endobj 112 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 113 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 114 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 218.6477 412.7335 230.6477 424.6135 ] >> endobj 114 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 115 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 116 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 367.9877 209.1655 421.9757 221.0455 ] >> endobj 116 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 117 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 118 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 157.9997 52.3495 366.9917 64.2295 ] >> endobj 118 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://jefferson.village.virginia.edu/rossetti/) >> endobj 119 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 120 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 38.0935 236.9957 49.9735 ] >> endobj 120 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.newtonproject.ic.ac.uk/) >> endobj 121 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 123 0 R 125 0 R 127 0 R 129 0 R 131 0 R 133 0 R 135 0 R ] /Contents 122 0 R >> endobj 122 0 obj << /Length 11275 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 78.008 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( For a more general overview of other developments see, )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.iath.virginia.edu/researchEssays.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 780.819 m 301.328 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 304.328 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET BT 318.320 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 48.816 767.962 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See A. Grafton, )] TJ ET BT 142.328 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Footnote. A Curious History)] TJ ET BT 300.668 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Faber and Faber; London, 1997\).)] TJ ET BT 48.816 753.706 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See H. White, )] TJ ET BT 134.336 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tropics of Discourse. Essays in Cultural Criticism)] TJ ET BT 377.360 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Johns Hopkins University Press; )] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Baltimore, 1978\).)] TJ ET BT 48.816 725.194 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See G. S. Ford, ?A Ranke letter?, )] TJ ET BT 226.988 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Modern History)] TJ ET BT 356.648 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 32 \(1960\),142-44.)] TJ ET BT 48.816 710.938 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See V. Hislop, ?Fury of a horrible historian?, )] TJ ET BT 283.652 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Telegraph)] TJ ET BT 353.984 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 19 October 2002.)] TJ ET BT 48.816 696.682 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Arthur Marwick, )] TJ ET BT 148.328 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The New Nature of History: Knowledge, Evidence, Language)] TJ ET BT 443.312 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Palgrave; )] TJ ET BT 64.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Basingstoke, 2001\) p. 232.)] TJ ET BT 42.816 668.170 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shown on BBC2 on 14 December 2002. See the details of the production and episode, and the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(innovative associated website at )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 221.324 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.spypondproductions.com/parkman/index.htm)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 221.324 652.515 m 496.988 652.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 499.988 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5])] TJ ET BT 513.980 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 42.816 639.658 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See the online version of the lecture, at )] TJ ET BT 254.312 639.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The World Congress of History Producers 2001, )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.historyproducers.com/history2001/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 624.003 m 290.012 624.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 293.012 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([6])] TJ ET BT 307.004 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 42.816 611.146 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See E. Duffy, )] TJ ET BT 132.332 611.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Stripping of the Altars)] TJ ET BT 260.348 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Yale University Press; London and New Haven, 1992\), pp. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(37-40.)] TJ ET BT 42.816 582.634 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(13.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Simon Schama, BBC History Lecture, delivered 29 May 2002; broadcast on BBC4 on 20 June 2002; )] TJ ET BT 64.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(full transcript published in )] TJ ET BT 194.012 568.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(BBC History Magazine)] TJ ET BT 306.008 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(June 2002\).)] TJ ET BT 42.816 554.122 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(14.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?David Frost interview with Professor Simon Schama and Eric Hobsbawm?, )] TJ ET BT 434.972 554.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(BBC Breakfast with )] TJ ET BT 64.016 539.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Frost,)] TJ ET BT 93.020 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 26 May 2002.)] TJ ET BT 42.816 525.610 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(15.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Amanda Vickery's )] TJ ET BT 156.152 525.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Trouble With Love)] TJ ET BT 267.152 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(6 parts, September/October 2002 on BBC2\).)] TJ ET BT 42.816 511.354 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(16.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Willis, ?Past is perfect?, )] TJ ET BT 209.000 511.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Guardian)] TJ ET BT 276.668 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 29 October 2001.)] TJ ET BT 42.816 497.098 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(17.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See ?The making of )] TJ ET BT 163.328 497.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A History of Britain)] TJ ET BT 259.004 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?, )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/programmes/hob/making_of_01.shtml)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 481.443 m 392.684 481.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 395.684 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([7])] TJ ET BT 409.676 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 42.816 468.586 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(18.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. A. Rosenstone, 'History in images/History in words: reflections on the possibility of really putting )] TJ ET BT 64.016 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history into film', )] TJ ET BT 150.188 454.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(American Historical Review)] TJ ET BT 286.172 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 93 \(1988\),1173-85, at p. 1173.)] TJ ET BT 42.816 440.074 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See T. Stearn, ?What?s wrong with television history?', )] TJ ET BT 333.140 440.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History Today)] TJ ET BT 402.140 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(December, 2002\), pp.26-7.)] TJ ET BT 42.816 425.818 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 425.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Historical Truth: an interview with Ken Burns?, )] TJ ET BT 302.648 425.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The American Historical Review)] TJ ET BT 459.632 425.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(,100 \(1995\), 741-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 411.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(764. See also R. B. Toplin, ?The filmmaker as historian?, )] TJ ET BT 342.992 411.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(American Historical Review)] TJ ET BT 478.976 411.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 93 \(1988\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 397.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1210-27.)] TJ ET BT 42.816 383.050 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(21.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 383.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James Chapman, ?)] TJ ET BT 153.668 383.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The World at War)] TJ ET BT 240.668 383.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: Television, documentary, history?, in G. Roberts and Peter M. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 368.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Taylor \(eds\), )] TJ ET BT 128.996 368.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Historian, Television and Television History)] TJ ET BT 363.668 368.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(University of Luton Press; Luton, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 354.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2001\), pp. 127-44, at p.127.)] TJ ET BT 42.816 340.282 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(22.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 340.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapman, ?)] TJ ET BT 121.340 340.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The World at War)] TJ ET BT 208.340 340.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(', p.135.)] TJ ET BT 42.816 326.026 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(23.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 326.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Or in a slightly more subtle way, have argued that the programme was overly conservative as a piece )] TJ ET BT 64.016 311.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of TV: see F. Fernandez Armesto, ?How TV?s History men get it wrong?, )] TJ ET BT 423.284 311.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Evening Standard, )] TJ ET BT 515.612 311.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(22 April )] TJ ET BT 64.016 297.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2002.)] TJ ET BT 42.816 283.258 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(24.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 283.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Observer, 16 June 2002.)] TJ ET BT 42.816 269.002 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 268.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For an overview of this see S. Jeffries, ?Once more with feeling?, )] TJ ET BT 381.608 268.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Guardian)] TJ ET BT 449.276 268.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 28 October 2002.)] TJ ET BT 42.816 254.746 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(26.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 254.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are some serious engagements with the relationship between film and history. )] TJ ET BT 470.948 254.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 240.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Theory)] TJ ET BT 98.012 240.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( devoted a special issue to the theme of ?Producing the past: making histories inside and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 226.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outside the academy?, volume 36 \(1997\). See also R. Rosenstone, ?Does a filmic writing of history )] TJ ET BT 64.016 211.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exist?', )] TJ ET BT 100.172 211.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History and Theory)] TJ ET BT 194.168 211.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 41 \(2002\), 134-44. N. Z. Davis has engaged with the issue in )] TJ ET BT 495.464 211.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Slaves on )] TJ ET BT 64.016 197.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Screen. Film and Historical Vision)] TJ ET BT 231.680 197.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Harvard University Press; Cambridge, MA, 2000\).)] TJ ET BT 42.816 183.466 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(27.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 183.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For a discussion of Davis? involvement in the film about Martin Guerre see the very useful website of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 169.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sharon Howard ?Early modernity on film? \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 276.644 169.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.earlymodernweb.org.uk/film/emfilm.htm)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 276.644 167.811 m 531.968 167.811 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 534.968 169.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([8])] TJ ET BT 64.016 154.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). See also R. Finlay, ?The refashioning of Martin Guerre?, )] TJ ET BT 350.624 154.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(American Historical Review)] TJ ET BT 486.608 154.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 93 \(1988\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 140.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(553-71.)] TJ ET BT 42.816 126.442 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(28.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 126.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.albany.edu/history/hist_fict/home.htm)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 125.043 m 305.024 125.043 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 308.024 126.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([9])] TJ ET BT 322.016 126.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( for a discussion of historical fiction.)] TJ ET BT 42.816 112.186 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(29.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 112.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.lrb.co.uk/v24/n10/tayl01_.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 110.787 m 271.364 110.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 274.364 112.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([10])] TJ ET BT 294.356 112.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 42.816 97.930 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(30.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 97.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I. Bremner, ?History without archives: Simon Schama?s )] TJ ET BT 337.652 97.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A History of Britain)] TJ ET BT 433.328 97.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?, in Roberts and Taylor, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 83.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(eds\), )] TJ ET BT 94.004 83.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Historian, Television and Television History)] TJ ET BT 328.676 83.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp.63-75.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 57.413 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 43.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Observer)] TJ ET endstream endobj 123 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 124 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 781.1335 301.3277 793.0135 ] >> endobj 124 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.iath.virginia.edu/researchEssays.html) >> endobj 125 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 126 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 221.3237 652.8295 496.9877 664.7095 ] >> endobj 126 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.spypondproductions.com/parkman/index.htm) >> endobj 127 0 obj << 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