%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R 30 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818084116+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818084116+01'00') /Title (The Emergence of the Eastern Powers, 1756-1775) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4265 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Emergence of the Eastern Powers, 1756-1775)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The publication of H.M. Scott?s )] TJ ET BT 191.672 287.579 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Rise of the Eastern Powers)] TJ ET BT 342.668 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( marks the culmination of three decades of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinguished scholarship in international history from the Seven Years War to the American Revolution. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is, as we might expect, an elegant and learned book, and its significance is apparent from the outset. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Scott practises what many international historians merely preach: his book ?rests upon the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conviction that the trajectory of an individual state can only be fully understood in the context of other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national foreign policies and the wider evolution of the European system? \(pp. 2-3\). He has broken away )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the proliferation of narrowly-focused monographs on a single state?s foreign policy and studies of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bilateral relations in favour of a detailed examination of the states system as a whole.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He has chosen a time-frame short enough to permit command of a great array of primary sources, but one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which was also vital in the evolution of the system that would dominate European politics until the First )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(World War. Professor Scott demonstrates conclusively that the pentarchy of great powers, which was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sanctioned by the Congress of Vienna, had already emerged in the years after the Seven Years? War. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gap between first- and second-rank powers widened, and none would subsequently cross it. France?s defeat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Britain?s isolation meant that the continent?s centre of political gravity shifted eastwards. Habsburg-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hohenzollern rivalry gave Russia the chance to assert itself as Europe?s most powerful and aggressive state. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scott argues that the partition of Poland in 1772 and the seizures from the Ottoman Empire in 1774 and 1775 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(297)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 December, 2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hamish Scott)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(978052179269X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(47.50)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(301pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Butterwick)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8265 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were the most significant territorial changes of the eighteenth century before the French Revolutionary Wars. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(They even eclipsed \(and this point is arguable\) Russia?s displacement of Sweden as the leading Baltic power )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the Great Northern War of 1700-21. By the 1770s the efforts of the western powers to mediate in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflicts involving the eastern powers were being rebuffed, while the eastern powers aspired to mediate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between Britain and France. Particularly in connection with the partition of Poland, British and especially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French contemporaries noticed and lamented this shift. Those who shaped British foreign policy were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however unwilling to co-operate with France in order to resist it. The introduction also features some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enlightening paragraphs on the concept of the ?great power?. The expression bedded down in the lexicon of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(statesmen at this time, and ?puissance?/?Macht?was defined and measured by ever more sophisticated and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(precise methods. These calculations exerted a great influence on the haggling that delineated the acquisitions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from Poland, as Scott shows on p. 220.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The quantity and quality of the research underpinning this book are impressive. It is based upon a wealth of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(printed primary sources for the period from 1763, supplemented by copious manuscript material \(principally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Berlin and Paris, but also in Vienna, London, Edinburgh and Vincennes\) in the obvious gaps. One gap )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that remains unfilled is a large, unpublished part of Austrian diplomatic correspondence; here Scott has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relied on Alfred Ritter von Arneth?s massive )] TJ ET BT 252.980 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Geschichte Maria Theresias)] TJ ET BT 388.964 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(10 vols, Vienna, 1863-79\). He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has not visited Russian archives, which is understandable ? the undersigned has not ventured there either. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, it should be realised that understanding of Russia?s Polish policies in the eighteenth century is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(currently being modified by research on materials not included in )] TJ ET BT 351.296 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sbornik imperatorskogo russkogo )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(istoricheskogo obshchestva)] TJ ET BT 165.668 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(St Petersburg and elsewhere, 1867-1916\) and tendentiously summarised by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sergei Soloviev in his )] TJ ET BT 142.688 499.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History of Russia )] TJ ET BT 229.028 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(originally published as )] TJ ET BT 345.356 499.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Istoriia Rossii s drevneishikh vremen)] TJ ET BT 523.340 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 29 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volumes, St Petersburg, 1851-79\). Professor Scott?s use of the German and French secondary literature, new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and old, also inspires respect.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter 1 gives a general analysis of the rise of the eastern powers until 1756. Professor Scott uses to good )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effect that grasp of the internal strengths and weaknesses of the three eastern powers which was already )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apparent in his edited collections )] TJ ET BT 194.996 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Enlightened Absolutism)] TJ ET BT 309.332 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Macmillan; Basingstoke, 1990\) and )] TJ ET BT 490.652 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(European Nobilities in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries)] TJ ET BT 347.000 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2 vols, Longman; London, 1995\). Both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the dry-as-dust school of diplomatic history and hubris-laden theorists of international relations should take )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(note. Reacting against some of the more sanguine interpretations of the Petrine and post-Petrine Empire, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stresses the late emergence of Russia as a great European power, as opposed to an important military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regional one. Russia remained on the margins of the European states system until after the Seven Years? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(War. Russia did not fully adopt the diplomatic culture of the rest of Europe until then, while the organisation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the states system around Anglo-French rivalry did not leave a clear role for her to play. Still more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crucially, no Russian statesman before the reign of Catherine the Great had a sophisticated understanding of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the calibrations and nuances of international politics as a whole. The role of individual leadership is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convincingly emphasised throughout the book, and the introduction includes an appreciation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exceptional skill and vision of Frederick the Great. At no stage, however, does Scott lose his main object )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from view: one typically perceptive point is that Prussia?s rise depended on a constellation of Franco-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Habsburg hostility, but that that very rise undermined that system \(p. 28\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite the cogency of the argument, some statements cannot be left unchallenged. Muscovy did not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maintain a permanent representative in Poland- Lithuania before the reign of Peter the Great; missions, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although frequent and sometimes lengthy, were very much ad hoc \(cf. p. 16\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 403.940 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 403.940 174.579 m 417.932 174.579 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 417.932 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It is also debatable whether )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brandenburg-Prussia was the leader of the )] TJ ET BT 240.632 161.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(corpus evangelicorum)] TJ ET BT 347.612 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in the Reich after 1697 \(p. 20\). Although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the electors of Saxony converted to Catholicism in their pursuit of the Polish throne, Saxony formally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remained a Lutheran state as well as an overwhelmingly Lutheran society. On pp. 29-30, the account of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Diplomatic Revolution curiously ignores Russian anger with the British for signing the Convention of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Westminster with Prussia ? which torpedoed the mission of the unfortunate Sir Charles Hanbury Williams ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(given that it mentions Russian preparations to attack Prussia in the spring of 1756. Chapter 2 examines the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact of the Seven Years? War upon international relations. The division of Europe into separate eastern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and western spheres was accentuated as the war went on. Despite this, the Austro-French alliance proved )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 403.9397 174.8935 417.9317 186.7735 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 6890 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enduring \(in contrast to the ephemeral Franco-Russian rapprochement\). Maria Theresa?s resentment at what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she saw as her abandonment by Catherine also contributed to a prolongation of Austro-Russian hostility \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(45-6\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is an illuminating discussion of France?s diminished prestige and influence in continental affairs. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war dramatically re-ordered the hierarchy of powers. All the powers were exhausted, including Russia, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whose military problems as well as achievements are stressed \(pp. 47-8\). However, the traditional theatres of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Habsburg-Bourbon conflict ?the Netherlands, the Rhineland and \(Northern\) Italy ? were neutralised as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(result of the )] TJ ET BT 94.340 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(renversement des alliances )] TJ ET BT 227.312 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and enjoyed decades of peace as political backwaters. This provokes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a reflection which the judicious author does not spell out ? did the resulting prosperity of these regions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribute in the long term to the cultural and economic division of Europe between East and West?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter 3 will be welcomed by students of the eastern powers? domestic history, as it shows how the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outcome of the Seven Years? War led European statesmen to give priority to domestic reconstruction. That )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in turn had implications for international relations. Yet Scott does not fail to consider the importance of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personal sorrows of Maria Theresa in causing her to adopt a pacific policy \(p. 77\). The chapter also contains )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a vivid and very useful analysis of Frederick the Great?s personal rule.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter 4 covers the period 1763-66. It has a valuable analysis of the importance of Polish interregnum of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1763-64 for the crystallisation and stabilisation of the international system. The post-war weakness of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France and Austria was conclusively demonstrated by their inability to intervene in Poland on behalf of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(House of Saxony, so leaving the field clear for an initially nervous Catherine II to impose Stanis?aw )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Poniatowski. Frederick the Great?s exceptional diplomatic skill emerges from his success in convincing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catherine that he was on the point of allying with the Porte. This episode shows the importance in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth-century system of having shrewd diplomats in place; Dolgurukov in Berlin was patently not one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of them. Scott gives a fine analysis of Panin?s Francophobic Northern System, and is lucid on Swedish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(affairs.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A serious factual error needs correcting at this point. The Grand Hetman was not Poland?s ruler during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interregnum \(cf. p. 112\), although his position afforded him considerable influence if he had the personality )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to exploit it. The Roman Catholic Primate, the Archbishop of Gniezno, was the titular interrex, and, advised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by other senators, he exercised some, although not all, of the functions of the king.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The assertion on p. 116 of Frederick?s ?almost equal influence? in Poland as a result of the Russo-Prussian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alliance of 1764 is an old, but doubtful proposition. His influence was almost entirely confined to further )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weakening his larger Polish neighbour \(as in his gunning down of the general customs tariff that had begun )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to improve Polish state finances dramatically in 1765\). He made no attempt to construct a significant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Prussian? party, and for all his criticism of Catherine?s impetuous policy, he was quite unable to restrain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her during the Dissident affair in 1766-68 \(something that emerges from pp. 178-9\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A thematic chapter on diplomacy follows. It includes an evocative account of the dismal life of those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accredited to Berlin, and argues convincingly that Russia only adopted the norms of European diplomacy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under Catherine the Great.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 184.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter 6 covers the breakdown of the post-war stability in 1766-68. This was weakened by the disruptive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 170.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policies of Choiseul, but rather more damage was done by the fundamentally incompatible policies pursued )] TJ ET BT 34.016 156.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Catherine and Stanis?aw in Poland. On p. 174, Scott calls Stanis?aw ?youthful and inexperienced?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although aged only 32 at his accession, he was, by the standards of Polish monarchs \(most of whom were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 127.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foreigners\), exceptionally well-practised in the workings of the political system. What he lacked was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience of international politics ? and so did his uncles, who had been at least equally nave in calling on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russian assistance in 1762-64. Moreover, it has been conclusively proved by Zofia Zieli?ska that Catherine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Panin were at no point willing to contemplate a a limitation of the requirement of unanimity in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Polish Sejm ? the infamous liberum veto ? still less its removal. They were not prompted by Prussia \(cf. p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(175\). Whatever individual ambassadors in Warsaw came to think, Russian opposition to any significant )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R 26 0 R 28 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 7008 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amelioration of the Polish constitution remained a constant throughout the eighteenth century, and contrary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(signals were deliberate disinformation sent out from St Petersburg. They were repeated selectively by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Soloviev a century later.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 151.328 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 151.328 766.563 m 165.320 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter 7 presents a detailed analysis of the crisis that mounted as Austria and Prussia grew ever more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alarmed by escalating Russian ambitions on and around the Black Sea and which was resolved by the First )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Partition of Poland in 1772. Scott explains the impasse that prevented the conclusion of peace in 1770-71, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(despite the Austro-Prussian rapprochement. Kaunitz pursued a warlike policy by signing a short-lived treaty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the Porte, but he was undermined by Maria Theresa, enabling Russia to call Austria?s bluff. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relatively brief account of the negotiations that led to the first partition of Poland stresses the role played by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Prince Henry of Prussia in convincing his brother to press Catherine to agree to the dismemberment. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unfortunately, no new Russian sources are used to cast fresh light upon her crucial decision at some point )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early in 1771 to support annexations by all three powers, a policy she had earlier rejected. This account is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instead based almost entirely upon Frederick?s )] TJ ET BT 261.980 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Politische Correspondenz)] TJ ET BT 386.312 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. As the author readily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acknowledges, a full study of the first partition based on manuscript material is still urgently required. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, he does makes the valuable point that whereas Frederick hoped that Polish territory would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moderate Catherine?s appetite for gains from the Ottoman Empire, she counted on Austrian and Prussian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gains weakening their opposition to her expansionist war aims \(p. 215\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter 8 takes the story from 1772 to 1775. The Russian empire experienced severe military, economic, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social and financial stress in the early 1770s, and Sweden succeeded where Poland had failed in slipping the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(noose. Nevertheless, Catherine?s nerve held ? just as it would in 1787-92. Finally, there is an illuminating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion of the significance of Austria?s unscrupulous annexation of Bukovina in 1775.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The conclusion draws out implications for the subsequent history of Europe of Russia?s advance. All the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other powers had grounds for anxiety, including Prussia. By the mid-1770s, with Austro-Russian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rapprochement proceeding and the Northern System crumbling, Frederick was justifiably gloomy. With )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe divided into two spheres, the combined might of Austria and Russia might isolate Prussia, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps even eliminate her from the ranks of the great powers altogether. Scott emphasises that ?Russia?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominance was predicated on France?s continuing weakness? \(p. 256\). The conclusion might however have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reiterated the point made on p. 15 that ?the [Russian] empire?s feet of clay were seldom glimpsed further )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(west?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Rise of the Eastern Powers is a notable contribution to our understanding of the history of modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe, and a model work of international history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(December 2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.635 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 229.018 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 229.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See Andrzej Sulima Kami?ski, )] TJ ET BT 215.000 229.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Republic vs Autocracy: Poland-Lithuania and Russia, 1686-1697)] TJ ET BT 64.016 214.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Harvard Ukrainian Research Institute; Cambridge, MA, 1993\) for a comparative study of Russian and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 200.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Polish diplomacy.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 150.692 200.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 150.692 199.107 m 204.680 199.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 186.250 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 186.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See Zofia Zieli?ska, ?Pocz?tek rosyjskiej nie?aski Czartoryskich i "s?abo??" Stanis?awa Augusta? )] TJ ET BT 64.016 171.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(['The beginning of the Czartoryskis? fall from Russian favour and the ?weakness? of Stanis?aw )] TJ ET BT 64.016 157.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(August'], in )] TJ ET BT 123.176 157.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Trudne stulecia. Studia z dziejw XVII i XVIII wieku ofiarowane Profesorowi Jerzemu )] TJ ET BT 64.016 143.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Michalskiemu)] TJ ET BT 131.336 143.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Semper; Warsaw, 1994\), and ?Rosja wobec planw reform ustrojowych )] TJ ET BT 64.016 129.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(niezrealizowanej konfederacji Czartoryskich z lat 1762-1763? ['Russia and the the plans for )] TJ ET BT 64.016 114.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitutional reform of the unrealised Czartoryski confederacy of 1762-1763'] and ?Przegrana walka )] TJ ET BT 64.016 100.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(o g?osowanie wi?kszo?ci?. Stanis?aw August od pa?dziernika do grudnia 1766 roku? ['The lost battle )] TJ ET BT 64.016 86.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for majority voting: Stanis?aw August from October to December 1766'], both in Z. Zieli?ska, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 72.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Studia z dziejw stosunkw polsko-rosyjskich w XVIII wieku)] TJ ET BT 353.672 72.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Warsaw, 2001\). All these works are )] TJ ET BT 64.016 57.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(based upon unpublished Russian sources.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 263.000 57.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 263.000 56.547 m 316.988 56.547 l S endstream endobj 23 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 151.3277 766.8775 165.3197 778.7575 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 150.6917 199.4215 204.6797 211.3015 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 262.9997 56.8615 316.9877 68.7415 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 23 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 32 0 R ] /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 755 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 777.487 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 759.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 759.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/297)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 758.313 m 322.316 758.313 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 733.336 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 718.936 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1509)] TJ ET BT 34.016 704.536 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 758.6275 322.3157 770.5075 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/297) >> endobj xref 0 34 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000556 00000 n 0000000638 00000 n 0000004955 00000 n 0000005064 00000 n 0000005174 00000 n 0000005283 00000 n 0000008844 00000 n 0000008972 00000 n 0000009056 00000 n 0000009140 00000 n 0000017458 00000 n 0000017488 00000 n 0000017616 00000 n 0000017652 00000 n 0000017717 00000 n 0000024660 00000 n 0000024758 00000 n 0000031819 00000 n 0000031849 00000 n 0000031977 00000 n 0000032013 00000 n 0000032141 00000 n 0000032196 00000 n 0000032322 00000 n 0000032377 00000 n 0000032461 00000 n 0000033268 00000 n 0000033396 00000 n trailer << /Size 34 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 33491 %%EOF