%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140417073140+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140417073140+01'00') /Title (Promoting the Colonial Idea: Propaganda and Visions of Empire in France) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4058 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Promoting the Colonial Idea: Propaganda and Visions of Empire in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(France)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The clear and stimulating introduction to this set of essays applies the concept of 'popular imperialism', )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developed for modern British history by John MacKenzie and his school, to the French case. There is no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempt to argue for a mass movement behind French colonial expansion, for which there is indeed precious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(little evidence, but Chafer and Sackur react vigorously against the idea that colonialism was an affair )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(restricted to a small cabal within the French elite. They invite their readers to see imperialism as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constituent element of a 'new patriotism'. The empire was among a mix of factors that came to define France )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for many of its citizens, mainly on the right of the political spectrum in the late nineteenth and early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(twentieth centuries. Overall, the role of colonies was to bolster a belief that France was a great power, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spite of demographic stagnation and a decline in the country's relative economic standing in the world. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(view of a 'greater France' coexisted quite happily with astonishing degree of ignorance about the colonies, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and a general lack of interest as to what went on there.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chafer and Sackur also bring out the differences with Britain, and make some further comparisons with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other colonial empires, notably that of Germany. Militarism and racism were part of the French ideological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(package, but republicanism replaced monarchism, even though the authors note that French colonialists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generally strove to be moderate on the divisive question of the form of government. Republicanism, rooted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(298)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 1 November, 2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tony Chafer)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780333791800)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(50.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(260pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palgrave)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Basingstoke)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William Clarence-Smith)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7501 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the myth of the French Revolution, helped to drive an assimilationist rhetoric that differed drastically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from that of the British, even if the reality on the ground proved to be quite similar. Another difference was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that some French people initially believed that imperialism distracted attention and resources from revenge, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after the humiliating defeat at German hands in 1870. However, this faded away once colonial troops came )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the rescue of France in the First World War.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There remain some major and puzzling omissions from this introductory survey. French republicanism may )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well have been moderate in a colonial context, but, even if pragmatic considerations dictated that minor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chiefs should be left in place, republicanism did contribute greatly to the removal of the maharajas, shaykhs, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emirs, paramount-chiefs and other monarchical figures, so beloved of British officials. Unintentionally, this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French dislike of the hereditary principle smoothed the path to national unity for many African countries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after independence. The authors also fail to discuss arguments that French racism owed more to Lamarck )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than to Darwin, and thus allowed for a greater degree of 'upward racial mobility'. Chafer and Sackur note the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role of the colonial project in healing rifts between republicans and monarchists, which came close to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(destroying the Third Republic in its first decades, but they say nothing about the even more divisive issue of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clericalism and anti-clericalism. Indeed, anti-clericalism does not make it to the index, even though France )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was durably split into Catholic and dechristianised zones by the French Revolution, along fault lines that still )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(count in French politics. In a colonial context, anti-clericalism spilled over into venomous conflicts in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mission field. At the same time, 'missionary martyrs' helped the Catholic Church to rehabilitate its image at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(home, together with news of its contributions to health, education and other social services in the empire.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps the most surprising element in the introduction is the failure to pursue comparatively Linda Colley's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(idea that colonialism produced a British identity out of England, Scotland, Wales, and, much more fitfully, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland. Colley's thesis is mentioned but not developed, even though Odile Goerg, one of the contributors to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the volume, describes attempts to manipulate imperialist motifs to 'cement' Alsace back into France after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1918. The notion that the crucible of national unity was the French Revolution has probably been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exaggerated, while the role of imperial expansion and defensive colonial wars has been underestimated. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Agitation for autonomy, or even independence, tended to develop during the retreat from empire, as Bretons, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Basques, Catalans, Occitanians, Provenaux, Franco-Provenaux, Corsicans, Alsatians and Flemings all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became restive. Furthermore, this pattern can be discerned all over Europe, perhaps most obviously in Spain. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Basques, including those from the French side of the border masquerading as Spanish subjects, participated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eagerly and successfully in garnering the spoils of Castile's overseas expansion, but began to demand their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own state after the collapse of empire. All over Europe, the movement away from dreams of imperial self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sufficiency has been marked by the powerful resurgence of nations deprived of states. The dramatic collapse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Soviet empire is only the latest example of this trend. The slow convergence towards a federal Europe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has further raised the hopes of such movements, as shown in the recent political crises in France over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Corsican autonomy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Editors always face a hard task in coercing their contributors into following their editorial line, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scarcity of references in the introduction to the chapters that ensue is perhaps a manifestation of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perennial problem. Most contributors address the theme of whether empire shaped a 'new patriotism' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(somewhat tangentially, with a tendency to follow other agendas in the historiography of French imperialism. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, some contributors romp though already well-known material, without really pausing to consider how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this shaped attitudes in France. Examples of this are Pascal Venier on the colonial propaganda of Gallini )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Lyautey, Vronique Dimier on indirect rule, Jonathan Derrick on the politics of anti-colonialism in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France, and Catherine Atlan and Jean-Herv Jzquel on the careers of prominent Africans working within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the French colonial system.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Odile Goerg's fine chapter is perhaps most true to the volume's main thrust, exploring how imperialists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sought to draw the provinces into the service of a 'greater France'. Looking at provincial geographical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(societies, colonial exhibitions, missionary propaganda, and the stationing of colonial troops in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(metropolis, Goerg weaves an interesting story of the strengths and weaknesses of this project to cast )] TJ ET BT 517.604 78.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(la )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(France profonde)] TJ ET BT 115.004 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( into an imperial mould. She frankly admits that the problem is how to gauge the impact of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all these activities, but suggests that high visitor numbers to 'African villages' at least suggest interest in the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7354 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exotic nature of empire. Her main focus is on Alsace. She notes the significance of emigration to Algeria )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after 1870, and dwells on efforts after 1918 to counter earlier propaganda events centred on the German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonies. However, she does not really delve enough into the persistent ambiguities of the relationship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between this province, profoundly Germanic in cultural terms, and those whom Alsatians call, somewhat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disparagingly, 'the French of the interior'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In a chapter tucked away at the very end of the book, Robert Aldrich provides a fascinating analysis of one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular French view of colonies, revealed in the street names of Paris. Most telling are the names that are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(left out, rather than those which are included. 'Natives' hardly figure at all, even when they were favourable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to French rule. However, Flix bou, the Black Guyanese governor of Chad who rallied to General de )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gaulle in the dark hours of 1940, is commemorated. More surprisingly, so is his wife. Even more bizarre is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the omission of leaders of anti-colonial struggles against France, when some who fought Spanish, British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Turkish imperialism are included. Names of businessmen are almost completely absent, possibly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflecting a certain unease as to the ethical standards of those who made fortunes on the periphery. Some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(small colonies do not figure, and a map would have been helpful at this point in the discussion. On the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whole, the distribution of names suggests an interest in the 'glorious' process of constituting empire, while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revealing tactful silence on the shoddy and uninspiring manner in which much of it slipped from French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hands. It would be useful to know a great deal more about how decisions to name streets were taken, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although this would require much detailed research. Aldrich provides a hint as to the potential of such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research by indicating that a group of Caribbean students attempted, unsuccessfully, to delete the name of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(General Richepanse, sent by Napoleon to Guadeloupe in 1802 to re-establish slavery there.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gilles de Gants and Isabelle Merle adhere to the editorial line to some degree, by asking whether the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popularity of Indochina and New Caledonia as destinations for migrants proved the efficacy of colonial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(propaganda. However, they do not go very far in answering this interesting question. Gants further suggests )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that settlement cemented French imperial unity, given the prominence of 'sub-imperial' migration from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French India and Runion in an early stage, a point that Merle could have underlined by referring to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Runionais and Vietnamese migration to New Caledonia. Tantalisingly, Gants shows that the majority of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later settlers in Indochina came from the periphery of the 'hexagon', especially Corsicans, but also Bretons, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charentais, Provenaux, natives of the Alps, and Alsatians. Unfortunately, he fails to ask what impact this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might have had on French national unity. Moreover, he does not detect the ancient Basque presence in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philippines as an ingredient in the 'Bordeaux connection' with the Far East. As for Merle, she does not even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provide a breakdown of the origins of migrants.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Penny Edwards focuses more on peripheral identity formation, exploring the poorly known Cambodian case, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but her chapter also yields some valuable general insights. In particular, she describes the elaboration of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cult of Joan of Arc, canonised by the Vatican in 1920, whose bobbed hair-style was even adopted by some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambodian women in the inter-war years. For royalists, Catholics, adherents of the Action Franaise and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supporters of the Vichy regime, the 'maid of Orleans' formed a potent counterweight to the Marianne figure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dear to republicans. The latter is strikingly depicted on the book's dustjacket, pouring out a cornucopia of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wealth to benighted colonial subjects.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Other chapters concentrate on the vexed question of racial and cultural discrimination. Neil MacMaster )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shows how attempts to counter German propaganda in the First World War led to the provision of Muslim )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(buildings and institution in inter-war Paris, although his references to an 'apartheid' mentality seem )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inappropriate. Owen White draws on some unusual sources, women's magazines and intercepted letters, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explore the extraordinary welter of conflicting French attitudes towards race, with a welcome stress on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women's feelings. Alice Conklin considers campaigns to increase birth rates in France and West Africa, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pointing out variations in gender and race terminology. Emmanuelle Sibeud looks at the views on race )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enunciated by sociologists and missionaries. However, none of the three authors sufficiently draws out the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implications for the book as a whole, even though they provide much material that might serve to question )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the centrality of racism for French identity. William Kidd's trawl through a wide variety of war memorials )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focuses more on the volume's central concern, but he takes French racism as a given, rather than as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(something to be explored. Indeed, the vital distinction between race and culture is often blurred in this )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 3902 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collection, in ways that make it more difficult to grasp the specificity of French attitudes, compared to those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prevalent in Britain or elsewhere.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christopher Flood and Hugo Frey round off the volume with a thought-provoking survey of the extreme )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(right's attitudes to empire, which should really have been the concluding chapter. Far right movements in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France tended to be anti-imperialist to begin with, because empire distracted France from the 'blue line of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vosges' and risked polluting the )] TJ ET BT 191.168 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(mre-patrie)] TJ ET BT 247.820 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( with the blood of 'lesser breeds.' After the Second World War, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, theorists of the extreme right moved to a defence of empire, angrily criticising the 'masochistic' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rush by centrist and leftists to denigrate French achievements in the colonies. The National Front even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abandoned overt racism in favour of a defence of French culture, carefully including 'people of colour' in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ranks of its candidates for elected office. Islam emerged as the main enemy, foreshadowing the current lurch )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towards islamophobia by more mainstream elements in the industrialised world. Again, this contribution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(raises problems for the centrality of racism in the constitution of the 'new patriotism'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite some weaknesses in analysis, and some empirical gaps and lack of focus in the substance of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book, this is an important collection, which pushes forward a growing revisionist approach to imperialism. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reduced to its essence, the thesis is that empire was more theatre than substance for the West. Expansion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overseas was principally a way to paper over internal cracks in the political and social fabric of industrialised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nation states. Any search for gains from the economic exploitation of the periphery was weak, and proved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illusory. Indeed, it was internal strength, gained from the Western agricultural and industrial revolutions, that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gave colonial lobbies the opportunity to engage in the gigantic, and often bloody, theatrical production that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was empire. How much truth there is in this vision remains to be seen. However, it clearly opens new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(avenues for research in imperial history, a branch of enquiry once described as almost moribund.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 442.111 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 424.331 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 424.331 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/298)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 422.937 m 322.316 422.937 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 397.960 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 383.560 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1511)] TJ ET BT 34.016 369.160 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 423.2515 322.3157 435.1315 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/298) >> endobj xref 0 22 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000574 00000 n 0000000656 00000 n 0000004766 00000 n 0000004875 00000 n 0000004985 00000 n 0000005094 00000 n 0000008655 00000 n 0000008783 00000 n 0000008867 00000 n 0000008932 00000 n 0000016486 00000 n 0000016551 00000 n 0000023958 00000 n 0000024042 00000 n 0000027997 00000 n 0000028125 00000 n trailer << /Size 22 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 28220 %%EOF