%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R 32 0 R 47 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140425063747+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140425063747+01'00') /Title (Reinterpreting the French Revolution: A Global-Historical Perspective) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 14 0 R 17 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4383 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Reinterpreting the French Revolution: A Global-Historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Perspective)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This work complements the author?s previous study on the longer-term origins of the French Revolution \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 543.632 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 543.632 264.801 m 549.632 264.801 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 48.008 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), and like that text, makes a forceful case for Stone?s ?global-historical? conception \(what was an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?interpretation? in the earlier text becoming a ?perspective? in this.\) That conception is quite simply stated: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Stone?s own words, ?the men dictating French destinies in this period were driven in their politics)] TJ ET BT 34.016 197.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This work complements the author?s previous study on the longer-term origins of the French Revolution )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 539.636 197.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 539.636 195.777 m 553.628 195.777 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 553.628 197.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and like that text, makes a forceful case for Stone?s ?global-historical? conception \(what was an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?interpretation? in the earlier text becoming a ?perspective? in this.\) That conception is quite simply stated: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Stone?s own words, ?the men dictating French destinies in this period were driven in their politics and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy-making by a "dialectic" of foreign and domestic concerns.? \(p. 259\) Stone?s aim is to remind )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians of some home truths about revolutions and power ? that revolution, by almost any definition you )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(care to name, requires the seizure of state power, and that such state power, as history constantly reminds us, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is exercised within a framework of frequently bellicose and always tense relations with other state entities.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 71.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The work is organised into five substantial chapters, and a briefer conclusion. These proceed essentially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chronologically: the problems of the Old Regime; the pre-revolutionary crisis and the eruption of summer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(299)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 December, 2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bailey Stone)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780521811473)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(47.50)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(295pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dave Andress)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 15 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 543.6317 265.1155 549.6317 276.9955 ] >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/paper/andressD2.html#1) >> endobj 16 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 539.6357 196.0915 553.6277 207.9715 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7269 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1789; the work of the National Assembly in 1789-91; the radicalising period of 1791-94; and the whole post-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thermidorian era of 1794-99. The third and fifth of these are characterised as two attempts to stabilise the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revolution, divided by a period when events were revolutionising it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The approach taken is unashamedly synthetic, and makes no bones about its grounding in the reading of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other historians? work. Stone frequently makes use of the telling words of eighteenth-century observers, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his sources are in every case the works of those who have trodden this ground before, and historians such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these are cited alongside the luminaries of the Old Regime and Revolution. Stylistically this is effective, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the work as a whole is clear, cogent, and often trenchantly expressed. At some points there is perhaps an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over-reliance on a limited range of sources ? Timothy Tackett?s work on the Constituent Assembly is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(referenced seventeen times in eleven pages \(pp. 144-55\), and at other points the work of Robert Harris on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Necker and T. C. W. Blanning on the origins of the revolutionary war are similarly leant upon extensively. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, this must be balanced against an extremely wide range of other reading, from detailed studies of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the central European diplomacy of the period, to engagement with the domestic reforms of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolutionaries, and the politics of the Terror at regional level.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the most convincing elements of the argument, to this reviewer, is the relation of the ?critical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(geopolitical context? \(p. 65\) of the French state in the years and months prior to July 1789. The crisis of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pre-Revolution within France coincided appallingly \(for the French elite\) with the collapse of French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence across Europe ? a new Anglo-Prussian alliance that put paid to a pro-French party?s agitation in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the United Provinces in 1787, and a Russo-Austrian cabal in 1788 to make war on Turkey, a traditional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French ally, symbolic of her claim to influence in the Levant. Such new arrangements of influence seemed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cut France, the self-styled ?arbiter of Europe? \(p. 66\) out of the ruthless diplomatic game, and her bankrupt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inability to make even the pretence of significant intervention was a wounding humiliation. Crowning this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the apparent total collapse of internal authority made the task of bringing France back to a position of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national strength not so much urgent as desperate.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Where Stone?s interpretation is particularly noteworthy is in the demonstration that all the sections of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French society that were caught up with the internal remodelling of the state also understood the urgent need )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for a reconstruction of its external position. The alarm over foreign brigands manifested in the Great Fear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may not have been the most analytical of associations between these different issues, but there were plenty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of observers ? in print, in the Constituent Assembly, in the other nascent organs of revolutionary political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sociability ? who could make a more studied, if sometimes no less hysterical, call for vigilance and strength )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against foreign counter-revolution. Manifestly, from early in the evolution of the new politics of the period, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerns of national strength, negative comparisons with other states, and a perceived choice between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vulnerability and greatness were built into revolutionary culture.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is in this context that the ultimately catastrophic attempt to preserve the capital of the fief-owning \(and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(now tax-paying\) classes, by denying the peasantry to complete abolition of ?feudal? dues they had come to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demand, begins to make sense as more than merely bourgeois ideological commitment to private property. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Coupled with the equally socially-exclusionary decision to sell off church lands in large lots, the agrarian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policies of the Constituent Assembly were as much devoted to maintaining land values ? for taxation, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(direct debt-repayment through those sales ? as they were to preserving any vision of social order. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unfortunate fact that such policies came to require a hostile and confrontational approach to many rural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communities? grievances, and that those grievances were sharply enhanced by the religious changes that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(followed the confiscation of church assets, can be seen in this light as contingent consequences of policies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intended to have their effects in a very different realm.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stone?s focus on this realm does sometimes lead him to a certain disingenuousness about social conflict. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discusses the anti-corporatist bias of the Constituent Assembly by rolling all its enactments \(erroneously\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the Le Chapelier Law of June 1791 \(p. 138\), and thus is able to claim that this measure, which was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quite blatant, and long-lived, attempt to deny working people the right of self-organisation, was actually a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wider abolition of corporate economic privilege. That privilege had in fact been ended by the d?Allarde Law )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of several months earlier, and the later enactment came at a time of explicit conflict over wages and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R 27 0 R 30 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 7910 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conditions in the Paris trades, and was to be extended in scope to cover agricultural workers a month later, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when they too showed signs of troubling militancy)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 277.676 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 277.676 780.819 m 291.668 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is, ironically, at the very point where a global-historical approach ought to have most impact ? at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outbreak of war ? that one begins to feel that the emphasis placed on external factors may be a little strained. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stone sets up something of a straw man by referring to the most summary, and thus in some senses most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extreme, of Franois Furet?s expositions of his ?revisionist? position on the domestic political origins of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war. Stone argues, by contrast, that war came ?in the final analysis at the behest of diplomatic tradition and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in response to concrete challenges? from other powers \(p. 162\). This interpretation is based very heavily on a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reading of T.C.W. Blanning?s work on the subject, and is at odds with many other seasoned commentators.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 654.771 m 48.008 654.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.008 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It is further questionable in the light of what Stone himself goes on to present as evidence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As is well known, it was the bellicose rhetoric of the ?Brissotin? grouping in the new Legislative Assembly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that turned French thoughts explicitly towards war from October 1791. Stone illustrates the use of fervent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appeals to glory and honour alongside repeated invocations of the terrible plot being worked from outside )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French borders against the Revolution, and notes the particular value of appeals to revenge on Austria for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disastrous entanglement that had dragged France to a position of international impotence. Xenophobic rage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and patriotic pride were mixed in an explosive cocktail, topped off with a healthy dose of revolutionary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(optimism about the military prowess of the unfettered French. With this weapon in their hands, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brissotins were able to turn a majority in the Assembly towards war, ably assisted from behind the scenes by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the royal court?s own desire for the revolutionaries to lose such a war.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(None of this is in any real sense disputable, but what is in question is the extent to which any of this counts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as ?the splendid raiment of Gallic diplomatic tradition? \(p. 166\). Within the space of just less than a year, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France would hurl herself into war against every major power of western and central Europe, and most of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(minor ones, and embark on a process of expansion that was indiscriminately acquisitive ? even if, until )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Napoleon, the fiction would be maintained that populations were being liberated from despotic monarchs. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is certainly the case that France, as a nation, an object of patriotic devotion, was in a physical sense mostly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the same France that had existed before 1789; but in a political sense it was unquestionably not the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entity. The glory of France that had been so savagely lost in the 1760s was a glory that reflected the honour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the monarch and the military aristocracy ? even if state administrators and educated commentators also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worried about the debilitating effects of defeat on the economy. France in April 1792, and decisively after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(August 1792, was fighting for a very different set of ideological goals. To argue, as Stone does, that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(xenophobic rhetoric demonstrates that the new Republic?s leaders ?were Frenchmen before they were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolutionaries? \(p. 174\) is to raise the danger of absurdity \(notwithstanding the obviousness of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(superficial point\). The instance he cites here is the hope of Prieur de la Marne that the ?new Carthage?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England, will be destroyed by the power of the Revolution, and that French troops will be in London by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spring \(of 1794, presumably, though this is left unclear\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is no reason to suppose, however, that a commitment to the success of the Revolution should preclude )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hatred of others ? especially when they are explicitly portrayed, as here, as ?ferocious ... insatiable for gold?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and generally as the enemies of humanity from the ?Indies? to Bengal. The fact that anglophobia had been a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strong current of eighteenth-century French international reflections does not disqualify the French from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developing genuinely ?revolutionary? reasons for hating the followers of the infernal Pitt.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 464.612 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 464.612 191.091 m 478.604 191.091 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 478.604 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The choice that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sometimes seems to be presented here is of the revolutionaries as either pacific angels or the prisoners of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diplomatic tradition; the notion that revolutionary patriotism could be highly aggressive and still remain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eminently ?revolutionary? is not given serious consideration.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the ironies of this approach is that it has the effect of reviving the good old-fashioned )] TJ ET BT 481.940 123.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(thse de )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(circonstances)] TJ ET BT 100.004 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to account for the Terror. If international war was such an overriding priority, then the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effective civil war that the country underwent in 1793, and the repressive consequences that rolled on up to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and beyond the fall of Robespierre, were part of a larger package in which the French state was just doing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what states do, and the rest was merely unfortunate. It is seriously to be doubted whether Stone would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actually subscribe to this view, but it does lurk at the margins of what is otherwise an excellent summary of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 277.6757 781.1335 291.6677 793.0135 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 655.0855 48.0077 666.9655 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 464.6117 191.4055 478.6037 203.2855 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 35 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R 41 0 R 43 0 R 45 0 R ] /Contents 33 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Length 8124 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how the Terror operated as a war-fighting instrument. ?Revolutionary xenophobia? \(p. 180\) is made a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(priority in accounting for the treatment of refractory priests. Even the final end of the seigneurial system of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?feudal? obligations on the peasantry is presented as being beholden to the needs of war. The notion, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which the facts are equally amenable, that only the pressure of emergency could produce sufficient political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(momentum to overcome the prejudices of property-holders in favour of justice for the peasantry, is only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(noted in order to make what amounts to an opposite point ? that private property never succumbed entirely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to such pressure.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whatever the limitations of Stone?s detailed interpretation of the revolutionary years themselves, it is a view )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that merits consideration, even if, in the opinion of this reviewer, it tends to simplify to an excessive degree )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the complex political dynamics of the Revolution?s middle years in particular. However, the book does have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a distinct tendency to overstate its case, and this is particularly noticeable in the brief ten-page conclusion. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Here a thumbnail survey of modern French history is invoked to make the point that France has always had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(external pressures and ambitions, and that many dimensions of the country?s internal history have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conditioned by those very external influences ? as the particularly telling example of the ?natalist? concerns )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Third Republic demonstrates. It is the very obviousness of this point that ends by grating somewhat. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although socio-political thinkers for some time have been concerned with ?bringing the state back in?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 525.272 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 525.272 569.235 m 539.264 569.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 539.264 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the dangers of this process should also be apparent. Keeping the state out, or at least on the margins, of our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention, can be at least as important, for such is the organising power of states that it is far too easy to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arrange historical narratives around them, thus neglecting all the internal political and social factors that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make a state what it is.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It would be going too far to accuse this book of taking the French state entirely for granted, or of decisively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(downplaying social change in favour of state-centred continuity. Indeed Stone is at pains throughout to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moderate any drift in that direction. Nevertheless, it is the very repeated insistence on the need to moderate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the interpretation which gives one pause for thought about its ultimate value. It is too easy to write the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of states, and it has taken a lot of hard work in the past two generations for historians to set out all the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other dimensions of human experience as legitimate historical objects. Stone has done historians a valuable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(service by producing a very readable text, summarising a broad range of work, and making what are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undeniably important points about the internal-external dynamic of revolutionary politics. What he has not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(finally done is to demonstrate conclusively that we must always frame our interpretations around such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dynamics, or do so in a way which, as here, repeatedly gives explanatory priority to the external dimension.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(December 2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 297.891 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 267.274 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 267.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bailey Stone, )] TJ ET BT 131.684 267.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Genesis of the French Revolution; a Global-Historical Interpretation)] TJ ET BT 485.660 267.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge )] TJ ET BT 64.016 253.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University Press; Cambridge, 1994\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 239.672 253.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 239.672 251.619 m 293.660 251.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 238.762 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 238.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See David Andress, )] TJ ET BT 161.996 238.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Massacre at the Champ de Mars; Popular Dissent and Political Culture in the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 224.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(French Revolution)] TJ ET BT 153.668 224.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(Boydell Press for the Royal Historical Society; Woodbridge, 2000\); chapter 5, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 210.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Anatoli Ado, )] TJ ET BT 150.008 210.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Paysans en rvolution; terre, pouvoir et jacquerie 1789-1794)] TJ ET BT 445.304 210.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Socit des tudes )] TJ ET BT 64.016 195.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robespierristes; Paris, 1996\); pp. 241ff.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 255.668 195.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 255.668 194.595 m 309.656 194.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 181.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 181.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See, for example, William Doyle, )] TJ ET BT 228.656 181.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Oxford History of the French Revolution)] TJ ET BT 445.304 181.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford University )] TJ ET BT 64.016 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Press; Oxford, 1989\); pp. 177-80; and D. M. G. Sutherland, )] TJ ET BT 353.324 167.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(France 1789-1815; Revolution and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 153.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Counterrevolution)] TJ ET BT 152.684 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Fontana; London, 1985\); pp. 135-9.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 331.340 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 331.340 151.827 m 385.328 151.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 138.970 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See Norman Hampson, )] TJ ET BT 178.664 138.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Perfidy of Albion; French Perceptions of England during the French )] TJ ET BT 64.016 124.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Revolution)] TJ ET BT 116.012 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Macmillan; Basingstoke, 1998\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 277.004 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 277.004 123.315 m 330.992 123.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 110.458 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter B. Evans, Dietrich Rueschemeyer & Theda Skocpol, eds, )] TJ ET BT 369.632 110.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bringing the State Back In)] TJ ET BT 496.952 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge )] TJ ET BT 64.016 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University Press; Cambridge, 1985\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 239.672 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 239.672 94.803 m 293.660 94.803 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 69.941 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 55.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET endstream endobj 34 0 obj [32 0 R /Fit] endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 525.2717 569.5495 539.2637 581.4295 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 239.6717 251.9335 293.6597 263.8135 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 255.6677 194.9095 309.6557 206.7895 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 23 0 R >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 331.3397 152.1415 385.3277 164.0215 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 26 0 R >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 277.0037 123.6295 330.9917 135.5095 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 29 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 239.6717 95.1175 293.6597 106.9975 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 34 0 R >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 49 0 R ] /Contents 48 0 R >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Length 750 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 805.999 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 788.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 788.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/299)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 786.825 m 322.316 786.825 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 761.848 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 747.448 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1513)] TJ ET BT 34.016 733.048 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/paper/andressD2.html#1)] TJ ET BT 34.016 718.648 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 787.1395 322.3157 799.0195 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/299) >> endobj xref 0 51 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000579 00000 n 0000000675 00000 n 0000005110 00000 n 0000005219 00000 n 0000005329 00000 n 0000005438 00000 n 0000008999 00000 n 0000009127 00000 n 0000009211 00000 n 0000009339 00000 n 0000009466 00000 n 0000009495 00000 n 0000009623 00000 n 0000009659 00000 n 0000009724 00000 n 0000017046 00000 n 0000017144 00000 n 0000025107 00000 n 0000025137 00000 n 0000025265 00000 n 0000025301 00000 n 0000025331 00000 n 0000025457 00000 n 0000025493 00000 n 0000025523 00000 n 0000025651 00000 n 0000025687 00000 n 0000025806 00000 n 0000033983 00000 n 0000034013 00000 n 0000034141 00000 n 0000034177 00000 n 0000034305 00000 n 0000034360 00000 n 0000034488 00000 n 0000034543 00000 n 0000034671 00000 n 0000034726 00000 n 0000034854 00000 n 0000034909 00000 n 0000035036 00000 n 0000035091 00000 n 0000035175 00000 n 0000035977 00000 n 0000036105 00000 n trailer << /Size 51 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 36200 %%EOF