%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818082142+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818082142+01'00') /Title (The Schuman Plan and the British Abdication of Leadership in Europe) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3976 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Schuman Plan and the British Abdication of Leadership in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Europe)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edmund Dell has moved from his highly praised account of the early years of the Callaghan administration, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which he observed and in which he participated as a government minister, to the last years of the Atlee )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administration. In particular his attention is focused on the failure of the then Labour government to accept )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the challenge to participate in the plan for a European Coal and Steel Community \(ECSC\) launched by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French foreign minister, Robert Schuman, in May 1950. He is convinced that the United Kingdom could, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and should, have embraced the initiative and won itself a central position in the future construction of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe. The penalty of the failure to do so has reverberated through British influence in Europe ever since.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The core of the book \(p 110 onwards\) is a detailed reconstruction of the British reaction to the Schuman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Plan. It combines the classics of British historiography on post-war Europe relating to the topic with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thorough examination of the archival mater ials relating to the period. The archival base, in its turn, rests )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heavily upon the official collection of Documents on British Policy Overseas on the topic \(published by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(HMSO in 1986\) which traces policy-making from cabinet level downwards from May 1950 onwards. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Assembled under the leadership of the late Roger Bullen, this excellent collection really cover a lot of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 1 June, 1996)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edmund Dell)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780198289678)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1995)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(92.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(338pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clarendon Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ukcatalogue.oup.com/product/9780198289678.do?keyword=dell&sortby=bestMatches)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Griffiths)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7064 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ground and leaves little to be uncovered in the files released in the Public Record Office \(and aside from a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dabble in the Foreign Office and some more extensive culling from ten or so Treasury files for 1950-51, Dell )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also leaves the PRO alone\). The material that is new, certainly in the context of writing on the Schuman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Plan, are the diaries and archives of:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.330 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(- the prime minister, Clement Atlee, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(- the ex-Chancellor of the Exchequer and Chairman of the Labour Party's International Committee, Hugh )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.674 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dalton, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.274 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(- the parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for the Foreign Office, Ernest Davies, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 669.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(- the Minister of State at the Foreign Office, Kenneth Younger.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 643.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The last of these, especially, provides a treasure trove of insights and judgements that grace the analysis. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(From the moment of Schuman's radio announcement on 9 May 1950, and the immediate frenzy of self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(righteous indignation worked up in Whitehall at th e lack of prior consultation, Dell's account of subsequent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 600.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British policy is unparalleled in the detail of its treatment and the texture of its analysis. Told with insight, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 586.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confidence and verve, and permeated by a conviction that the decisions taken at th e time were both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unnecessary and wrong, Dell takes the reader through a detailed reconstruction of British policy-making on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the vital issue of European integration.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 531.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At the time of Schuman's announcement, both Ernest Bevin, the British foreign secretary, and Stafford )] TJ ET BT 34.016 517.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cripps, the Chancellor of the Exchequer, were ill. Bevin was just out of hospital and was almost )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dysfunctional whilst Cripps' incisiveness and judgeme nt were seriously impaired. Without their leadership, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the civil servants held undue sway... and they were so condescendingly arrogant as almost to defy belief. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 474.917 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thus was created a climate in which it became easy to be scornful of the French initiative, to take their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 460.661 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commitment to their ideas as a sign of their inflexibility, and to come to a position that it would all collapse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.405 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anyway. Repeated approaches by Monnet and Schuman were treated with a total lack of urgency and so it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.149 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was hardly surprising that th e negotiations should have commenced without a British representative. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 417.893 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government's measured position was that whilst it could not join the negotiations, it could reconsider when it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 403.637 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(saw the results. All this time the Labour party \(as distinct from the Labour government\) had been preparing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.381 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its position on Europe. Entitled "European Unity" and released before the government White Paper on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.125 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schuman Plan, the report represented a rebuttal of British participation in any continental experiment and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 360.869 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was q uite clearly at odds with the position adopted by the government. It was not surprising that many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 346.613 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(observers at the time took it as the sub-text of the governments true thinking on the matter.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.357 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(All of this is narrated with great insight and recounted with zest. Less successful, however, is the first one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.101 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hundred pages which, by way of providing the necessary context, sketches the developments between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 291.845 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(end of the War and the announcement of the Schuman Plan. Its basic problem is that it packs too much into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 277.589 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(too little space. Moreover, it continuously switches in intensity and depth of analysis without making clear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.333 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(why the choice of topic and why the change of focus. A reader new to the subjec t will be bewildered by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.077 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rapid shifts between countries, statesmen, institutions and issues.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 222.821 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A more fundamental shortcoming in these introductory pages is the absence of any real analysis of the coal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.565 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and steel industry. There is a respectable body of recent historical writing that approaches the Schuman Plan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.309 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the starting point of the coal and steel industries rather than from the institutional architecture designed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.053 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to contain them. These point to the postwar plans for expansion of the industries while Germany's capacity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 165.797 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was held down by the Allies, and the impact on the supply of final st eel \(and the intra-trade in coal and iron )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.541 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ore\) once the shackles holding Germany were broken. They argue that the purpose of the plan was to control )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.285 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the freedom of German industrialists, if necessary by lining up their own domestic industrialists alongsid e )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.029 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them. None of these considerations appear in the text and the reader has no way of judging the potential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 108.773 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact of the re-emergence of German competition on the industry elsewhere or the likely effects Schuman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.517 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Plan on their industries. By the same token , the reader cannot judge why the British industries were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.261 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seemingly insensitive to a problem conceived as urgent on the Continent or apparently immune to the effects )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.005 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of being locked outside the trade-bloc envisaged by the Coal and Steel Community. It is i mportant to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 51.749 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aware, therefore, that Dell's history of the Schuman Plan is institutional and that it ignores the more )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7075 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(functionalist approaches to the subject.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Let us leave the quibbles about the context and return to the main arguments of the text. Dell contends that:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 743.842 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(i\) the Schuman plan could, and should, have been anticipated, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 729.442 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ii\) domestic political circumstances did not rule out membership, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 715.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(iii\) membership was compatible with Britain's global and Commonwealth role, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 700.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(iv\) the refusal to participate in the scheme derived more from pique than from a consideration of the national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.386 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interest, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 671.986 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(v\) the UK, through participation, could have shaped the outcome to contain its interests, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 657.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vi\) to this end, it would have won support from other participating nations, and even from within the French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 643.330 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government which equally failed to share "Monnet's federalism" \(p 289\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 628.930 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vii\) officials should have realised that the scheme had real chances for success rather than rely on its failure, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 614.530 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(viii\) policy-making was unduly dependent upon officials rather than being made by ministers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 600.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ix\) the refusal to join the ECSC "entrenched Franco-German leadership in Europe" in a way that the UK, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 585.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even today, "has never been able to penetrate" \(p 300\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 559.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He suggests that these conclusions are against "the conventional wisdom" \(p vii\), although, given the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 545.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(swathes of recent contributions by historians to this subject that fail to appear in either the text or in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 531.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subsequent bibliography, one could ques tion whether they are as novel as is claimed. Certainly this reviewer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 516.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recognises the description of sub-optimal policy-making from his own research into this question and on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 502.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British reaction to subsequent European initiatives. The glib, smug, self-assured tone of the officials that one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 488.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(finds throughout the records stored at the PRO resonates through Dell's account of the British rejection of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 474.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schuman's initiative. In fairness, it must be said that the very openness of British policy archives allows )] TJ ET BT 34.016 459.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subsequ ent historians to pass this kind of judgement. The American archives, which are also fairly open, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 445.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(give equally startling insights into a gung-ho, macho approach to policy analysis. In both cases, we may be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 431.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exaggerating the importance of 'house-style' in f raming memoranda and comments for policy substance.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 405.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Much of Dell's analysis relies on the fact that the British were shocked and unprepared for the Schuman Plan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 390.917 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and that in the subsequent confusion alternative policy opportunities were missed. If he is wrong in this, then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 376.661 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much of the significance attach ed to the way in which the Schuman announcement was \(mis-\) handled is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 362.405 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lost and his alternative scenario becomes less plausible. I would argue that he is wrong. The British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 348.149 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government took its essential decision on European integration in January 1949 and reconfirmed it in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 333.893 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(October. Dell comes close to these decisions, one time \(p70\) by citing an archive fragment from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 319.637 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collection by the Treasury official 'Otto' Clarke \(an exchange between officials\) and the second time \(p73\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 305.381 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through Milward's work on the Reconstruction of Western Europe. Neither source seemed to have prompted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 291.125 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(him to dig deeper. In January 1949 the cabinet Economic Policy Committee endorsed a note presented by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 276.869 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bevin and Stafford Cripps in which they argued \(inter-alia\) that Britain's abil ity to fight another war should )] TJ ET BT 34.016 262.613 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not be impeded by damage to its economic structure through undue dependence on Europe. This decision )] TJ ET BT 34.016 248.357 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was reconfirmed in October 1949 and was incorporated into the speech given by Stafford Cripps in reply the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 234.101 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appeal of Paul Hoffman \(head of the ECA\) for closer "integration" in Europe \(a term used sixteen times, not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 219.845 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(31 as Dell, citing Milward, suggests\). Stafford Cripps' reply anticipated the 'three circles' logic adopted by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 205.589 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Churchill several years later. Britain , it argued, was part of a trans-Atlantic, a Commonwealth and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 191.333 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European world. It could undertake no commitment that would prejudice its other responsibilities. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 177.077 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speech, incidentally, was still being cited as government policy when the British, in 1955, withdrew from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 162.821 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(talks that would lead the 'Six' to form the EEC.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 136.565 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thus the British had a policy to cover the eventuality of a proposal for closer European integration. It is true )] TJ ET BT 34.016 122.309 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that they were unprepared for Schuman's announcement and were furious with it \(as they considered that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 108.053 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such issues concerning Germany were the preserve of the tripartite occupying powers\) but the decision had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 93.797 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(already been taken. In this light, much of what Dell describes is not a botched effort at policy-making but a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 79.541 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(botched effort at finding the right tactics. Against this backdrop, Staffor d Cripps' wobble in a conversation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 65.285 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with Monnet \(p. 126-128\) was more probably a misplaced effort to let his guest down lightly than a glimpse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 51.029 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at a change of heart. Moreover, the fact that what was at stake was tactics rather than policy, would also )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 5748 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explai n why there was so little intervention by cabinet members and so little high-level dialogue with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I would now like to raise one other point in Dell's argument. He suggests that Britain, had it participated in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the negotiations, could have shaped the outcome in its own interests and that this would have attracted the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support of the other participants , who were closer to the UK's position than to Monnet's "federalist ideas". It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is true that the long negotiations changed Monnet's original proposals out of all recognition and it is also true )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that within each government there were opponents to Monnet's ' federalism'. My worries are two-fold. First, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dell does not fully consider the control functions offered by the treaty over Germany's freedom to adopt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preferential practices towards its own industry \(or discriminatory practices against its partners\). It is doubtful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whether any intergovernmental organisation could offer the same security. Second, Dell's sources are not the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(best reflection of the position in the partner states. To document these positions, Dell employs either memoir )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accounts of those \(in-\) d irectly involved or quotes from the British archives. In the first case, Dell relies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mostly on Massigli, who was ambassador in London at the time \(and, self-delusion notwithstanding, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ambassadors are not always privy to their government's thinking\) and Mon net, whose memoirs were written )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by his staff as much as a political testament as a piece of objective history. In the second case, he employs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(observations from foreign office and treasury files but since Dell concedes that their authors misjudged the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(situ ation at the time, they hardly make for a trustworthy source forty years later. With the exception of one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(footnote, Dell ignores the source publication series The Foreign Relations of the United States and he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ignores the growing body of literature about t he positions of France, Germany, Belgium, Luxembourg, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Netherlands and Italy based on the same meticulous study of their respective archives as Dell employs of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British archives for his study of the UK. One need not, and should not, have to second g uess national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(positions on the basis of sources of dubious reliability and one should not be fobbed off with an archive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reference to the PRO for information that is already in the public domain.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To sum up, this is a good and useful book once it gets onto its own terrain. In fairness, my point of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disagreement on whether we are seeing policy or tactics in the making has not been raised in the literature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before and I have raised it here because t he medium specifically offers the opportunity for debate. My point )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on other country positions is partly one of methodology.... I know that, in this case, the text is not seriously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distorted as a result. Again, I have referred to the issue here in the hope of sparking off a wider discussion. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, therefore, if I were to return to Dell's conclusions I would agree with conclusions ii, iii, v, vii, ix, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disagree with i, iv, viii, and remain uncertain over vi.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Foreign Affairs)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/51759/stanley-hoffmann/the-schuman-plan-and-the-british-)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 302.883 m 507.932 302.883 l S BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abdication-of-leadership-in-eur)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 288.627 m 183.968 288.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 186.968 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 285.295 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 267.515 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 267.515 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/3)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 266.121 m 310.316 266.121 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 241.144 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 226.744 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/120)] TJ ET BT 34.016 212.459 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/51759/stanley-hoffmann/the-schuman-plan-and-the-british-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 198.088 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abdication-of-leadership-in-eur)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 303.1975 507.9317 315.0775 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/51759/stanley-hoffmann/the-schuman-plan-and-the-british-abdication-of-leadership-in-eur) >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 288.9415 183.9677 300.8215 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/51759/stanley-hoffmann/the-schuman-plan-and-the-british-abdication-of-leadership-in-eur) >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 266.4355 310.3157 278.3155 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/3) >> endobj xref 0 26 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000570 00000 n 0000000652 00000 n 0000004680 00000 n 0000004789 00000 n 0000004899 00000 n 0000005008 00000 n 0000008569 00000 n 0000008697 00000 n 0000008781 00000 n 0000008846 00000 n 0000015963 00000 n 0000016028 00000 n 0000023156 00000 n 0000023254 00000 n 0000029055 00000 n 0000029182 00000 n 0000029360 00000 n 0000029487 00000 n 0000029665 00000 n 0000029793 00000 n trailer << /Size 26 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 29886 %%EOF